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The SESAME* Story *Synchrotron‐light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East Chris Llewellyn Smith Director of Energy Research, Oxford University President SESAME Council
‘Science for Peace’ Two organisations created under the umbrella of UNESCO: CERN Conceived late 1940 s - two aims: • Enable construction of a facility beyond means of individual members • Foster cooperation between peoples recently in conflict SESAME Conceived late 1990 s with the same aims: • Members: Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey • Hope start commissioning mid 2016 It will work politically provided science is first class
Location of SESAME
SESAME is a 3 rd generation light‐source (‘very powerful flash lamp → microscope’) under construction near Amman SESAME will foster - science and technology in the Middle East and neighbouring countries (from biology and medical sciences through materials science, chemistry, and physics to archaeology) - cooperation across political divides Observers: Brazil, China, EU, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, USA BAHRAIN
There are some 60 synchrotron‐light sources in the world None in the Middle East § International Collaboration is the obvious way for countries with relatively small scientific communities and/or limited science budgets to build a synchrotron-light source § Broad programmes make synchrotron-light sources ideal facilities for building scientific capacity § SESAME will be a user facility: scientists will typically go to SESAME two or three times a year for a week or two to carry out experiments, in collaboration with scientists from other institutions/countries Buildings can be used for high-quality Middle East Scientific meetings
Synchrotron Radiation The electromagnetic field surrounding the electrons is unable to respond instantaneously when the electrons are deflected; some of the energy in the field keeps going, producing a tangential cone of synchrotron radiation. As the electrons’ energy increases, the cone of radiation narrows, and the radiated power goes up dramatically. In third generation sources, devices in straight sections (wigglers, undulators) put magnetic ‘bumps in the road’ – radiation from successive bumps adds to make much a more intense beam
Inside the SESAME Experimental Hall Schematic Shielding houses electron accelerator and storage ring Intense beams of light (infrared to X-rays) generated by circulating electrons exit through ports in the shielding Shielding houses electron source, pre-accelerator and booster synchrotron
Experimental Hall May 2012 Booster November 2013 Beam stored & brought to full energy (800 Me. V) September 2014 The highest energy accelerator in the Middle East
First of 16 sectors of the main storage ring at CERN 31 March 2015 Collaboration between CERN, SESAME Members and Observers Spain : quadrupoles France : sextupole coils In Addition Italy : Dipoles power supply Switzerland: controllers + correctors power supplies Israel : power supplies for quadrupole sand sextupoles Germany: vacuum chambers UK : dipoles Pakistan : sextupoles Spain girders Cyprus : sextupoles Turkey : quadrupole coils
X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE AND FLUORESCENCE BEAMLINE Picture of the pre-aligned Beamline Components in the Test Area BPM VCM M-Slt DCM VCM: Vertical Collimating Mirror BPM: Beam Position Monitor DCM: Double crystal Monochromator M-Slt: Monochromatic Slits VFM : Vertical Focusing Miroor VFM
Science Beginning with Infra‐Red Microscope 11 proposals approved. First experiments in 2014 e. g. Study of breast cancer by Fatemeh Elmi, Assistant Professor, University of Mazandaran, North Iran + Randa Mansour and Nisreen Dahshan, Ph. D students in the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan. Programme with synchrotron‐radiation will begin in 2017
Very Brief History of SESAME • Convergence of two ideas – build a light source in the Middle East (Abdus Salam – early 1980 s) + foster projects that cross divides • Original proposal (1997) - rebuild old 0. 8 Ge. V Berlin Synchrotron (BESSY 1) in the Middle East, as basis for a new international organisation, modelled on CERN • 1999 - (Interim) Council established under auspices of UNESCO, followed by international advisory committees • 2002 - decision to build a new 2. 5 Ge. V ring (still using BESSY booster) competitive 3 rd generation facility • Ground breaking (2003); completion of building (2008) • Commissioning should start mid 2016
SESAME GROUND BREAKING CEREMONY - 6 JANUARY 2003
Training Programme (thanks to external support listed later) Users’ Meetings, Schools, Workshops, Fellowships, visits to operating light ‐sources, . . . are building technical and scientific capacity in the region 1 st Users’ Meeting Amman 2002 10 th Users’ Meeting Amman 2012 SESAME-JSPS School Cairo 2008 Began training accelerator experts who returned to the Middle East Now Training Scientists Left @ Advanced Light Source Users’ Meeting, Right @ NSLS Members of SESAME Accelerator Group, 2007
SESAME SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY
SESAME People’s Thoughts Engin Ozdas, Hacettepe University, Ankara: “SESAME has created trust and personal friendships between researchers in the member countries and developed countries, which may help solve regional and global political problems”. Azadeh Shahsavar, pictured at the 8 th SESAME Users’ Meeting at Petra (Jordan) in 2009, Iranian Ph. D student, University of Copenhagen: “SESAME will provide me a great opportunity to access a synchrotron light source near home. I expect SESAME to support a broad range of science and technology in the Middle East and bring together bright scientific minds”. Eliezer Rabinovici, Hebrew University and Israeli representative on the SESAME Council: “As a string theorist, I work on parallel universes. I was always curious about what a parallel universe was like, and now I know. I'm living in one when I go to SESAME meetings working hand in hand with our neighbours on a common goal, bringing advanced knowledge to our region”.
SYNCHROTRON RADIATION Cross‐Talk Among Disciplines Archaeology Chemistry Medicine Arts Synchrotron Radiation Energy Science Physics Materials Science Environmental Science
SESAME’s SCIENCE: Regional Relevance Life Sciences • Drug design: common pathogens and diseases in the region • Natural products Materials Science SESAME Light Environmental Science Cultural Heriatge • New materials; semiconductors • Energy • Catalysis • Extreme conditions (P/T) • Air, soil and water pollution • Non-destructive analyses of objects • Chemical composition • Imaging
PHASE 1 BEAMLINES Beamline Energy Range Source X‐ray Absorption Fine Structure/X‐ray 3‐ 30 ke. V Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XAFS/XRF) Bending magnet Infrared spectromicroscopy (IR) 0. 01‐ 1 e. V Bending magnet Materials Science (MS) Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) 3‐ 25 ke. V 4‐ 14 ke. V Multi‐pole wiggler Bending magnet Small Angle and Wide Angle X‐ray 8‐ 12 ke. V Scattering (SAXS/WAXS) Extreme Ultraviolet spectroscopy (EUV) 10‐ 200 e. V Soft X‐ray/Vacuum Ultra‐Violet (VUV) 0. 05‐ 2 ke. V Bending magnet Elliptically polarized undulator SESAME Beamlines Chosen by Users (Users’ Meeting 2003)
X‐RAY ABSORPTION BEAMLINE (BASEMA) Energy range: 3‐ 30 ke. V. Main components from ROBL‐ESRF Applications: in basic materials science, life sciences and environmental science on the nanoand micro-meter scale. Examples: designing new materials and improving catalysts , e. g. for the petrochemical industries, determining bonding structure and identification of the chemical composition of fossils and of valuable paintings in a non-invasive manner Note: IAEA CRP on: “Absorption and Mobility of Heavy Metals in Soils in Vicinity of Jordan and Yarmouk Rivers” + “Synchrotron Based XRF/XAFS Techniques in Tracking Pollution (Air/Soil) in some Arab Countries” – involves SESAME, Egypt & Jordan; provides access to ELETTRA synchrotron in Italy.
INFRARED BEAMLINE (EMIRA) Energy range: 0. 01‐ 1 e. V. New beamline built from scratch Applications: in molecular biology, environmental studies, materials and archaeological sciences. Examples: studies on cells and tissues without the need for chemical fixing, mapping breast cancer cells; characterization of mineral distribution in plant tissues.
MATERIALS SCIENCE BEAMLINE (SUSAM) Energy range: 3‐ 25 Ke. V. Main components from Swiss Light Source This beamline is used for collecting powder diffraction (PD) data. PD is a powerful tool for studying disordered/amorphous material on the atomic scale and the evolution of nanoscale structures and materials in extreme conditions of pressure and temperature Examples: development and characterization of new smart materials, characterization of new organo-metalic materials for energy storage
SAXS/WAXS PROJECTS Studies on proteins involved in metal homeostasis in wheat XRF analyses for enhancement of Zn content of seeds Courtesy I. Cakmak Control 2μM 5μM 10μM 20μM Increasing Cd concentration→ SAXS analysis of proteins involved in Cd tolerance Aydin M. 2011, Bilecen et al. , 2005
Support from: SESAME Members • Provide operating budget – manpower, consumables, electricity… • Capital funding – special contributions from Iran, Israel, Jordan, Turkey – hoping others will join • Jordan – provided land building + cash from Royal Court External: • Advice – from members of Advisory Committees; visits • Equipment – many donations of equipment surplus to requirements • Training – support from Brazil, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, USA, EU, IAEA, UNESCO Plus • Cash – from the EU, Italy, ….
1 5 2 3 4 9 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 SESAME benefits from the advice of leading scientists from around the world who serve on the Scientific & Beamlines Advisory Committee (seen here in November 2010) and the Technical Advisory Committee 1 - SESAME (Jordan) 2 - CLS (Canada) 3 - Stanford Univ. (USA) 4 - ALBA (Spain) 5 - Soleil (France) 6 - Sabanci Univ. (Turkey) 7 - Elettra (Italy) 8 - ALS (USA) 9 - Soleil (France) 10 - SESAME (Jordan) 11 - Oxford Univ. (UK) 12 CERN (Switzerland) 13 - Al-Quds Univ. (Palestinian Authority) 14 - LBNL (USA) 15 - PSI (Switzerland) 16 - Hacettepe Univ. (Turkey)
Nobel Laureates visit SESAME site in June 2008 45 Laureates have endorsed SESAME “as a beacon, demonstrating how shared scientific initiatives can help light the way towards peace”
STATUS There are challenges • • Solving problems involving travel restrictions, sanctions on Iran, … Finding funding for provision of conference centre, full suite of Phase 1 beamlines, …. But thanks to Iran, Israel, Jordan and Turkey each providing $5 million, $11. 3 million from the EU, € 2. 35 million from Italy, the Members’ Annual contributions, etc…the funding gap is now relatively small and an enormous amount has been achieved: • Construction is progressing well – on track for commissioning to start in mid 2016 • Experimental programme (in molecular biology, environmental studies, materials, archaeology sciences, …. . ) on track to begin in 2017 • The training program is building capacity in the region
Beyond SESAME? SESAME is planning to build a guest house to be available on day one: This will be followed by a Conference Centre: When SESAME is not in operation, SESAME will be able to house meetings on other topics (food, water, archaeology, . . . ) in secure/easily accessible surroundings Dream: this will lead to other joint facilities & collaborations
SESAME is: § A working example of Arab-Israeli-Iranian-Turkish-Cypriot. Pakistani collaboration o Senior scientists and administrators from the region are working together to govern SESAME through the Council, with input from scientists from around the world through its Advisory Committees o Young and senior scientists from the region are collaborating in preparing the scientific programme (Users’ Meetings, Workshops) § Already building scientific and technical capacity in the region through the extensive training programme (Fellowships, Visits, Schools) SESAME § Will soon be producing science § Would welcome new Members For further information see www. sesame. org. jo and CERN Courier July 2015