- Количество слайдов: 56
The Roaring ’ 20 s and the Great Depression Chapter 20 -23
SSUSHS • SSUSH 16 The student will identify key developments in the aftermath of WW I. • a. Explain how rising communism and socialism in the United States led to the Red Scare and immigrant restriction. (20. 1) • b. Identify Henry Ford, mass production, and the automobile. (17. 1, 20. 3) • c. Describe the impact of radio and the movies. (21. 3, 23. 4) • d. Describe modern forms of cultural expression; include Louis Armstrong and the origins of jazz, Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance, Irving Berlin, and Tin Pan Alley. (21. 4)
SSUSHS • SSUSH 17 The student will analyze the causes and consequences of the Great Depression. • a. Describe the causes, including overproduction, underconsumption, and stock market speculation that led to the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. (20. 1, 22. 1) • b. Explain factors (include over-farming and climate) that led to the Dust Bowl and the resulting movement and migration west. (22. 2) • c. Explain the social and political impact of widespread unemployment that resulted in developments such as Hoovervilles. (22. 2 -3)
SSUSHS • SSUSH 18 The student will describe Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal as a response to the depression and compare the ways governmental programs aided those in need. • a. Describe the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority as a works program and as an effort to control the environment. (23. 1, 23. 5) • b. Explain the Wagner Act and the rise of industrial unionism. (23. 2) • c. Explain the passage of the Social Security Act as a part of the second New Deal. (23. 2, 23. 5) • d. Identify Eleanor Roosevelt as a symbol of social progress and women’s activism. (23. 1 -3) • e. Identify the political challenges to Roosevelt’s domestic and international leadership; include the role of Huey Long, the “court packing bill, ” and the Neutrality Act. (23. 1 -2, 23. 5, 24. 1)
GPS Words to Know • • • • Communism Socialism The Red Scare Henry Ford Mass Production Radio The Movies Jazz Louis Armstrong Langston Hughes Harlem Renaissance Irving Berlin Tin Pan Alley Stock Market crash of 1929 The Great Depression Dust Bowl Hoovervilles Migration New Deal Franklin D. Roosevelt Tennessee Valley Authority Wagner Act Unionism Social Security Act Eleanor Roosevelt Huey Long “Court Packing Bill” The Neutrality Act
Politics of the Roaring Twenties Chapter 20
Section 1—America Struggles with Post War Issues The Effects of Peace on the Public • War leaves Americans exhausted • Economy adjusting: cost of living doubles; farm, factory orders down - Returning soldiers face unemployment or took their old jobs away from women/minorities • Nativism—prejudice against foreignborn people—sweeps nation • Isolationism—pulling away from world affairs—becomes popular
Fear of Communism The Red Scare • Communism—economic, political system, single-party government - ruled by dictator - no private property • 1919 Vladimir Lenin, Bolsheviks, set up Communist state in Russia • U. S. Communist Party forms • Bombs mailed to government, businesses; people fear Red conspiracy • Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer takes action with Palmer Raids-hunts down Communists, anarchists
RED SCARE • Fear led to the government looking for suspected Communists and Socialists
Limiting Immigration: Keep America for Americans Anti-Immigrant Attitudes • Nativists believe: fewer unskilled jobs available, fewer immigrants needed • Many think immigrant anarchists and socialists are Communist The Quota System • sets maximum number can enter U. S. from each country • 1924 -Limited people from eastern and southern Europe
Racial Tension • White soldiers returning compete w/ African Americans for jobs, housing. • Ku Klux Klan becomes national force targets blacks, immigrants, Jews, Catholics, Communists
We interrupt this program for the special question…. The growth of communism in the United States during the early 1900’s directly led to: A. A reform of labor laws B. A restriction of immigration C. An extreme decline in nationalism D. An increase in public support of unions
Section 3 -The impact of the Automobile • During the 1920 s, Americans enjoyed a new standard of living. Wages increased and work hours decreased. • Mass production or large-scale product manufacturing usually done by machinery, increased the supply of goods and decreased costs. • The assembly line, used by carmaker Henry Ford, greatly increased manufacturing efficiency by dividing up operations into simple tasks that unskilled workers could perform.
Henry Ford • Ford changed American life with his affordable automobiles. Small businesses— garages, gas stations opened. The isolation of rural life ended. People could live farther away from work-creating the auto commuter. The Model T "People can have the Model T in any color – so long as it’s black. " –Henry Ford
Superficial Prosperity Production And Buying Goods On Credit • During the 1920 s, as workers produced more goods, businesses grew • To sell the overproduction of goods, Installment Plan encouraged—buy goods on credit, pay over a period of time at low interest rate – Aimed to solve problem of underconsumption=consumers’ underconsumption reluctance to buy products – Americans start spending more than they have…
The Roaring Life of the 1920 s Chapter 21
Section 1 -The Prohibition Experiment and Organized Crime (Pgs. 642 -643) Passage of Prohibition (18 th Amend) No money for enforcement Saloons closed Illegal alcohol production (bootleggers, speakeasies) Public arrest for drunkenness down Organized crime increases (Al Capone) Prohibition repealed (21 st Am)
Cities struggle with prohibition and organized crime
Section 2 The Twenties Woman How have women’s clothing changed! • 1800 s 1900 s
The New Woman
Let’s Watch Bernice Bobs Her Hair • Read page 664 for background information and copy the quiz. 1. Title of film? 2. Time Period? 3. Who is the author? 4. What is the social class of the main characters? poor middle class rich 5. How does the main character reflect the time period? Cite examples 6. What is a modern woman? 7. Explain how Bernice has the last laugh? 8. How does the film relate to Chapter 21?
Section 3—Impact of Radio and the Movies • 2 important developments of the 1920 s-Radio and Movies – Radio unites the nation and gives political leaders direct access to the people – KDKA-first commercial radio station – Movies: Silent pictures then movies with sound (talkies) appear on big screen – Movies help define national culture: people copy movie stars looks, clothes, cars
Radio and Movies
Did You Know? • During the 1920 s, cosmetic sales soared as women tried to copy the look of Hollywood movie stars. The average American woman used about one pound of face powder a year.
Section 4 – The Harlem Renaissance • In New York City’s neighborhood of Harlem, Harlem African Americans created literary and artistic work that demonstrated racial pride and a sense of community. This became known as the Harlem Renaissance • Langston Hughes’s poems describe difficult lives of working class African Americans (P. 665) - many written in jazz, blues tempo
African Americans and the Jazz Age • Jazz becomes popular form of music after WWI out of New Orleans (mixes ragtime and blues) • Louis Armstrong, a trumpeter Armstrong & singer, among most famous jazz musicians • Jazz crosses boundariesblack and whites both love it • In Harlem’s Cotton Club, famous African American musicians like Duke Ellington got their start Louis Armstrong
Musicians and Writers
Tin Pan Alley • Tin Pan Alley is the nickname given to the collection of New York Citycentered music publishers and songwriters in the late 1890 s. • Irving Berlin was a Jewish American songwriter – Berlin eventually composed over 3, 000 songs, many of which (e. g. "God Bless America", "White Christmas", "Anything You Can Do", "There's No Business Like Show Business")
The Great Depression Begins Chapter 22
Warm up • • • The year is 1929. The US economy has collapsed. Farms and businesses are failing everywhere, causing massive unemployment and poverty. • You are out of work with little prospect of finding a job. • What would you do to feed your family?
The Nation’s Sick Economy Read pages 670 -673 Describe each area of the economy that helped cause the Great Depression on the chart. Industry Agriculture Consumer Distribution Spending of wealth Stock Market
Section 1 -Causes of the Great Depression • Overproduction/Underconsumption led to falling prices • Consumerism-spending more than you save (installment plans) • Buying risky stocks on speculation and “Buying on the Margin” • Stock Market Crash of 1929 ("Black Tuesday”)
The Great Depression and the Stock Market • Great Depression=period from 1929 -1940 in which the economy plummeted and unemployment soared • Speculation- buying stocks on the chance of a quick profit, ignoring the risks • Buying on the Margin-paying a small percentage of a stock’s price as a down payment and borrowing the rest
The Great Depression and the Stock Market • Stock Market Crash of October 29, 29 1929 -prices drop, people who bought stock on margin or speculation lose everything! – Was not the only cause, but marks the beginning of the Great Depression • Banks and businesses fail, jobs lost, and the world suffers – Unemployment goes from 3% in 1929 to 25% in 1933 – By 1933, 11, 000 of the nation’s 25, 000 banks had closed
Hoover #31 Republican
Section 2 -3—Hardship and Suffering during the Depression • Homeless built shacks in Shantytowns, which they referred to as “Hoovervilles” because they blamed President Hoover for their financial trouble. • Soup kitchens and breadlines- provided free food. • Farmers: In 1932, A terrible drought in the Great Plains, caused the region to become a “ Dustbowl” – Farmers also overfarmed the land grasslands not suitable for farming – 1, 000 s of farmers pack up and move west to CA
Pictures of the Depression
Images from the Depression
The New Deal Chapter 23
Warm up-The New Deal • The administration of FDR was often referred to as the “Alphabet Soup Administration” because it created many Administration new, acronym friendly gov’t agencies, including the CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) and the WPA (Works Progress Administration). • Look on P. 706 and list three more agencies and what their purpose was.
Section 1—A New Deal Helps Fight Depression • In 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) becomes president • The New Deal was the name that FDR gave to his package of economic programs to help the Depression. • The New Deal had 3 goals— 3 R’s: – giving Relief to the unemployed and badly hurt farmers – Reform of business and financial practices – promoting Recovery of the economy • The First Hundred Days of his administration FDR pushes programs through
New Deal-Alphabet Soup…
First New Deal: Tennessee Valley Authority • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) – Helped depressed Tennessee River Valley area – Renovated 5 dams & built 20 new dams • Created 1, 000 s of jobs, • Provided cheap electricity for rural areas in South • Provided flood control, hydroelectric power • Take a look at P. 726 -727 hydrodam. pdf
Challenges to FDR’s New Deal & his Court Packing Bill • The Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, (court-packing bill), was an attempt by FDR to add more justices to the Supreme Court to swing more support in favor of New Deal programs – It would have granted the President power to appoint 6 new Supreme Court justices – Congress protests bill and strikes it down
Challenges to FDR: Huey Long • Senator Huey Pierce Long (The Kingfish) challenges FDR’s New Deal with his own social program “Share. Our-Wealth” – Disagrees with deficit spending – Wants to run for president – Long is assassinated in 1935 Senator Huey Long of Louisiana (March 7, 1935).
Section 2 -The Second New Deal Takes Hold First lady Eleanor Roosevelt • She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, FDR, and assumed a role as an advocate for civil rights for women and minorities • She urged the President to appoint women to gov’t positions
Improving Labor Conditions The Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act) • Protects the right of workers to join unions and collective bargaining with employers • Prohibits unfair labor practices such as threatening workers, firing union members, stopping union organizing • National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) set up to hear unfair practices • Fair Labor Standards Act sets max working hours— 40 hrs a week and minimum wage
The Second New Deal— The Social Security Act • 1935, Social Security Act creates Social Security system; provides: - insurance for retirees 65 or older - unemployment compensation - aid to disabled, families with children