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The Social Encyclicals
PRESENTATION OUTLINE I Introduction II Summary of the Social Encyclicals III Foundation of the Church Social Encyclicals IV Principle and Fundamental Values of the Church Social Encyclicals
I. INTRODUCTION The Christian Social Encyclicals are coherent body of papal (ie, Popes), conciliar (ie, Bishops during Council, Vatican II for instance), and synodal (ie, Bishops during Synod in Rome) on the political, social, economic, religiocultural order both local & global. Papal: RN, QA, MM, PT, PP, LE, SRS, CA; Conciliar: Gaudium et Spes; Local Bishops: Seek Peace, Pursue It (RP), Economic Justice for All (US), Consistent Ethic of Life (New Zealand), etc.
I. INTRODUCTION “It is up to the faithful of the entire world and to the people of goodwill to analyze with objectivity the situation which is proper to their country, to shed on it the light of the Gospel’s unalterable words and to draw principles of reflection, norms of judgment and directives for action from the social teachings of the Church. ” (Octogesima Adveniens, #4)
I. INTRODUCTION (continued) The social encyclicals are “applications of the word of God to people’s lives and … society, offering principles for reflections, criteria of judgment and directives for action” (Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, John Paul II)
I. INTRODUCTION (continued) “The social encyclicals are presented as a ‘work site’ where the work is always in progress, …” (Compendium, #86) Our “instrument for the moral and pastoral discernment of the complex events that mark our time; . . . ” (Compendium. #10)
II. Summary of the Social Encyclicals Three Stages of Social Encyclicals 1 st Stage: 1891 -1940 LEO XIII 2 nd Stage: 1940 - 1970 PIUS XII 3 rd Stage: 1971 - 1991 PAUL VI PIUS XI PAUL VI JOHN PAUL II
II. Summary of the Social Encyclicals Three Stages of Social Encyclicals 1 st Stage: Popes Leo XIII to Pius XI (1891 -1940) On the Condition of Labor Leo XIII May 15, 1891 A protest by Leo XIII against the exploitation of poor industrial workers. Expresses deep concern for the plight of the poor, makes a strong protest on their behalf, and calls for changes in society.
Rerum Novarum: On the Condition of Labour (Leo XIII, 1891) HIGHLIGHT: n Lays out rights and responsibilities n of capital and labour n Upholds the right to private property n Condemns atheistic communism
II. Summary of the Social Encyclicals Three Stages of Social Encyclicals 1 st Stage: Popes Leo XIII to Pius XI (1891 -1940) On Reconstructing the Social Order Pius XI May 15, 1931 Proposed principles aimed at alleviating poverty by proposing a social restructuring the most significant contribution is its infusion of the concept of “social justice”. The directive principle of economic order is to be sought in the loftier principles of social justice and social charity
Quadragesimo Anno: On Reconstructing the Social Order (Pius XI, 1931) HIGHLIGHT: n Condemns the effects of greed and concentrated political and economic power n Proposes social organisation be based on principle of subsidiarity
II. Summary of the Social Encyclicals Three Stages of Social Encyclicals 2 nd Stage: Popes Pius XII to Paul Vi (1940 - 1970) On Christianity and Social Progress John XXIII May 15, 1961 Calls for an effective option for the poor manifested in its proposal to prevent imbalances in society. It favored a certain ‘opening to the left’. By breaking decisively with the rightist trend and becoming more “socialistic’, he laid the foundations for “an option for the poor” by later Church’s leaders.
II. Summary of the Social Encyclicals Three Stages of Social Encyclicals 2 nd Stage: Popes Pius XII to Paul Vi (1940 - 1970) On Peace on Earth John XXIII April 11, 1963 Gives intrinsic concern for the poor in its treatment on human rights, with its foundations on human dignity and the common good. Calls for social change aimed at the betterment of the living conditions of the less fortunate in life.
Pacem in Terris: Peace on Earth (John XXIII, 1963) HIGHLIGHT: n Focus on human rights as basis for peace n Calls for disarmament n States need for world-wide institution to promote and safeguard universal common good
II. Summary of the Social Encyclicals Three Stages of Social Encyclicals 2 nd Stage: Popes Pius XII to Paul Vi (1940 - 1970) Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World VATICAN COUNCIL II December 7, 1965 Presents justice as central to the issue of poverty. Calls for a change in economic structures, Firmly supported agrarian reform Commits the Church to take a prophetic stand against those who hold power
Gaudium et Spes: Church in the Modern World (1965) HIGHLIGHT: n Recognition that church immersed in the world n Condemns poverty n Warns about threat of nuclear war n Build structures to uphold justice and peace
II. Summary of the Social Encyclicals Three Stages of Social Encyclicals 2 nd Stage: Popes Pius XII to Paul Vi (1940 - 1970) POPULORUM PROGRESSIO On the Development of Peoples PAUL VI March 26, 1967 Focuses on the issue of the poverty of the Third World and stresses the crucial importance of integral human development. It does not simply assume that poverty arises from purely natural causes but from injustice. challenging Christians to a profound conversion to the cause of the poor, Calls for a radical change in social structures – one of the most basic tenets of the option for the poor.
Populorum Progressio: On the Development of Peoples (Paul VI, 1967) HIGHLIGHT: n Focuses on human development – “the new name for peace” n Condemns situations contributing to global poverty n Calls for new international organisations and agreements to promote justice and peace POPULORUM PROGRESSIO
II. Summary of the Social Encyclicals Three Stages of Social Encyclicals 3 rd Stage: Pope Paul VI to John Paul II (1970 - 1991) On the 80 th Anniversary of Rerum Novarum, – A Call to Political Action for World Peace and Justice OCTOGESIMA ADVENIENS Paul VI Ma. Y 14, 1971 Reminds Christians that “the Gospel instructs us in the preferential respect due to the poor and the special situation they have in society preferential respect for the poor cannot be realized without changes in the basic systems and structures of society that can only come about through political endeavors. calls for creating conditions that enable all members of society to develop themselves and attain their complete good.
Octogesima Adveniens: An Apostolic Letter: A Call to Action (Paul VI, 1971) HIGHLIGHT: n Calls for political response to economic injustice n Develops role of local churches in response to unjust situations OCTOGESIMA ADVENIENS
II. Summary of the Social Encyclicals Three Stages of Social Encyclicals 3 rd Stage: Pope Paul VI to John Paul II (1970 - 1991) Justice in the World JUSTITIA IN MUNDO Synod of Bishops Second General Assembly, (November 30, 1971) Spoke out strongly against structural injustice. Questioned the myths of Western type of economic development that lacks participation by people in making the decisions that affect their lives. Says that a Church that speaks about justice must itself practice justice. held that “action on behalf of justice is a constitutive dimension of the preaching of the Gospel”. “Church’s vocation is to be present in the heart of the world by proclaiming the Good News to the poor, freedom to the oppressed, and joy to the afflicted. ”
Justice in the World (Synod of Bishops, 1971) HIGHLIGHT: n JUSTITIA IN MUNDO “Action for justice” key dimension of preaching the gospel “Church’s vocation is to be present in the heart of the world by proclaiming the Good News to the poor, freedom to the oppressed, and joy to the afflicted. ”
II. Summary of the Social Encylicals Three Stages of Social Encyclicals 3 rd Stage: Pope Paul VI to John Paul II (1970 - 1991) Evangelization in the Modern World Paul VI December 8, 1975 Calls for transformation of cultures as central to the question of liberation and the task of the Church in witnessing to and fostering it. Holds that liberation calls not only for the transformation of society structures in the sphere of economics and politics but also for radical changes in the patterns and structures that mold the way people think, feel and evaluate. Equates evangelization with the notion of liberation
Evangelii Nuntiandi: Evangelisation in the Modern World (Paul VI, 1975) HIGHLIGHT: n Links work of doing justice with evangelisation n Gospel seen as liberation from oppressive cultures
II. Summary of the Social Encylicals Three Stages of Social Encyclicals 3 rd Stage: Pope Paul VI to John Paul II (1970 - 1991) On Human Work Pope John Paul II 1981 Offers an analysis of the nature of human work and how workers are to be treated with respects to their dignity Encourages a struggle to overcome the disadvantages imposed on them (workers) Proposes an understanding of solidarity that includes an element of confrontation in the service of the common good States that to be Christian today is called to work for justice in society
Laborem Exercens: On Human Work (John Paul II, 1981) HIGHLIGHT: n Affirms dignity of work and of worker n Affirms rights of labour n Calls for workplace justice
II. Summary of the Social Encyclicals Three Stages of Social Encyclicals 3 rd Stage: Pope Paul VI to John Paul II (1970 - 1991) On Social Concerns Pope John Paul II 1987 Sketches the contemporary phenomenon of poverty with penetrating accuracy Indicates how this “intolerable burden of poverty is felt in the areas of shelter, unemployment and debt Argues that the problem is exacerbated by an “unacceptably exaggerated concern for security” Stresses the moral character of the political will needed to combat the all consuming desire for profit and power
Sollicitudo Rei Socialis: The Social Concerns of the Church (John Paul II, 1987) HIGHLIGHT: n “Option for the poor” as a central tenet of Church teaching n develops notions of ‘solidarity’, ‘structures of sin’ and ‘social mortgage on property’ n Suggests resources for arms race be used to alleviate human misery n Nature must be considered in development
II. Summary of the Social Encyclicals Three Stages of Social Encylicals 3 rd Stage: Pope Paul VI to John Paul II (1970 - 1991) For the 100 th Anniversary of Rerum Novarum Pope John Paul II 1990 Celebrated the centennial of the Church Social Teaching Calls for the development of caring societies where the States protects the weaker sectors Suggests an approach where the poor are not just objects to be assisted, but subjects in their own rights Points out that love for the poor has to be made concrete through the promotion of justice which is not fully attained so long as the poor are seen as burden
Centesimus Annus: One Hundred Years (John Paul II, 1990) HIGHLIGHT: n n n Reaffirms the principles of Catholic Social Teaching over one hundred years Celebrates Rerum Novarum Identifies the failures of both socialist and market economies
II. Summary of the Social Teachings Pontifical Council for Justice & Peace April 2, 2004 Presents in a complete and systematic manner, even if by means of an overview, the Church’s social teachings
Ten Major Lessons of the Social Teachings 1. Link of Religious and Social Dimensions of Life (Gaudium et Spes) 2. Dignity of the Human Person (Pacem in Terris) 3. Option for the Poor (Justitia in Mundo) 6. Political Participation (Pius XII, 1944 Christmas Message) 4. Link of Love and Justice (Justitia in Mundo) 7. Economic Justice (Laborem Exercens) 5. Promotion of the Common Good (Mater et Magistra) 8. Stewardship (Laborem Exercens) 9. GLOBAL SOLIDARITY (Populorum Progressio) 10. Promotion of Peace (Pacem in Terris)
Ten Major Lessons of the Social Teachings 1. Link of Religious and Social Dimensions of Life (Gaudium et Spes) The “social” – the human construction of the world – is not “secular” in the sense of being outside of God’s plan, but is intimately involved with the dynamic of the Reign of God. Therefore faith and justice are necessarily linked closely together. ( Gaudium et Spes - The Church in the Modern World).
Ten Major Lessons of the Social Teachings 2. Dignity of the Human Person (Pacem in Terris) Made in the image of God. Women and men have a preeminent place in the social order; with inalienable rights, both political-legal and socialeconomic. The fundamental question to ask about social development is: what is happening to people? (Pacem in Terris - Peace on Earth)
Ten Major Lessons of the Social Teachings 3. Option for the Poor (Justitia in Mundo) A preferential love should be shown to the poor, whose needs and rights are given special attention in God’s eyes. “Poor” is understood to refer to the economically disadvantaged who, as a consequence of their status, suffer oppression and powerlessness. (Justitia in Mundo – Justice in the Word)
Ten Major Lessons of the Social Teachings 4. Link of Love and Justice (Justitia in Mundo) Love of neighbor is an absolute demand for justice, because charity manifests itself in actions and structures which respect human dignity, protect human rights, and facilitate human development. To promote justice is to transform structures which block love. (Justitia in Mundo - Justice in the World)
Ten Major Lessons of the Social Teachings 5. Promotion of the Common Good (Mater et Magistra) The common good is the sum total of all those conditions of social living – economic, political, cultural – which make it possible for women and men to readily fully achieve the perfection of humanity. Individual rights are always experienced within the context of promotion of the common good. (Mater et Magistra - Christianity and Social Progress)
Ten Major Lessons of the Social Teachings 6. Political Participation (Pius XII, 1944 Christmas Message) Democratic participation in decision making is the best way to respect the dignity and liberty of people. The government is the instrument by which people cooperate together in order to achieve the common good. (Pius XII, Christmas Message, 1944)
Ten Major Lessons of the Social Teachings 7. Economic Justice (Laborem Exercens) The economy is for the people and the resources of the earth are to be equitably shared by all. Human work is the key to contemporary social questions. Labor takes precedence over both capital and technology in the production process. Just wages and the right of workers to organize are to be respected. (Laborem Exercens - On Human Work)
Ten Major Lessons of the Social Teachings 8. Stewardship (Laborem Exercens) All property has a “social mortgage”. All people are to be respected and share the resources of the earth. By our work we are co-creators in the continuing development of the earth. (Laborem Exercens - On Human Work)
Ten Major Lessons of the Social Teachings 9. GLOBAL SOLIDARITY (Populorum Progressio) We belong to one human family and as such have mutual obligations to promote the development of all people across the world. In particular, the rich nations have responsibilities toward the poor nations and the structures of the international order must reflect justice. (Populorum Progression - The Development of Peoples)
Ten Major Lessons of the Social Teachings 10. Promotion of Peace (Pacem in Terris) Peace is the fruit of justice and is dependent upon right order among humans and among nations. The arms race must cease and progressive disarmament take place if the future is to be secure. In order to promote peace and the conditions of peace, an effective international authority is necessary. (Pacem in Terris - Peace on Earth)
FOUNDATION CHRISTIAN FAITH 3 ELEMENTS CHRISTIAN FAITH (1) (2) a firm conviction regarding what is supremely important, (2) trustful reliance on the power and goodness of that to which one stands committed, (3) dedication or commitment to that which one believes in.
FOUNDATION The Biblical God Jesus Christ The Fulfillment of God’s Promise
FOUNDATION Human Person – “Imago Dei” Church – Her Mission of Salvation
FOUNDATION: The Biblical God’s gratuitous presence is manifested in the freeing from slavery and in the promise “I have seen the affliction of my people who are in Egypt and have heard their cry because of their task masters: I know their sufferings, and I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land to a good and broad land, a land flowing with milk and honey” (Ex. 3: 7 -8). (Compendium # 21) Ten Commandments …A commitment that concerns not only fidelity to the one true God, but also the social relations among the people of the Covenant… (Compendium # 23)
FOUNDATION: The Biblical God The Law of the Sabbatical Year and Jubilee Year “Constitute a Social Doctrine in Miniature” (Compendium # ) “Designed to ensure that the salvific event of the Exodus and Fidelity to the Covenant represents not only the founding principle of Israel’s social, political and economic life, but also the principle of dealing with questions concerning economic poverty and social injustices…” (Compendium # 24)
FOUNDATION: Jesus Christ – The Fulfillment of God’s Promise the Word made flesh Messianic Ministry in the words of Isiah: “ The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach the good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord” (Luke 4: 18 -19; cf. Is 61: 1 -2) (Compendium # 28) Jesus places himself on the frontline of the fulfillment, not only because he fulfills what was promised and what was awaited by Israel, but also in the deeper sense that in him the decisive event of the History of God with mankind is fulfilled… (Compendium # 28)
FOUNDATION: Jesus Christ – The Fulfillment of God’s Promise In Jesus we got the affirmation of the greatest commandment: Love of God and Love of Neighbors as Yourselves Mutual love, as taught and exemplified by Jesus, “…must inspire, purify and elevate all relationships in the society and politics…” (Compendium # 33)
FOUNDATION: Human Person- “Imago Dei” Different perspective on the Human Person: Psychology, Philosophy, Sociology, Anthropology Vision of the Human Person according to the Scriptures and Christian Faith: created in the image and likeness of God ü human being has an identity ü human being has a vocation ü human being has a destiny
FOUNDATION: Human Person- “Imago Dei” Christian Vision of Development and Integral Salvation Development and salvation addresses to the whole person and to all people – meaning, …concerns all the dimension of the human person: political life, social and spiritual life, corporeal life, historical and transcendent… (Compendium # 38)
FOUNDATION: Church – Her Mission of Salvation and Evangelization “mission of proclaiming and establishing among all the peoples that Kingdom of Christ and of God, and she is, on earth, the seed and the beginning of the kingdom…” (compendium # 49) “…Christ’s disciples are called to renew ever more fully in themselves ‘the awareness that the truth about God who is the source of every gift, cannot be separated from the manifestation of his love of preference for the poor and humble, that love which, celebrated in the Magnificat, is later expressed in the words and works of Jesus …” (compendium # 50)
PRINCIPLES OF THE CHURCH SOCIAL DOCTRINE HUMAN DIGNITY COMMON GOOD and UNIVERSAL DESTINATION OF GOODS
PRINCIPLES OF THE CHURCH SOCIAL DOCTRINE SUBSIDIARITY and PARTICIPATION SOLIDARITY
PRINCIPLES OF THE CHURCH SOCIAL DOCTRINE HUMAN DIGNITY the foundation of all the other principles and content of the Church’s social doctrine. the whole of the Church’s social doctrine develops from the principle that affirms the inviolable dignity of the human person. all persons are equal in dignity. (stress on women, children, disabled and elderly) Dignity presupposes rights and duties. The relationship between individuals should have as basis the nature, and therefore the dignity of the human person. An analysis of the nature of human being shows its innate dignity, far superior to any other created being on earth. Earth is thus for the human being, and not vice versa.
PRINCIPLES OF THE CHURCH SOCIAL DOCTRINE COMMON GOOD and UNIVERSAL DESTINATION OF GOODS “the sum total of social conditions which allow people, either as groups or as individuals, to reach their fulfillment more fully and more easily. ” (GS, 26) The common good involves all members of society, no one is exempt from cooperating, according to each one’s possibilities, in attaining it and developing it. The responsibility for attaining the common good, besides falling to individual persons, belongs to the State, since the common good is the reason that the political authority exists. Among the numerous implications of the common good. Immediate significance is taken on by the principle of the universal destination of goods. “God destined the earth and all created things would be shared fairly by all mankind under the guidance of justice tempered by charity. ” (GS, 68)
PRINCIPLES OF THE CHURCH SOCIAL DOCTRINE SUBSIDIARITY and PARTICIPATION On the basis of this principle, all societies of a superior order must adopt attitudes of help (“subsidium”) – therefore of support, promotion, development – with respect to lowerorder societies. The characteristic implication of subsidiarity is participation, which is expressed essentially in a series of activities by means of which the citizen, either as an individual or in association with others, whether directly or through representation, contributes to the cultural, economic, political and social life of the civil community to which he/she belongs.
PRINCIPLES OF THE CHURCH SOCIAL DOCTRINE SOLIDARITY Solidarity highlights in a particular way the intrinsic social nature of the human person, the equality of all in dignity and rights and the common path of individuals and peoples towards an ever committed unity. Solidarity must be seen as: a moral virtue that determines the order of institutions. an authentic moral value, not a “feeling of vague compassion or shallow distress at the misfortunes of so many people, both near and far. ” The term “solidarity” expresses in summary fashion the need to recognize in the composite ties that unite men/women and social groups among themselves, the space given to human freedom for common growth in which all share and in which they participate.
Fundamental Values TRUTH FREEDOM LOVE JUSTICE
CHURCH’s SOCIAL TEACHING and OUR SOCIAL CONCERN The Family, the Vital Cell of Society Human Work Economic Life The Political Community The International Community Safeguarding the Environment The Promotion of Peace