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The sociolinguistic intersection of Spanish and English William Labov, University of Pennsylvania James E. The sociolinguistic intersection of Spanish and English William Labov, University of Pennsylvania James E. Alatis plenary Philadelphia TESOL Convention March 29, 2012

The program 1. The sociolinguistic dimensions of dialect shifting: black/white/Latino 2. Effects of learning The program 1. The sociolinguistic dimensions of dialect shifting: black/white/Latino 2. Effects of learning to read in Spanish first a. The (sh/ch) variable: a superficial substrate effect b. The possessive: effects of dialect differences c. The soft-c rule: greater use of the alphabet

The sociolinguistic intersection of Spanish and English The sociolinguistic intersection of Spanish and English

S. Poplack. Dialect Acquisition among Puerto Rican bilinguals Careful [əɪ] Casual Careful Casual [a: S. Poplack. Dialect Acquisition among Puerto Rican bilinguals Careful [əɪ] Casual Careful Casual [a: ] Language in Society 7: 89 -103, 1978

S. Poplack. Dialect Acquisition among Puerto Rican bilinguals Careful [əɪ] Casual Careful Casual [a: S. Poplack. Dialect Acquisition among Puerto Rican bilinguals Careful [əɪ] Casual Careful Casual [a: ] Language in Society 7: 89 -103, 1978

Sociometric diagram of sixth grade at St. Veronica’s Sociometric diagram of sixth grade at St. Veronica’s

1. The sociolinguistic dimensions of dialect shifting: black/white/Latino 2. Effects of learning to read 1. The sociolinguistic dimensions of dialect shifting: black/white/Latino 2. Effects of learning to read in Spanish first a. The (sh/ch) variable: a superficial substrate effect b. The possessive: effects of dialect differences c. The soft-c rule: greater use of the alphabet

Are there significant differences in reading error profiles to be found among different ethnic Are there significant differences in reading error profiles to be found among different ethnic groups with different language backgrounds? If so, are different strategies needed to improve the teaching of reading to members of those groups?

from the contrastive analysis of Spanish and English Spanish [tʃ] = [ʃ] mucho che from the contrastive analysis of Spanish and English Spanish [tʃ] = [ʃ] mucho che English [tʃ] ≠ [ʃ] chip ≠ ship

The reading research program Number of subjects by language/ethnic group and geographic region for The reading research program Number of subjects by language/ethnic group and geographic region for the year 2003 -2004 (N=246) Language/ethnic group in Phila in Calif Total African American 19 33 52 Caucasian 40 17 57 Latino Spanish readers 37 37 74 Latino English readers 37 26 63 Total: ___________133_______ 113_____ 246

Diagnostic readings at Park School, Philadelphia Diagnostic readings at Park School, Philadelphia

The cat took one bite and let out a wail. Ray said, The cat took one bite and let out a wail. Ray said, "Darn, those chips are stale! It's a shame that you went and bought them on sale. They taste like the food that's served in a jail. "

ch_ and sh_ words in the diagnostic reading Ray and His Cat Come Back ch_ and sh_ words in the diagnostic reading Ray and His Cat Come Back Ray grabbed Matt’s chips. . those chips are stale… The cat spit out the chips. . . Matt didn’t reach up to Ray’s chin I don’t choose to listen…. . . tried not to shake. It’s a shame that. . . Now I’m going to show you. . . His teeth are as sharp as the edge of a knife. .

Errors with initial sh- ch- for 109 Philadelphia African-Americans chips [3] cheers cheese chest Errors with initial sh- ch- for 109 Philadelphia African-Americans chips [3] cheers cheese chest children children chip chip chippies chirpings chosing church chin ch-cha chain chairs chan cheer chic chine chips chipsh choose ch-chase cheat cheese cheese chew-s chose chrose chuss shame shake show sharp sham sharing shimmy shlame shom + short sh-shack + shick short + shrayke shuck + sh-shock shoe shop short shop shape sharpy shop shpore shrop xxx grammatical errors

sh_ ch_ errors for 51 Philadelphia Latinos who learned to read in Spanish first sh_ ch_ errors for 51 Philadelphia Latinos who learned to read in Spanish first chips [3] ch-cheapess cheeps chip chip chip chup sheese ship ships ships ships chin choose shame shake show sharp ch-cheen chic chine + chins chip + sheen shin shin ch-chalks chew chinsen choice choise chose chose chosey choss shoes shoort shoose shows chame shamuh shay shem+ shime shirm shome chair shack + sheck shock chow shahw shar shoes shout shap shar+ sharpt shblatt xxx xxx grammatical error sh/ch alternation /i/ -> /iy/ grammatical & phonological

ch_ reading errors per student by ethnicity, language and region ch_ reading errors per student by ethnicity, language and region

Spanish language influence on reading of English Proportion of deaffrication errors (chips -> ships) Spanish language influence on reading of English Proportion of deaffrication errors (chips -> ships) Proportion of /i/tensing errors (chips -> cheaps)

Proportion of ch -> sh errors, before and after intervention Proportion of ch -> sh errors, before and after intervention

Proportion of de-affrication errors that are the only errors in the word Proportion of de-affrication errors that are the only errors in the word

In responding to oral reading, we must distinguish between differences in pronunciation and mistakes In responding to oral reading, we must distinguish between differences in pronunciation and mistakes in reading. How can we do this?

Absence of –ed in oral reading: Janal M. , 7 stepped jump The cat Absence of –ed in oral reading: Janal M. , 7 stepped jump The cat spit out the chips and jumped in Ray’s coat True error Potential error

Absence of verbal /s/ in oral reading: Jason P. , age 7 Hey Black Absence of verbal /s/ in oral reading: Jason P. , age 7 Hey Black doesn’t eat cats, not even one like grow which He just likes to growl and watch them run. Potential error True error

How to determine whether a potential error is a true error in the decoding How to determine whether a potential error is a true error in the decoding of the text The Semantic Shadow Hypothesis: An error in the identification of a given word increases the probability of errors in the decoding of the following text. A potential error type has a significant probability of being a true reading error if the rate of following errors is significantly greater than the rate for correct readings. W. Labov & B. Baker. What is a reading error? Applied Psycholinguistics 31: 735 -757.

Frequency of following errors for clear errors and correct reading by dialect type Frequency of following errors for clear errors and correct reading by dialect type

Frequency of following errors for clear errors, potential errors and correct reading by dialect Frequency of following errors for clear errors, potential errors and correct reading by dialect type [N=567]

Frequency of following errors for clear errors, potential errors and correct readings by dialect Frequency of following errors for clear errors, potential errors and correct readings by dialect type for African American and Latino (S) readers [N=238] Potential errors

Relation of morphosyntactic zeroes to correct readings and clear errors from frequencies of following Relation of morphosyntactic zeroes to correct readings and clear errors from frequencies of following errors. C= correct readings; X = potential errors; E = clear errors. Verbal -s African-American C≠X≠E Latino(Spanish) C≠X=E Possessive –s C≠X≠E C≠X=E Copula –s C≠X≠E C≠X=E Past tense –ed C=X≠E C≠X≠E

1. The sociolinguistic dimensions of dialect shifting: black/white/Latino 2. Effects of learning to read 1. The sociolinguistic dimensions of dialect shifting: black/white/Latino 2. Effects of learning to read in Spanish first a. The (sh/ch) variable: a superficial substrate effect b. The possessive: effects of dialect differences c. The soft-c rule: greater use of the alphabet

The bilingualism of possession Tonya Wolford. Variation in the expression of possession by Latino The bilingualism of possession Tonya Wolford. Variation in the expression of possession by Latino children. Language Variation and Change 18: 1 -13.

Margarita M. , 8, California: well there's two men alive and one woman alive Margarita M. , 8, California: well there's two men alive and one woman alive -- and. . . and -- and the other -- the brother of the other woman has a book and he reads i. T. . and -- and the man comes to life Tutor. . Do you ever get to baby-sit her? Mark S. , 7, Philadelphia. Yeah. Sometimes. At my cousinz house. z Tutor. Can you tell me the story? Carlos L. , 9, Philadelphia: He's a killer and he try to - ah - the -- he kills people and then he cuts in -- in people bodies

1. The sociolinguistic dimensions of dialect shifting: black/white/Latino 2. Effects of learning to read 1. The sociolinguistic dimensions of dialect shifting: black/white/Latino 2. Effects of learning to read in Spanish first a. The (sh/ch) variable: a superficial substrate effect b. The possessive: effects of dialect differences c. The soft-c rule: greater use of the alphabet

The soft-c rule (orthographic) The letter “c” is pronounced as /s/ before the letters The soft-c rule (orthographic) The letter “c” is pronounced as /s/ before the letters /i, e, y/ elsewhere, as /k/. English Spanish city cent icy cielo call cot cute cantar Cebuano con Cuba Exceptions: Celtics cepstrum none

Soft-c words in the diagnostic reading Ray and His Cat Come Back On Friday, Soft-c words in the diagnostic reading Ray and His Cat Come Back On Friday, I was in Aunt Cindy's store, And Ray was with the same old cat that I saw before I pulled out of my pocket a rusty old dime. I said, "Go spend it, cat, if you've got the time. " Ray stared at me and said, "Ten cents? You really think that I am that dense? ” When I got to two, Ray and his cat ran. Ray certainly fell for my new cat plan.

Soft-c errors of 109 Philadelphia African-American readers Cindy’s Cindy candia's candies candily's candy Candy Soft-c errors of 109 Philadelphia African-American readers Cindy’s Cindy candia's candies candily's candy Candy candy candy's Candy's candy's candy's card Carry's charl chatee cindy cities clan's collie's condy's cried crying's cryme's c's dk dk dk dk dk cents dk dk kkkala kare-de kate kendy' kenny's kiddy's kindy's Kindy's kins sally seal + sender story why can cans can't cants+ cat cats cent ceret close coats coins coins coins coins coins + come counts coy dk dime dk dk dk dk certainly dk dk k- + kenny kents + kets kittens sent tets your+ are called came cant carefully carried cartenly casidell cat caught cayrent cert clearly continue cota couldn't counted crackilly crah cried crut curtail curtain dk dk dk dk dk dk dk dk feel for fount itches kkangily kartimitly kaynly k-cera kelly kert over quite reach said scared him scored him screwed sentiny seriously ser-really suntalaly

Soft-c errors of 109 Philadelphia Latinos who learned to read in Spanish first Cindy's Soft-c errors of 109 Philadelphia Latinos who learned to read in Spanish first Cindy's cindy cindy candy children cidy cindy cindy + cindy+ city cleande dk dk dk kin din kindy sseat see sidi's sidy sindings sin's sunday's cents cant cecenents center cert dk dk kent kets sense sent sets+ certainly cair-than candily carefully centainly centerly certain-olly cert-aint-ly certaynly cer-ten-in-lee certully cet-lonely dk dk kar kertenn reclinely ssaid sair-ten-lee san+ sardtangent sayree say-ur-tenly scratchly searched senentenly sentree sentrin seranly sert+ set sintanely sirtenly st startlet

don’t know African Americans: 79 Latinos who learned to read in English first: 14 don’t know African Americans: 79 Latinos who learned to read in English first: 14

Soft-c reading of Cindy’s, cents, certainly Soft-c reading of Cindy’s, cents, certainly

Soft-c and hard-c reading by ethnic group, language and region Soft-c and hard-c reading by ethnic group, language and region

The soft-c rule (phonological) In Spanish, the letter “c” is pronounced as /s/ before The soft-c rule (phonological) In Spanish, the letter “c” is pronounced as /s/ before the non-low front vowels /i. e / cielo /k/. elsewhere Cebuano este

The soft-c rule (phonological) In Engllsh, the letter “c” is pronounced as /s/ before The soft-c rule (phonological) In Engllsh, the letter “c” is pronounced as /s/ before the non-low front vowels /i, iy, e/ city decease cent and before the low central nucleus /ay/ cycle /k/. elsewhere , decide incisor

Regression analysis of soft-C reading scores Pretest Post-pretest African-American n. s. Latino (English) -. Regression analysis of soft-C reading scores Pretest Post-pretest African-American n. s. Latino (English) -. 10* -. 12* Latino (Spanish) . 37*** . 24*** California . 08* n. s. Female , 09** n. s. 100% correct = 1. 0, 100% wrong = 0. 0

Regression analysis of possessive reading scores Pretest Post-pretest African-American n. s. Latino (English) -. Regression analysis of possessive reading scores Pretest Post-pretest African-American n. s. Latino (English) -. 09* n. s. Latino (Spanish) n. s. California . 07** . 05*. Female n. s. 100% correct = 1. 0, 100% wrong = 0. 0

Three linguistic consequences of learning to read in Spanish first 1. The merger of Three linguistic consequences of learning to read in Spanish first 1. The merger of the ch- and sh- word classes has no direct consequences for reading or comprehension. 2. The immediate grasp of the soft-c rule reflects a greater tendency to use alphabetic combinations in decoding. 3. Use of the periphrastic possessive gives more support to understanding the possessive inflection than the use of the zero attributive form.

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