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The Role of “Champions” in Project Success Dave Brown CARE Research and Development Lab The Role of “Champions” in Project Success Dave Brown CARE Research and Development Lab The University of Alabama [email protected] ua. edu 30 th International Traffic Records Forum Denver, Colorado July 27, 2004

WHAT IS OPTIMIZATION? • Do these statements illustrate it? – “If we only save WHAT IS OPTIMIZATION? • Do these statements illustrate it? – “If we only save one life, it will all be …” – “This is the worst location in the state. ” • Can we agree? – It is not a simple concept – It is not taught in our K-12 schools – It is not understood at the highest levels – It is critical to all government functions

DEFINITION: OPTIMIZE • Optimize: to sacrifice some competing “projects” in order to best achieve DEFINITION: OPTIMIZE • Optimize: to sacrifice some competing “projects” in order to best achieve a well-defined goal. • Example: maximum fatality reduction • Recognizes: we cannot do everything uninformed advocate journalist lawyer naive • The ______ asks “why not? ” Are you ready with the answer?

THE TRAFFIC SAFETY COMMUNITY SPECTRUM At one extreme end: • Overzealous Advocates – Often THE TRAFFIC SAFETY COMMUNITY SPECTRUM At one extreme end: • Overzealous Advocates – Often naïve and uninformed (not necessarily bad) – Extremely myopic: one favored countermeasure – “If we just do X, it will solve the problem. ” At the other extreme end: • Hardened Traffic Safety Professionals – Often beaten into the bureaucratic mold – Know all too well what “cannot be done” – Often become mere rule enforcers, gate keepers

OPTIMIZATION APPLIED The Champion Understands and Seeks to be an Optimal Mix of Advocate OPTIMIZATION APPLIED The Champion Understands and Seeks to be an Optimal Mix of Advocate and Professional.

MAJOR DETERRENTS TO INFORMATION GENERATION • Most Databases Created for Transactions • Optimized: Find/Store/Update MAJOR DETERRENTS TO INFORMATION GENERATION • Most Databases Created for Transactions • Optimized: Find/Store/Update Single Records • Not Optimized for Information Generation – Summaries of subsets of Records – Comparisons of Record subsets • Not Integrated with Other Databases – “One stop shopping” is impossible – Demographics, rates, interpretation • Databases Owned by Separate Organizations – Absent: Method for creating cooperation

WHY THE PROBLEM WITH INTERAGENCY COOPERATION? • • Each Agency Controls Its Own Data WHY THE PROBLEM WITH INTERAGENCY COOPERATION? • • Each Agency Controls Its Own Data Control is Information Control is Power Fear – Detrimental information will be released – Loss of (political) power to agency – Workload-shift-fear paradox • Sharing will cause too much work • Sharing will make agency unnecessary

DATA OWNERSHIP: MOST STATES • Department of Public Safety – Drivers license/Driver History/Crash/FARS • DATA OWNERSHIP: MOST STATES • Department of Public Safety – Drivers license/Driver History/Crash/FARS • Department of Transportation – Roadway/ADT/Friction • Department of Revenue – Tags/Insurance/Commercial Registration • Administrative Office of Courts – Citations/Dispositions • Department of Public Health – EMS/Restraints • Department of Forensic Sciences

ESSENTIAL: INTERAGENCY COOP • The Real Problems are NOT Technical • Cooperation is essential ESSENTIAL: INTERAGENCY COOP • The Real Problems are NOT Technical • Cooperation is essential – to get access to the data – to use it effectively (lowest levels) • Why do some agencies get cooperation …and others do not? – Not an “all or nothing” proposition • Answer: Cooperating Champions

CHARACTERISTIS OF CHAMPIONS • Understand/Practice/Promote Optimization – – • • Optimization in everyday decisions CHARACTERISTIS OF CHAMPIONS • Understand/Practice/Promote Optimization – – • • Optimization in everyday decisions Balances advocacy and professionalism Balances needs of all stakeholders Explaining the concept creates concurrence Are Relentless Do Not Fear Technology or Change Can Be at Any Level in an Agency Do Not Seek Credit

THE VALUE OF GIVING CREDIT “People can accomplish anything if they are not concerned THE VALUE OF GIVING CREDIT “People can accomplish anything if they are not concerned with who gets the credit. ” -- Ronald Regan (paraphrased) The converse is also true: “Effective leaders do not blame others for their organizations’ shortcomings. ”

TWO WAYS TO GET COOPERATION • Formal Organization – Memorandum of Understanding – Edict TWO WAYS TO GET COOPERATION • Formal Organization – Memorandum of Understanding – Edict of the Governor – Establishment of Committee, Minutes, etc. • Informal Organization – Mid-levels agreeing to get the job done – Motivation: to do what is best for state • Optimal Combinations of These

PROBLEMS WITH FORMAL AUTHORITY • Edict Lasts Only as Long as Governor • Edict PROBLEMS WITH FORMAL AUTHORITY • Edict Lasts Only as Long as Governor • Edict Does Not Bind Lower Levels – Knowledge is power – Expertise often at the lowest levels • Edicts Might Produce Compliance, but – Compliance is not cooperation – Some will practice “compliant resistance” • Some Edicts Kill Cooperation

PROBLEMS WITH THE INFORMAL ORGANIZATION • Destroyed by Work Avoidance • Fails if There PROBLEMS WITH THE INFORMAL ORGANIZATION • Destroyed by Work Avoidance • Fails if There is Fear… – Of offending boss (formal authority) – Of failure – Of success • Not for those who … – Must always “get permission” – Are unwilling to take risks

ALABAMA CASE STUDY: LETS • Law Enforcement Tactical System – Web-based information delivery system ALABAMA CASE STUDY: LETS • Law Enforcement Tactical System – Web-based information delivery system – For law enforcement and criminal justice • Involved Departments: – – – Administrative Office of Courts Alabama Criminal Justice Information Center Department of Public Safety Law Enforcement Systems Integration/Standards Attorney General’s Office Department of Revenue

METRICS OF LETS SUCCESS • Original Prototype: 3 Months • Well Under Budget • METRICS OF LETS SUCCESS • Original Prototype: 3 Months • Well Under Budget • Became Operational 1/15/03 – Over 700 agencies – Nearly 8000 users – New agencies and users everyday • Success Stories

Sheriff John Mark Tirey, Walker County, Jasper, AL “On 03 -26 -03 we had Sheriff John Mark Tirey, Walker County, Jasper, AL “On 03 -26 -03 we had a triple homicide occur at a local funeral home in Sumiton, Alabama. We soon developed a suspect, but could not locate a photo. We had just been on LETS for a few days. We were able to get a photo from LETS quickly. This allowed us to get the suspect identified and warrants issued. We apprehended the suspect in Atlanta, Ga. at the Greyhound bus terminal. LETS is quick and very much appreciated. ”

Chris Vaughan, Cuba Police Dept. “Just got LETS a couple of weeks ago. Used Chris Vaughan, Cuba Police Dept. “Just got LETS a couple of weeks ago. Used it to create a picture lineup and develop a suspect in a fraud case. We were able to identify the suspect, pick him up in his car that we got a tag number for, and recover the $4100 that he defrauded from an 83 year old woman. Thanks a million. Sure made us look good. ” – March 18, 2003

Red Level, Alabama • Set up LETS at CIOT Checkstop • ISP Provided (at Red Level, Alabama • Set up LETS at CIOT Checkstop • ISP Provided (at no cost) – Wireless connectivity to the car – Internet connection • Several Revoked/Suspended Citations • Simultaneously Checking for – Outstanding warrants – Protection orders

KEY TO SUCCESS – 1 Quick Start on Essential Service • Initially: Driver License KEY TO SUCCESS – 1 Quick Start on Essential Service • Initially: Driver License Search with Picture – Original concept: AOC and DPS trip to Kansas – Informal meeting: “Why can’t we … ? ” • Created Informal Organization – Courts, Public Safety, Revenue (Champions) – Found EOY funding to get started ($30 k) • Kept Single Project Focus – It’s “the pictures” stupid – View toward portal for all LE/CJ info to field

KEY TO SUCCESS – 2 Create Momentum for Long Term • Take Advantage of KEY TO SUCCESS – 2 Create Momentum for Long Term • Take Advantage of Resources – Databases that are available – Cooperation that does exist (your friends) – Identify champions in other departments • Identify and Involve Your Users – User input – take all suggestions seriously – Something you know that they need – Build your user base quickly • Optimize Enhancements to Prototype

KEY TO SUCCESS – 3 Think Outside Traffic Safety Box • Infrastructure Needed (for KEY TO SUCCESS – 3 Think Outside Traffic Safety Box • Infrastructure Needed (for e-crash; e-citation) – Computers in cars – Network connectivity – Database access; GIS; GPS • Where is Available Funding? – 411 is just a small start – Law Enforcement and Homeland Security – Leverage common interests • Essential: Alliances with All Agencies

KEY TO SUCCESS – 4 Use Momentum to Build Power • Small “Prototype” Becomes KEY TO SUCCESS – 4 Use Momentum to Build Power • Small “Prototype” Becomes “Pilot” – Released to friendly (beta) users – “Pilot” Sells Itself – Technology Wins – First to the users (power base) – Then to additional sponsors • Then to additional data owners … – License tags, driver history, corrections – Warrants, protection orders – Pardons and paroles, criminal histories

KEY TO SUCCESS – 5 Plan for the Long Term • LETS Well Published KEY TO SUCCESS – 5 Plan for the Long Term • LETS Well Published Plans – To also become THE State portal for • For e-mail communication between agencies • For Amber Alerts, BOLOs, ATBs, HS • Software updates – e-citation, e-crash – To continue adding databases • Aggressively Seek Funding from Broad Base – Don’t give up … keep opening doors – Get the highest levels involved • … but only after it is a demonstrated obvious winner

CONCLUSIONS There Are No Silver Bullets • No Substitute for Hard Work – You CONCLUSIONS There Are No Silver Bullets • No Substitute for Hard Work – You might not be smarter – But you can work harder • No Substitute for Persistence – Don’t get smashed into bureaucratic mold – Be ready with your plan! • Champions Control Their Management – Demonstrate the political benefits – Political downside of being left behind

QUESTIONS? QUESTIONS?