Скачать презентацию The Roman Slave Supply Problems l Do Скачать презентацию The Roman Slave Supply Problems l Do

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The Roman Slave Supply The Roman Slave Supply

Problems l Do not have exact numbers – cannot quantify - only estimate l Problems l Do not have exact numbers – cannot quantify - only estimate l Evidence is scattered over time and in terms of type of evidence – literature, legal, archaeological l Evidence often anecdotal l Almost all evidence from slave-owning class

Scale of Slave Trade l Between 65 BCE to 30 BCE c. 100, 000 Scale of Slave Trade l Between 65 BCE to 30 BCE c. 100, 000 new slaves needed annually in Italy l From 50 BCE to 150 CE over 500, 000 needed per year l Compare: New World slavery c. 28, 000 per annum with maximum of 60, 000 at height of slave trade

The Sources of slaves l Warfare l Natural reproduction (breeding) l Infant exposure l The Sources of slaves l Warfare l Natural reproduction (breeding) l Infant exposure l Trade l Piracy and brigandage

Warfare l l l Warfare a constant for most of Rome’s history Early Republic Warfare l l l Warfare a constant for most of Rome’s history Early Republic – conquest of Italy Mass enslavements – early 4 th century, Etruscan city of Veii – perhaps 10, 000 slaves (sources not reliable) during central period – most slaves came from outlying regions 91 -82 BCE Social War (between Rome and Italian allies, Italians became slaves again M. Aurius of Larinum (Cicero’s home town) captured at Asculum became slave of Roman senator Q. Sergius and worked in ager Gallicus at Northern Adriatic coast.

War captives outside Italy Conquest of the Mediterranean l First Punic War, 256 BCE, War captives outside Italy Conquest of the Mediterranean l First Punic War, 256 BCE, siege of Aspis – 20, 000 captives l 146 BCE destruction of Carthage – 55, 000 enslaved l 25 BCE against the Salassi (Alps) 44, 000. l 198 CE emperor Septimius Severus siege of a Parthian city – 100, 000

What happened to the war captives? l Decision left to commanding general: some were What happened to the war captives? l Decision left to commanding general: some were allowed to be ransomed l Others sold off on the spot to traveling dealers hanging around the army l Others distributed to the soldiers as payment or bonus l Not all ended up in Italy l Many slave markets all over Mediterranean world

War captives War captives

War Captives War Captives

Long-Distance Slave Trade l Independent from expansion warfare l Regions around Black Sea supplied Long-Distance Slave Trade l Independent from expansion warfare l Regions around Black Sea supplied Mediterranean since 7 th century BCE l In 6 th century CE, Procopius (de Bello Persico 2. 15. 5) mentions Roman traders exchanging salt and grain for slaves from Colchis (eastern Black Sea)

From a Trader’s Handbook (1 st century CE) l ports of Malao and Opone From a Trader’s Handbook (1 st century CE) l ports of Malao and Opone (modern northern Somalia) exported slaves l Some were sent to Egypt where they were redistributed

l Historian Ammianus Marcellinus (16. 7. 5) about the eunuch Eutherius from Armenia: “His l Historian Ammianus Marcellinus (16. 7. 5) about the eunuch Eutherius from Armenia: “His parents were free, but at an early age he was captured by members of a neighbouring hostile tribe, who castrated him and sold him to some Roman merchants, by whom he was brought to Constantine’s palace. ”

In the West, Gaul, Germany, Britain l Last 2 centuries BCE as many as In the West, Gaul, Germany, Britain l Last 2 centuries BCE as many as 15, 000 slaves from Gaul exchanged for Italian wine, l From German tribes; Danube basin, etc. , l Supplied to traders by local rulers who exchanged captives or even members of their own community in exchange for goods (bronze, cooking pots, wine, other luxury goods found by archaeologists)

Piracy and Brigandage another major source for new slaves 200 BCE pirates of Cilicia Piracy and Brigandage another major source for new slaves 200 BCE pirates of Cilicia – conducted large scale kidnapping and trafficking (Wiedemann # 106). l Large slave market on island of Delos – l Augustine in a letter (Epistulae 10) talks of pirates along coast of North Africa raiding rural villages, murdering all the men, and selling free women and children as slaves to itinerant slave dealers (mangones) l l

Augustine’s comments continued l l l Some locals supplied pirates, story of a woman Augustine’s comments continued l l l Some locals supplied pirates, story of a woman who traded in young girls from interior; Poor parents sold their children; One Christian sold his wife because he preferred the money Christian communities tried to buy back as many as possible, While others tried to resell the released individuals back to the slave traders

Piracy and Brigandage in Italy itself l Italy unsafe for travelers l Private slave Piracy and Brigandage in Italy itself l Italy unsafe for travelers l Private slave prisons (ergastula) in country side l travelers kidnapped l See Wiedemann # 111, Suetonius, Augustus

Pliny, Ep. 6. 25 l YOU send me Word, that Robustus a Roman Knight, Pliny, Ep. 6. 25 l YOU send me Word, that Robustus a Roman Knight, of considerable Rank, took a Journey with Attilius Scaurus, my Friend, as far as Ocriculum, and then disappear'd. You desire me to send for Scaurus, and get some Information from him, in order to enquire about it. He shall come hither, but I am much afraid it will be to no Purpose. For I suspect, that something has befallen Robustus, like an Accident, that happen'd once to a Towns-man of mine, Metilius Crispus. I had procur'd him a Command in the Army, and has presented him with 400000 Sesterces for his Equipage and Conveniencies:

…. continued l Nor did I afterwards receive a Letter from him, or any …. continued l Nor did I afterwards receive a Letter from him, or any News of his Death. It is doubtful whether he was cut off by his own Servants, or with them: Certain it is, that neither he nor his Servants made their Appearance afterwards. I wish we may not find the same Cafe in Robustus; yet, let us send for Scaurus.

The Slave Trade: Where to buy a slave in Rome l Some could conveniently The Slave Trade: Where to buy a slave in Rome l Some could conveniently be bought in the Roman Forum near Temple of Castor l Upscale shops located near Saepta Julia l Elite also used agents to acquire slaves for them

Who were the slave traders? l Despised by elite – for unscrupulous business methods Who were the slave traders? l Despised by elite – for unscrupulous business methods l Some were ex-slaves themselves l Many were itinerant – traveling throughout empire and beyond, often following armies l Traded with local tribal leaders at the fringes and beyond Roman Empire in Britain, Germany, Black Sea, etc. ,

Tombstone of a wealthy slave trader Tombstone of a wealthy slave trader

Sale of slave Sale of slave

Discussion l Wiedemann # 108 Discussion l Wiedemann # 108