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The Stalemated Seventies 1968 -1980 The Stalemated Seventies 1968 -1980

#37. Richard Nixon (1969 -74) n n broad knowledge and expertise in world affairs #37. Richard Nixon (1969 -74) n n broad knowledge and expertise in world affairs solitary and suspicious by nature brittle and testy in the face of opposition harbored bitter resentments against the “liberal establishment (appealed to “Silent Majority”)

Foreign Policy Nixon with Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev Nixon Doctrine promotes withdrawal and “Vietnamization” Foreign Policy Nixon with Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev Nixon Doctrine promotes withdrawal and “Vietnamization” n détente with USSR leads to Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) n SALT talks limit long-range nuclear missiles for 5 years n

Foreign Policy Nixon with Premier Chou En-Lai n n Shanghai Communique attempts to normalize Foreign Policy Nixon with Premier Chou En-Lai n n Shanghai Communique attempts to normalize China-U. S. relations (February 1972) “Nixon goes to China” begins “One China Policy” ordered bombing of Cambodia to hit Vietnamese troops support for Israel during Yom Kippur War = oil embargo

College students after Kent State, May 1970 While many older Americans supported the actions College students after Kent State, May 1970 While many older Americans supported the actions of the Ohio National Guard, students across the country boycotted classes and forced hundreds of campuses to shut down. Some continued to protest during graduation at the University of Massachusetts. ((c) Bettmann/Corbis) Nixon at Home n n n 26 th Amendment lowers voting age to 18 (1971) conservative Warren Burger Court passes Roe v. Wade (1973) significant expansion of welfare programs (food stamps, Medicaid) Philadelphia Plan requires quotas in minority hiring created EPA and OSHA

Nixon at Home took U. S. off gold standard n imposed 90 -day wage Nixon at Home took U. S. off gold standard n imposed 90 -day wage and price freeze (1971) n 55 MPH speed limit and Alaska oil pipeline n Title IX (1972) n Watergate results in resignation n

Click on image to launch video. Apple Quick. Time® required for viewing Nixon’s Resignation Click on image to launch video. Apple Quick. Time® required for viewing Nixon’s Resignation Speech (1974. Archive Films. )

#38. Gerald R. Ford (1974 -77) n n n first president to take office #38. Gerald R. Ford (1974 -77) n n n first president to take office by vote of Congress widely suspected of being a dim-witted former athlete handicapped by pardon of Nixon presided over evacuation of Vietnam Helsinki accords legitimize post-WWII Europe and promotes liberal loosening by Soviets held together constitutionality of presidency and government

#39. Jimmy Carter (1977 -81) n n n former governor of GA who emerged #39. Jimmy Carter (1977 -81) n n n former governor of GA who emerged from obscurity during primaries peanut farmer and bornagain Baptist attracted voters as an outsider who would clean house created new cabinet-level Department of Energy cut taxes pardoned some 10, 000 draft evaders from Vietnam era

Camp David Accords One of President Carter's greatest triumphs was the signing of the Camp David Accords One of President Carter's greatest triumphs was the signing of the 1978 peace accords between President Anwar Sadat of Egypt (left) and Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel (right). The agreement followed days of personal diplomacy by Carter at the Camp David presidential retreat. Both Sadat and Begin received the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts. (Jimmy Carter Presidential Library) n n n successfully promotes turning Panama Canal over to Panama by 2000 humanitarian diplomacy champions oppressed black minorities in Rhodesian and South Africa Camp David Accords make peace with Egypt and Israel (September 17, 1978) full diplomatic relations resume with China (1979) SALT II agreements limit levels of lethal strategic weapons (1979)

Carter inauguration day On inauguration day, President Jimmy Carter (b. 1924) and his wife Carter inauguration day On inauguration day, President Jimmy Carter (b. 1924) and his wife Rosalyn caught the public's fancy by walking from the Capitol to the White House. Despite this symbolic beginning, Carter became increasingly isolated both from the American people and from Congress. (Jimmy Carter Presidential Library) n n n n inflation rate hit 13% by 1979 imported oil prices sent U. S. balance of trade into $40 billion deficit “oil shocks” limit American energy independence energy conservation legislation met with indifference challenged U. S. to overcome its “moral and spiritual malaise” Iran hostage crisis paralyzes administration boycott of Moscow Summer Olympics unpopular (1980)