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The Role of Governance in Supply Chains Paulo Gonçalves MIT System Dynamics Group 30 The Role of Governance in Supply Chains Paulo Gonçalves MIT System Dynamics Group 30 Wadsworth St. , E 53 -358 A Cambridge, MA 02142 Phone 617 -258 -5585 [email protected] edu Albany-MIT Ph. D. Colloquium, MIT System Dynamics Group, April 20 2001. 1

Motivation • Intel faces enormous challenges in managing its supply chain – Must produce Motivation • Intel faces enormous challenges in managing its supply chain – Must produce the right products at the right time in the right amount – In environment of rapid growth, increasingly complex technology, short product life-cycles, long manufacturing cycle times and high demand variability • At the same time, Dell the supply chain leader can require – Just-in-time delivery, short windows for order changes or cancellations (and no penalties) – High supplier flexibility in product customization Albany-MIT Ph. D. Colloquium, MIT System Dynamics Group, April 20 2001. 2

The problem • Traditionally strong supply chain players have used their leadership position to The problem • Traditionally strong supply chain players have used their leadership position to own advantage • Self-interested actions can increase own benefits at the expense of other players – Manufacturers would like to ensure a steady flow of orders and maximize volume purchases – Retailers would like to minimize inventory holding and obsolescence costs, maintaining quality level • Locally rational behavior can lead to inefficiencies Albany-MIT Ph. D. Colloquium, MIT System Dynamics Group, April 20 2001. 3

Research Questions • Does it always make sense to act in a narrowly conceived Research Questions • Does it always make sense to act in a narrowly conceived self-interested way to try to maximize profits in a supply chain? • Under what conditions does cooperation and risk sharing among supply chain players make sense? • What cooperative policies in a supply chain are most appropriate to improve firms’ performance? Albany-MIT Ph. D. Colloquium, MIT System Dynamics Group, April 20 2001. 4

Purpose and Goals • To develop a system dynamics model addressing the issue of Purpose and Goals • To develop a system dynamics model addressing the issue of governance in a real supply chain that incorporates several features of real supply chains often not considered in models in other literatures, including: – Explicit behavior rules, instead of myopic and intertemporal optimization – Inventory shortages and capacity constraints – Double ordering dynamics and lost sales dynamics – Locally available and distorted information • To develop a set of policies to improve system performance Albany-MIT Ph. D. Colloquium, MIT System Dynamics Group, April 20 2001. 5

Relevant Literature • System dynamics – Beer game dynamics (Forrester) – Experimental research (Sterman, Relevant Literature • System dynamics – Beer game dynamics (Forrester) – Experimental research (Sterman, Diehl & Sterman, Croson) • Microeconomics – Industrial Organization (Spencer, Williamson, Hart) – Game theory, incentives and contracts (Tirole) • Operations management – Multi-echelon inventory management (Clark &Scarf, – Supply chain management (Lee at al. , Cachon & Lariviere) Albany-MIT Ph. D. Colloquium, MIT System Dynamics Group, April 20 2001. 6

Dynamic Hypothesis • Narrowly conceived decisions, which are locally beneficial and boundedly rational, aimed Dynamic Hypothesis • Narrowly conceived decisions, which are locally beneficial and boundedly rational, aimed at maximizing firm performance may, in a highly complex system, generate unanticipated side effects that are not in the best interest of the firm. Albany-MIT Ph. D. Colloquium, MIT System Dynamics Group, April 20 2001. 7

The Approach • Develop small concept models for comparative purposes providing – Deep understanding The Approach • Develop small concept models for comparative purposes providing – Deep understanding of limitations and assumptions of exiting models in other literatures – Basis for integrated model and realistic conditions • Test integrated model in one or two case studies – PC Industry: Intel - Dell – Consumer goods industry: P&G - Walmart Albany-MIT Ph. D. Colloquium, MIT System Dynamics Group, April 20 2001. 8

A microeconomics perspective Double Marginalization • • • Focus on the financials, complete neglecting A microeconomics perspective Double Marginalization • • • Focus on the financials, complete neglecting the physics Feedback poor, no dynamics, stationary demand Unlimited capacity, no delays, perfect information (price and demand), fully rational behavior, single period maximization Albany-MIT Ph. D. Colloquium, MIT System Dynamics Group, April 20 2001. 9

An Operations Management Perspective • Relaxing old assumptions makes models more realistic, still very An Operations Management Perspective • Relaxing old assumptions makes models more realistic, still very complicated. Approach allows: – Decentralized control – Multiple decision makers – Locally rational behavior • Leading to inefficiencies dealt with contractual arrangements to improve system performance – – – Specifying decision rights: RPM, Quantity fixing Pricing schemes, minimum purchase Quantity flexibility, buy-backs Allocation policies, lead times Quality Albany-MIT Ph. D. Colloquium, MIT System Dynamics Group, April 20 2001. 10

Albany-MIT Ph. D. Colloquium, MIT System Dynamics Group, April 20 2001. 11 Albany-MIT Ph. D. Colloquium, MIT System Dynamics Group, April 20 2001. 11