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The training program conducted by Alternative to Violence – on behalf of the Daphne The training program conducted by Alternative to Violence – on behalf of the Daphne – II project: Marius Råkil Clinical psychologist Executive director Alternative to Violence (ATV), Norway

INSERIRE I TITOLI ATV consists of the following projects: Treatment of men who are INSERIRE I TITOLI ATV consists of the following projects: Treatment of men who are violent towards their partner and children Treatment of violent adolescents (10 -18 years old) Treatment of children witnessing violence in their family Treatment of women exposed to intimate violence Treatment of drug addicts with violence problems Treatment of women who use violence against their partners and/or children Treatment of men and women with an ethnic minority background Research on the effect of treatment – prospective study

Program structure The training program must contain at least 3 modules: • Theory on Program structure The training program must contain at least 3 modules: • Theory on violence agaist women and children – as a phenomenon (the trainee’s knowledge base) • The trainees personal history, anticipations and attitudes on WAV (the need for a personal prcesss as a basis for being trained) • Practical treatment skills (interventions, type of questions, exercises, and professional attitude)

Part one: Theoretical considerations on violence agaist women and children – as a phenomenon Part one: Theoretical considerations on violence agaist women and children – as a phenomenon

Violence as a problem in society • • Violence as a criminal justice problem Violence as a problem in society • • Violence as a criminal justice problem Violence as a social problem Violence as a invisible problem Violence as a health problem Violence as a gender equality problem Violence as a human rights problem Violence as a democracy problem

INSERIRE I TITOLI Different perspectives – different understanding violence against women: • Psychoanalytic approach INSERIRE I TITOLI Different perspectives – different understanding violence against women: • Psychoanalytic approach • Family therapy / systemic theory • Cognitive behavioral approach "Battering is learned behavior. According to social learning theory, behavior is learned in two ways; through modeling and positive reinforcement" (Adams & Cayouette, 2002).

INSERIRE I TITOLI Different perspectives – different understanding violence against women: • Our recent INSERIRE I TITOLI Different perspectives – different understanding violence against women: • Our recent past: Violence does not exsist (normalized) • Profeminist approach (patriarchy) • Psychiatry’s approach (mental illness)

WHY? WHY WORK WITH MEN’S VIOLENCE? - Violence against women exists -Men have to WHY? WHY WORK WITH MEN’S VIOLENCE? - Violence against women exists -Men have to take responsibility for their use of violence - Women, children & men are suffering, they need the violence to stop - Violence is a problem in all levels of society - Socio-economic costs

BASIC VALUES Basic values- ATV Equality between women and men Violence is gender-specific The BASIC VALUES Basic values- ATV Equality between women and men Violence is gender-specific The perpetrator is responsible for the violence Violence is always dangerous and damaging Violence creates powerlessness and is also an attempt to reduce powerlessness Violence in the family is violence towards children Violence is misuse of power Violence is a criminal offence Violence is not “blind” Violence is not an illness

INSERIRE I TITOLI Different types of violence? Situational violence: Relational violence: “Fundamentalistic” violence Functional/operational INSERIRE I TITOLI Different types of violence? Situational violence: Relational violence: “Fundamentalistic” violence Functional/operational violence: Trauma based violence:

DEFINITION OF VIOLENCE “Violence is any act directed against another person, where this act DEFINITION OF VIOLENCE “Violence is any act directed against another person, where this act either harms, hurts or offends in a way that makes the person do something against his/her will or stop doing something that he/she would like to do” (Isdal, 2000)

VIOLENCE Physical violence – violence including physical contact, includes use of weapons Psychological violence VIOLENCE Physical violence – violence including physical contact, includes use of weapons Psychological violence -Direct threats -Indirect threats -Degrading behaviour -Pathological jealousy -Controlling behaviour -Isolating behaviour Material violence – to hit doors, windows, tables, destroy property, throw objects/food etc. Sexualised violence – from sexual harassment or use of verbal force to achieve intercourse, to rape Latent violence – violence due to violence. Example: because of a physically violent act 10 years ago his partner still does not express her opinions nor can she act freely

Characteristic features of men’s violence agaist women • Violence is hierarcical (always connected to Characteristic features of men’s violence agaist women • Violence is hierarcical (always connected to power structure and systems / directed downvards) • Violence is intelligent • Violence has rewarding effects to the perpetrator • Violence is cyclical (transgenerational)

INSERIRE I TITOLI Violence being a problem in itself Violence serving as a symptom INSERIRE I TITOLI Violence being a problem in itself Violence serving as a symptom

WHY? WHY WORK WITH MEN’S VIOLENCE? - Violence against women exists -Men have to WHY? WHY WORK WITH MEN’S VIOLENCE? - Violence against women exists -Men have to take responsibility for their use of violence - Women, children & men are suffering, they need the violence to stop - Violence is a problem in all levels of society - Socio-economic costs

BASIC VALUES Basic values- ATV • • • Equality between women and men Violence BASIC VALUES Basic values- ATV • • • Equality between women and men Violence is gender-specific The perpetrator is responsible for the violence Violence is always dangerous and damaging Violence creates powerlessness and is also an attempt to reduce powerlessness Violence against women is violence towards children Violence is abuse of power Violence is a criminal offence Violence is not “blind”

WHY DO THEY USE VIOLENCE? Causes of violence – individual level Causes of violence WHY DO THEY USE VIOLENCE? Causes of violence – individual level Causes of violence – group level Causes of violence – societal level Causes of violence – violence-related level

CAUSE 1 Causes of violence – individual level - Exposed to violence, witnessed violence CAUSE 1 Causes of violence – individual level - Exposed to violence, witnessed violence - Deficit of parental care - Parent(s) had alcohol or drug problems - Laissez faire parenthood, no love or affection - The sum of his learning experiences

CAUSE 2 Causes of violence – group level - Group norms - Status in CAUSE 2 Causes of violence – group level - Group norms - Status in the group -Group pressure (THE MALE COIR) - Recognition / acceptance

CAUSE 3 Causes of violence – societal level - Gender roles - Male role CAUSE 3 Causes of violence – societal level - Gender roles - Male role model - Role models / ideals in movies, media, etc. - The individuals lack of influence/power or perception of powerlessness - The level of violence in society Poverty, class distinction

CAUSES 4 Causes of violence – violencerelated level - Violence breeds violence - Violence CAUSES 4 Causes of violence – violencerelated level - Violence breeds violence - Violence gives relaxation, power, influence, identity, benefits, “respect” - Violence leads to changes in the relationship and the interaction within the family (frustration, insecurity, anxiety, stress, less communication) - Violence leads to contempt, contempt leads to violence

Characteristic features of men’s violence agaist women • Violence is hierarcical (always connected to Characteristic features of men’s violence agaist women • Violence is hierarcical (always connected to power structure and systems / directed downvards) • Violence is intelligent • Violence has rewarding effects to the perpetrator • Violence is cyclical (transgenerational)

INSERIRE I TITOLI Violence being a problem in itself Violence serving as a symptom INSERIRE I TITOLI Violence being a problem in itself Violence serving as a symptom

MENS EXPANATIONS How does the man explain his own violence? Externalising – blaming others MENS EXPANATIONS How does the man explain his own violence? Externalising – blaming others (partner, alcohol, etc. ) 2. Denial – the violence has not happened 3. Minimisation – “it was only a little quarrel, I barely touched her” 4. Fragmentation – “mostly I’m a good guy, I have only slapped her a couple of times” Why are these strategies used? It makes the violence possible. Guilt and shame cause active repression of the violent incidents and so the violence will no longer seem to be a problem, or even to have existed.

INSERIRE I TITOLI HOW DO MEN WHO USE VIOLENCE PRESENT THEIR VIOLENT PROBLEM? • INSERIRE I TITOLI HOW DO MEN WHO USE VIOLENCE PRESENT THEIR VIOLENT PROBLEM? • • Being reluctant to talk about the violence Blaming the victim(s) Family matter Mutual responsibility Caused by social problems Caused by alchohol and drug problems The women are responsible

MEETING VIOLENT MEN How to talk about violence Direct questions No contempt Understanding Warmth MEETING VIOLENT MEN How to talk about violence Direct questions No contempt Understanding Warmth Attentiveness Supportiveness Techniques: be attentive and interested, willing to learn, be concrete and specific (who, where, how, what, etc. ) Ask a lot of questions – ask for details Ask with respect Avoid “why? ”

TREATMENT PRINCIPLES Treatment principles: 1. FOCUS ON VIOLENCE -Detailed and expanding reconstruction of the TREATMENT PRINCIPLES Treatment principles: 1. FOCUS ON VIOLENCE -Detailed and expanding reconstruction of the violence (behaviour) 2. FOCUS ON RESPONSIBILITY -Focus on choices and intentions. Get in touch with own need for control and own control strategies (responsibility) 3. FOCUS ON THE CLIENT’S PERSONAL HISTORY -Re-establish the connection between own “life learning” on masculinity, manhood, attitudes towards women etc, childhood experiences, significant aspects of adult coping strategies and the use of violence (connections) 4. RECOGNISING THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE VIOLENCE

VIOLENCE Physical violence – violence including physical contact, includes use of weapons Psychological violence VIOLENCE Physical violence – violence including physical contact, includes use of weapons Psychological violence -Direct threats -Indirect threats -Degrading behaviour -Distorted ways of dealing with own feelings of jealousy -Controlling behaviour -Isolating behaviour Material violence – to hit doors, windows, tables, destroy property, throw objects/food etc. Sexualised violence – from sexual harassment or use of verbal force to achieve intercourse, to rape Latent violence – violence due to violence. Example: because of a physically violent act 10 years ago his partner still does not express her opinions nor can she act freely

Time out 1. Identifying warning signs ( Detailed work on getting in contact with Time out 1. Identifying warning signs ( Detailed work on getting in contact with bodily, behavioral and cognitive signals 2. Stop! 3. Remove from the situation. Leave the room/house completely. Be away for approx 10 min. 4. Calming yourself. Work on tghoughts and things to do that helps you to calm down, in opposition to those who maketyou angry and on alert. 5. Og back again when the time is up, and try to continue the interaction, but in a calm and respectful way. If the aggression comes back,

VIOLENT MEN AS FATHERS • Work with the men’s images of themself as a VIOLENT MEN AS FATHERS • Work with the men’s images of themself as a fathers • How the violence is affecting the child - father relationship • How the violence is affecting the child - mother relationship • How the child is affected by the violence – both on a short term and long term basis • Educate the men on the basic needs of children

References: Råkil, M. (2002). A Norwegian Integrative Model for the Treatment of Men Who References: Råkil, M. (2002). A Norwegian Integrative Model for the Treatment of Men Who Batter. Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 18, (8 -14). San Diego, CA Råkil, M. (2006). Are men who use violence against their partners and children good enough fathers? The need for an integrated child perspective in the treatment work with the men. In: Humphries, C. & Stanley, N. Domestic Violence and Child Protection. (pp. 190 -202) London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd.

CONTACT INFORMATION Marius Råkil Alternative to Violence Address: Lilletorget 1, 0184 Oslo, Norway Telephone: CONTACT INFORMATION Marius Råkil Alternative to Violence Address: Lilletorget 1, 0184 Oslo, Norway Telephone: +47 -22114040 Mobile: +47 - 91363022 Fax: +47 -22114011 E-mail: [email protected] no