- Количество слайдов: 22
The United Nations Done by: Zhalgas Lyazzat 403 group
The United Nations is central to global efforts to solve problems that challenge humanity. These activities are carried out jointly by more than 30 affiliated organizations of the United Nations system. Every day, the United Nations and other organizations of the system are to promote respect for human rights, protect the environment, fight disease and reduce poverty.
The United Nations was established October 24, 1945, fifty-one country who were determined to preserve peace through international cooperation and collective security. To date, members of the United Nations are the 191 country, almost all countries of the world.
According to the Charter, in the activity the United Nations pursues four aims: to maintain an international peace and safety, to develop friendship between the nations, to carry out the international cooperation in permission of the international problems and in encouragement of respect for human rights, and also to be the center for coordination of actions of the nations in achievement of these common goals. The charter of the UN personifies democratic ideals that finds the expression, in particular, that it approves belief in fundamental human rights, in advantage and value of the human person, in equality of men and women, fixes equality of the big and small people.
* the General Assembly, *the Security Council, *the Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC), * the Secretariat, *the International Court of Justice *the Trusteeship Council. *
General Assembly • It is body in which all member states of the UN are presented. The general Assembly is allocated with a number of very important functions: power to consider the general principles of cooperation in maintenance of an international peace and safety, including the principles, defining arms, and also to discuss a wide range of problems of cooperation of the states in political, economic, social, ecological, scientific and technical and other areas and to take out recommendations about them.
Security council The Security Council consists of 15 members: five permanent members of the Council (United States, United Kingdom, Russia, France and China), the other ten members (according to the terminology of the Charter-"permanent") were elected to the Council in accordance with the procedure provided for in the Charter. During many years of activity of the Security Council have developed distinct methods and forms of its response and impact on events in the world. The most commonly used technique-appeal to States, is a way of conflict resolution by the Security Council. He has repeatedly called for a cessation of hostilities, to respect the ceasefire, withdraw its troops, etc.
Economic and Social Council • The economic and Social Council acts under the authority of the General Assembly and coordinates the activities of the United Nations system in the economic and social fields. As the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues and formulating policy recommendations in these areas, the Council has played an important role in strengthening international cooperation for development. • The Council consists of 54 members elected by the General Assembly for three years.
Secretariat • The Secretariat carries out the substantive and administrative work of the United Nations in accordance with the instructions of the General Assembly, Security Council and other bodies. It is headed by the Secretary-General, which provides overall executive direction.
Secretary general of the UN • At the head of the Secretariat there is a Secretary general who is appointed by General Assembly according to the recommendation of Security council for a period of 5 years with possibility of re-election for new term.
International Court of Justice • The International Court of Justice — also known as the World Court, is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Its 15 judges are elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council, who are to vote independently and at the same time. The International Court of Justice deals with disputes between States on the basis of voluntary participation by interested States. If the State agrees to take part in the proceedings, it shall be bound by the decision of the Court. The Court also prepares advisory opinions for the United Nations and its specialized agencies.
The Trusteeship Council • The Trusteeship Council was established to ensure international monitoring of 11 trust territories were administered by seven Member States, and to ensure that their Governments should make the necessary efforts for the preparation of those Territories towards selfgovernment or independence.
Specialized institutions of the UN: O O O O O Food and Agriculture Organization International Atomic Energy Agency International Civil Aviation Organization International Fund for Agricultural Development International Labor Organization International Maritime Organization International Monetary Fund International Telecommunication United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations Industrial Development Organization Universal Postal Union World Bank Group World Food Programme World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Meteorological Organization World Tourism Organization
Working languages of the UN: • English. • Russian. • Spanish. • Chinese. • Arabic language. • French.
UN charter The basic principles of the international cooperation are also enshrined in the Charter of the UN: • sovereign equality of all members of the UN; • permission of the international disputes by exclusively peaceful means; • refusal in the international relations from threat of force or its application somehow, to the UN incompatible with the purposes; • non-interference of the UN to the affairs in essence entering into internal competence of any state
DECLARATIONS AND CONVENTIONS Unlike the Charter of the UN, the convention of the UN aren't obligatory for acceptance by participants of the organization. This or that country can as ratify this or that contract, not to do it. The most known conventions and UN declarations: • Universal declaration of human rights, 1948 • The convention according to the prevention and punishment of a crime of genocide, 1948 • International Covenant on Civil and Political rights, 1966 • The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, is approved and open for signing in 1968 • Convention on the rights of the child, 1989 • Framework convention of the UN on climate change, 1992. • The Kyoto Protocol, is accepted in 1997, is open for signing in 1998, is ratified by Russia in 2004 • Millennium Declaration, 2000
PEACEKEEPING MISSION • The important instrument of peacekeeping and the international security are peacekeeping operations of the UN • Implementation of peacekeeping operation of the UN can be expressed in: • Investigation of incidents and negotiation with conflicting parties for the purpose of their reconciliation; • To check of observance of the arrangement on ceasefire; • Assistance to legality and law and order maintenance; • Providing humanitarian assistance; • Supervision over a situation.
HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE • The organizations of United Nations system started taking immediately measures, seeking to satisfy a number of humanitarian needs, including for such areas, as agriculture, coordination and support service, economic recovery and infrastructures, education, providing families with housing and nonfoods, a food, health care, the measures connected with mine clearing, protection of human rights and ensuring the rule of law, safety and water supply and sanitation. For this purpose on January 5, 2005 "the emergency appeal" to mobilization of 977 million dollars was made.
* Despite the uniqueness, the UN discredited itself defects and scandals. The organization showed that it not always is capable to adapt in due time according to quickly changing world political realities. * In this regard the UN is criticized often for an inefficiency, undemocratic character, a lack of attention to problems of developing countries, by bureaucracy, the unreasonable budget. Some loud financial scandals also were connected with an UN name also. In one of them, according to the program of the help to Iraq "Oil in exchange for the food", Kodjo Annan (Kofi Annan's son) was involved even. UN activity under the leadership of Ban Ki-moon is exposed to similar criticism also. * Also soldiers of the UN probably provoked cholera epidemic on the island of Haiti in 2010 which to the middle of 2013 carried away lives of 8, 5 thousand people, and number caught to the middle of 2012 exceeded 6 thousand. Thus the international organization didn't take any measures for assistance to victims epidemics *