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The Three Elements of Flexicurity Flexible labour market Social security system Employment and training The Three Elements of Flexicurity Flexible labour market Social security system Employment and training policy

Employment Security Scale from 1 -10 – the higher the number the more secure, Employment Security Scale from 1 -10 – the higher the number the more secure, 2001 (3, 9) (4, 8) (3, 9) (7, 0) (8, 4) (7, 7) (8, 2) (4, 4) (5, 3) (6, 8) (9, 4) (8, 6) (7, 7) (8, 9) NOTE: Figures in brackets are unemployment rates in 2006. SOURCE: CEPS (2004) and Eurostat.

Job Satisfaction Per cent of employed, 2006 NOTE: The figures show the rate of Job Satisfaction Per cent of employed, 2006 NOTE: The figures show the rate of employed who are satisfied or very satisfied with their occupation. SOURCE: EFILWC (2007).

Is Globalisation a Threat or an Opportunity SOURCE: The European Commission Special Eurobarometer, The Is Globalisation a Threat or an Opportunity SOURCE: The European Commission Special Eurobarometer, The Future of Europe, May 2006.

Average Job Tenure Years SOURCE: OECD (2004) and Eurostat (2005). Average Job Tenure Years SOURCE: OECD (2004) and Eurostat (2005).

Labour Market Regulation Index, the lower the number the less regulation, 2003 SOURCE: OECD, Labour Market Regulation Index, the lower the number the less regulation, 2003 SOURCE: OECD, 2004.

Regulation and Unemployment, per cent 2003 FI IT GR DE BE US ES FR Regulation and Unemployment, per cent 2003 FI IT GR DE BE US ES FR Estimated line PT UK IE DK JP SE AT NL Employment regulation index 2003 NOTE: A high number reflects tight regulations. SOURCE: OECD (2004)

Flexibility in Wage Setting Per cent of employees where wages are negotiated: Centrally Locally Flexibility in Wage Setting Per cent of employees where wages are negotiated: Centrally Locally 16 34 66 84 1989 NOTE: DA/LO area. SOURCE: DA. 2005

Flexibility in Working Hours NOTE: The figures represents collective agreements for approximately 90 per Flexibility in Working Hours NOTE: The figures represents collective agreements for approximately 90 per cent of the employees at the DA/LO area. SOURCE: DA.

Mobility in the Wage Distribution Per cent of employees in 1 st wage decile Mobility in the Wage Distribution Per cent of employees in 1 st wage decile who are in a higher wage decile 1 year after. 1999 -2000. SOURCE: European Commission, 2003.

Participation in Continuing Education Per cent of employed, 2003 NOTE: Covers non-formal job-related continuing Participation in Continuing Education Per cent of employed, 2003 NOTE: Covers non-formal job-related continuing education and training over the previous 12 months. SOURCE: OECD (2006).

Educational Costs at Company Level Per cent of total labour costs for educational training Educational Costs at Company Level Per cent of total labour costs for educational training in private companies, 1999 SOURCE: Eurostat (2002).

Educational Attainment Per cent of labour force (25 -64 year-olds) with higher education Israel Educational Attainment Per cent of labour force (25 -64 year-olds) with higher education Israel Canada USA Japan Finland Sweden Belgium Denmark Norway Australia Ireland Holland Korea UK Spain Switzerland Island Germany Luxembourg France New Zealand 60 50 40 30 2004 20 SOURCE: OECD and FN. 10 Israel Canada Japan Korea Belgium USA Finland Sweden Ireland Norway Spain Australia UK Denmark France Holland Island Switzerland Luxembourg New Zealand Germany 0 10 20 30 40 2020 50 60

People on public benefits 1, 000 people, 2006 Job training, rehabilitation, etc. Employable Early People on public benefits 1, 000 people, 2006 Job training, rehabilitation, etc. Employable Early retirement (including 65 -66 year old pensioners) Less employable SOURCE: Statistics Denmark.

Low Availability of Unemployed Per cent of unemployed, 2005 Years old SOURCE: Special report Low Availability of Unemployed Per cent of unemployed, 2005 Years old SOURCE: Special report from Statistics Denmark.

Making Work Pay h. Incentives to work for the lowest paid are small h Making Work Pay h. Incentives to work for the lowest paid are small h 26 per cent of the unemployed gain less than 70 Euro/month if they get a job. h 12 per cent of the employed gain less than 70 Euro/month compared with the unemployment benefit. h 5 per cent of the employed earn less than if they were unemployed. SOURCE: Rockwool Foundation (2003).

Expenditure on Labour Market Measures Per cent of GDP, 2005 SOURCE: OECD (Employment Outlook, Expenditure on Labour Market Measures Per cent of GDP, 2005 SOURCE: OECD (Employment Outlook, 2007)

GDP per capita EU-25=100 calculated in PPP, 2006 SOURCE: OECD, 2007. GDP per capita EU-25=100 calculated in PPP, 2006 SOURCE: OECD, 2007.

Unemployment Per cent EU 15 USA Japan SOURCE: OECD (Employment Outlook, 2007). Denmark Unemployment Per cent EU 15 USA Japan SOURCE: OECD (Employment Outlook, 2007). Denmark

Employment rate Per cent of 15 -64 years old SOURCE: OECD (Employment Outlook 2007). Employment rate Per cent of 15 -64 years old SOURCE: OECD (Employment Outlook 2007).

Population – Working Age 15 -64 years old relative to entire population, index 2005=100 Population – Working Age 15 -64 years old relative to entire population, index 2005=100 USA Denmark Western Europe Japan SOURCE: UN, World Population Prospects, Medium variant.

Flexible Regulation in Denmark h Main Characteristics ÄBasic principles established more than 100 years Flexible Regulation in Denmark h Main Characteristics ÄBasic principles established more than 100 years ago ÄRegulation at company-level through collective agreements ÄDisputes are handled by the two sides of industry solely

Employment Regulation h Collective agreements the primary regulation: ÄWages ÄWorking time, overtime ÄRedundancies, shop Employment Regulation h Collective agreements the primary regulation: ÄWages ÄWorking time, overtime ÄRedundancies, shop stewards, extra holidays ÄSickness pay, maternity leave, pension, training, h Legislation only on specific topics: ÄHolidays ÄHealth and safety Ä Equal pay and equal treatment (sex, race, religion etc. )

Regulation by Framework Agreements h Collective agreements cover aprox. 90 pct. of the employeed Regulation by Framework Agreements h Collective agreements cover aprox. 90 pct. of the employeed in companies affiliated to DA member federations h Framework agreements h Supplemented by agreements at company level

Collective Agreements and Legislation h Legislation is built on and in respect of provisions Collective Agreements and Legislation h Legislation is built on and in respect of provisions in Collective Agreements h The Social Partners have the prerogative when implementing EU-Directives