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The Rise of the Nazi Germany and the Holocaust “Systematic killing; or destruction by The Rise of the Nazi Germany and the Holocaust “Systematic killing; or destruction by fire”

Hitler Biography • b. 1889 in Austria • Art student in Vienna • Anti-Semitic Hitler Biography • b. 1889 in Austria • Art student in Vienna • Anti-Semitic feelings began in his teens – Threatened good Germanic culture – Despite urban legend, it does not appear Hitler was Jewish • Moved to Munich, Germany in 1913, entered the military. Served in WWI • mustard gas attack in Belgium, Oct. 1918. (temporarily blind)

Review: Treaty of Versailles (1919) • Germany had to pay for all civilian damages Review: Treaty of Versailles (1919) • Germany had to pay for all civilian damages • Germany also lost her colonies & lg. portions of German territory. – Alsace Lorraine (valuable land full of minerals) • A 30 -mile strip on the right bank of the Rhine R. was demilitarized. • Limits were placed on German armaments & military strength. • Humiliating to most Germans

Rise of Hitler • National Socialist German Workers’ party (NAZI) – 1920= 40 members, Rise of Hitler • National Socialist German Workers’ party (NAZI) – 1920= 40 members, 1923=35, 000 – Adopt swastika as symbol (1920) – history birth, life, death, & IMMORTALITY

The Nazis took the symbol and …. you know the rest The Nazis took the symbol and …. you know the rest

Beer Hall Putsch (1923) • failed attempt at revolution in Munich (Bavaria) – Home Beer Hall Putsch (1923) • failed attempt at revolution in Munich (Bavaria) – Home of right wing citizens • Used SA (stormtroopers) • Reinactment (show 0 -1: 30 and then @ 5: 45) – From Rise of Evil (2003) • Arrested & writes Mein Kampf “my struggle” in prison. – Describes how to fix

Mein Kampf • Democrats, Communists =BAD • Most of his hatred Jews! • German Mein Kampf • Democrats, Communists =BAD • Most of his hatred Jews! • German people were of the highest racial purity & destined to be the master race

Excerpt • Throughout Mein Kampf, Hitler refers to Jews as parasites, liars, dirty, crafty, Excerpt • Throughout Mein Kampf, Hitler refers to Jews as parasites, liars, dirty, crafty, sly, wily, clever, without any true culture, a sponger, a middleman, a maggot, eternal blood suckers, repulsive, unscrupulous, monsters, foreign, menace, bloodthirsty, the destroyer of Aryan humanity, and the mortal enemy of Aryan humanity. . .

Decline of Germany leads to Hitler’s success • Rise of Nazism? Why? – Debts Decline of Germany leads to Hitler’s success • Rise of Nazism? Why? – Debts from WWI – Terrible unemployment – Massive Inflation Great Depression

Review from American Odyssey-p. 397 • • 40% of Germans vote for Nazi party Review from American Odyssey-p. 397 • • 40% of Germans vote for Nazi party Hitler becomes Chancellor 1933 Hitler is ELECTED Reichstag (German Parliament) gives Hitler power to… – make laws – control budget – approve treaties • Hitler abolished the office of President, declared himself Fuehrer>>>>a totalitarian dictator – ABSOLUTE POWER

Steps toward fascism • Definition: the nation & the race were more important than Steps toward fascism • Definition: the nation & the race were more important than the individual. – Uber Patriotism-If you are not like us, out with you – Civil Rights suspended • Armed SA & SS forcefully threw out old legislators and replaced them with Nazis – SA= “Brown shirts” Stormtroopers. – Schutzstaffel (SS) : Hitler's personal bodyguards & guards for concentration camps – MORE ABOUT THESE TWO GROUPS LATER • Political enemies placed in early concentration camps.

World at War • A New Germany – The World At War : A World at War • A New Germany – The World At War : A New Germany (watch 5: 25 -12: 26 & 15: 14 -18: 10) Guiding questions (add to your notes): • 1. How did Hitler restore confidence in the German people? • 2. How did using the SS during the “Night of Long Knives” enhance Hitler’s power?

Review of Video clip & additional info • “Brown shirts” (SA) Their original role Review of Video clip & additional info • “Brown shirts” (SA) Their original role was enforcing Fascist rule. – "All opposition must be stamped into the ground" • SS and Nazi officials spread rumors that the ~ 4 M SA wanted to be the official Nazi army. • Night of Long Knives (p. 396) – Estimated 200 -1000 people killed for political reasons. About half were SA men. – POWERFUL MESSAGE SENT

What have we seen so far regarding the Nazi agenda? • Anti-Semitism • Aryans What have we seen so far regarding the Nazi agenda? • Anti-Semitism • Aryans are master race • Jewish doctors, lawyers, police, teachers and stores were boycotted. Jews banned from government jobs. • Those who pose a threat are killed or put in camps. (i. e. The SA, journalists, Communists) • Goal: Return Germany to greatness

A sense of community • Working and eating together • Public works program for A sense of community • Working and eating together • Public works program for the unemployed. (Like FDR’s) • Create a new Berlin • Huge public rallies & speeches • Work! Health! Great support for Hitler! • World at War: The New Germany (Watch from 19: 15 -29: 24) Guiding Question: How did Hitler inspire the German masses?

Review of Propaganda • A type of message aimed at persuading the opinions or Review of Propaganda • A type of message aimed at persuading the opinions or behavior of people. • propaganda can be: – deliberately misleading, – it pulls at your emotions – often has negative connotation • Examples may include: Animal cruelty, children in Africa, The US army, breast cancer, etc

 • • "Hitler is building. Help him. Buy German goods. " Promoting German rail

 • • "Before: Unemployment, hopelessness, desolation, strikes, lockouts. Today: Work, joy, discipline, camaraderie. Give the Führer your vote!"

German National Catechism(1934) • 25 program points of the Nazi Party – What is German National Catechism(1934) • 25 program points of the Nazi Party – What is a race? – What are the major races? • White, black, and yellow. – What were and are the particular characteristics of the Nordic race? • Courage, bravery, creative ability and desire, loyalty. – The German people is, along with the English, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, the most racially pure of the European peoples.

 • Which race must the National Socialist race fight against? – The Jewish • Which race must the National Socialist race fight against? – The Jewish race. • Why? – The goal of the Jew is to make himself the ruler of humanity. Wherever he comes, he destroys works of culture. He is not a creative spirit, rather a destructive spirit. • Which European people disregards the racial question? – France. It has accepted large numbers of blacks into its army. It has given them the same political rights as the whites.

 • The cartoon shows a Jew stealing a farm before the Nazi takeover, • The cartoon shows a Jew stealing a farm before the Nazi takeover, but afterwards he is stopped by the law. (16 January 1934)

 • The ugly Jew is holding part of Russia under his arm, branded • The ugly Jew is holding part of Russia under his arm, branded with the hammer and sickle. One hand holds a whip. The other hand holds bloody coins.

 • Every day newspapers (even those not hostile to the Jews) report the • Every day newspapers (even those not hostile to the Jews) report the dishonest dealings of Eastern Jews. “The cleverness of Jewish criminality is astonishing. ”

 • Caption: • Caption: "The Jew in his element: With Blacks in a Parisian night club. The Jew bring people the glittering world of perversion as a way of unnerving and enslaving them. He seems to worry as little about it as the rats worry about the plague they carry.

Before the extermination camps • Nuremberg Race Laws (1935) Before the extermination camps • Nuremberg Race Laws (1935)

Nuremberg Laws-What they did! • Stripped Jews of German citizenship • Prohibited interracial marriages: Nuremberg Laws-What they did! • Stripped Jews of German citizenship • Prohibited interracial marriages: No Jew/German marriages • Banned Jewish businesses (outside their Jewish parts of town)

Nazi Education • Teachers were expected to attack the lifestyle of the Jews. • Nazi Education • Teachers were expected to attack the lifestyle of the Jews. • Exam questions demonstrate the government's anti. Semitic stance: • "A bomber aircraft on take-off carries 12 dozen bombs, each weighing 10 kilos. The aircraft takes off for Warsaw the international centre for Jewry. It bombs the town. On take-off with all bombs on board and a fuel tank containing 100 kilos of fuel, the aircraft weighed about 8 tons. When it returns from the crusade, there are still 230 kilos left. What is the weight of the aircraft when empty ? "

Another type of question connecting pure blood and importance of families • Another type of question connecting pure blood and importance of families • "To keep a mentally ill person costs approximately 4 marks a day. There are 300, 000 mentally ill people in care. How much do these people cost to keep in total? • It implies they should be euthanized!

In Biology classes • In Biology classes • "Racial Instruction" began @ 6 years of age. • Hitler himself had decreed that "no boy or girl should leave school without complete knowledge of the necessity and meaning of blood purity. "

Healthy body, healthy mind • PE became a very important part of the curriculum. Healthy body, healthy mind • PE became a very important part of the curriculum. Hitler had stated that he wanted boys who could suffer pain. . "a young German must be as swift as a greyhound, as tough as leather, and as hard as Krupp's steel. " • PE took up 15% of a school's weekly timetable. – Boxing became mandatory for boys. • Those who failed fitness tests could be expelled from their schools

Hitler Youth (1922 -1945) -HJ (Hitler Jugend) • Ages 10 -18 ( 2 subgroups, Hitler Youth (1922 -1945) -HJ (Hitler Jugend) • Ages 10 -18 ( 2 subgroups, 10 -14, 14 & up) • viewed as future “Aryan Supermen” • preached anti-Semitism • uniforms very like those of the SA • maintained training academies – develop future Nazi Party leaders • By Dec. 1936, HJ membership= five million >>then mandatory. Blood & honor

League of German Girls (Bund Deutscher Mädel or BDM) • Ethnic Germans, citizens, and League of German Girls (Bund Deutscher Mädel or BDM) • Ethnic Germans, citizens, and free of hereditary diseases • Used campfire romanticism, summer camps, folklore, and sports to educate girls within the Nazi belief system, – to train them for their roles in German society: wife, mother, & homemaker. – Like the boys, they served in the war as well. • Care packages, sing to boost morale, bandage wounded, etc.

Role of women • Most were “Stay at home” moms • all good German Role of women • Most were “Stay at home” moms • all good German women married at a young age • Law for the Encouragement of Marriage (1933) – get a government loan of 1000 marks which was about 9 months average income – one child meant=25% of the loan didn’t have to be paid back. – Two children =50% of the loan need not be paid back. – Four children = entire loan was cleared.

Role of women • • No wearing make-up or trousers. NO dyeing hair or Role of women • • No wearing make-up or trousers. NO dyeing hair or perms Only flat shoes were expected to be worn A well built figure as slim women, so it was taught, would have problems in pregnancy • Women were also discouraged from smoking • August 12 th had been the birthday of Hitler’s mother. On this day each year, the Motherhood Cross was awarded to women who had given birth to the largest number of children. The gold cross went to women who had produced 8 children; silver was for 6 children and bronze was for 4 children

 • • "Take hold of kettle, broom and pan, Then you’ll surely get a man! Shop and office leave alone, Your true life work lies at home. "

KRISTALLNACHT (November 1938) 43: 26 -46: 55 KRISTALLNACHT (November 1938) 43: 26 -46: 55

Causes of Kristallnacht • • 15 th anniversary of Hitler's Causes of Kristallnacht • • 15 th anniversary of Hitler's "Beer-Hall Putsch" of 1923 created an atmosphere that encouraged street violence Jewish Polish teen assassinated German diplomat in Paris. Reason? 17, 000 Polish Jewish citizens had been expelled from Germany==retaliation.

Read the following handout on Kristallnacht • Assignment #2 • Actively read – Jot Read the following handout on Kristallnacht • Assignment #2 • Actively read – Jot down 4 -5 pieces of CM that demonstrates you were thinking about Kristallnacht

"Night of Broken Glass" • Jewish homes were ransacked • ~ 8, 000 Jewish shops, towns and villages • citizens & stormtroopers (SA) destroyed buildings with sledgehammers, leaving the streets covered in smashed windows • Jews were beaten to death (estimated 90 -100) – Some died in hospital, some commit suicide, some in camps • ~30, 000 Jewish men taken to concentration camps – Buchenwald, Dachau, Sachsenhausen • 1, 600+ synagogues ransacked with 267 set on fire

Some sent to concentration camps • Treatment was brutal • most were released during Some sent to concentration camps • Treatment was brutal • most were released during the following three months on condition that they leave Germany. • ~2, 000 -2, 500 died

Jewish prisoners being humiliated in the synagogue, November 10, 1938 Jewish prisoners being humiliated in the synagogue, November 10, 1938

Jewish prisoners paraded by the SS and local police through the streets of Baden, Jewish prisoners paraded by the SS and local police through the streets of Baden, November 10, 1938

Results of Kristallnacht • In retrospect, Kristallnacht was more than the shattering of windows. Results of Kristallnacht • In retrospect, Kristallnacht was more than the shattering of windows. It forecasted the physical destruction of European Jews • The Jewish community is immediately fined 1, 000, 000 (1 B)Reichsmarks; • Nazis expedite plan for "elimination of the Jew from (the) economic life" of Germany established as official policy, November 12, 1938 • 10 months following Kristallnacht, 115, 000+ Jews leave Germany. (before it was too late) – Border countries filled quickly – US had a quota of 15 K/yr

Then the roundups • Ghettos throughout Europe. Then the roundups • Ghettos throughout Europe.

Leaving home for the ghettos Leaving home for the ghettos

Inside the ghettos • Prisonlike atmosphere • Barbed wire • Some had masonry walls--10 Inside the ghettos • Prisonlike atmosphere • Barbed wire • Some had masonry walls--10 ft high. • Krakow: tombstone style walls>> like they were buried alive. • located in the dirtiest, poorest, most crowded parts of cities.

Judenrat • appointed or elected to carry out Nazi orders in the Jewish communities Judenrat • appointed or elected to carry out Nazi orders in the Jewish communities of occupied Europe • oversees daily affairs in the ghetto • Food? • as little as 300 calories/day

Warsaw Ghetto • 30% of the population were forced to live in 2. 5% Warsaw Ghetto • 30% of the population were forced to live in 2. 5% of the city's area, a density of 9. 2 people per room. • ~10% of total Jewish population died • Nazi explanation of why ghettos were necessary: – CONFINE DISEASES!!

IF YOU TRIED TO ESCAPE… IF YOU TRIED TO ESCAPE…

Video: Warsaw Ghetto-A Birthday Trip through Hell (Assignment # 5) • Task: Throughout the Video: Warsaw Ghetto-A Birthday Trip through Hell (Assignment # 5) • Task: Throughout the entire documentary, your task is to complete a T-chart • 6 -8 facts about ghetto life on the left, 6 -8 commentary (your feelings/reactions) on the right. CD CM

Warsaw ghetto uprising • Testimonies Warsaw ghetto uprising • Testimonies

Other non-Aryan persecuted Untermensch (German for under man, used to describe Other non-Aryan persecuted Untermensch (German for under man, used to describe "inferior people”) • • Gypsies (Roma) Jehovah’s Witnesses Homosexuals Rhineland bastards (Mix German & African) Communists Slavic Muslims and Orthodox Serbs disabled people and/or handicapped

Identification • Triangular badges or patches to identify prisoners in the concentration camps. Different Identification • Triangular badges or patches to identify prisoners in the concentration camps. Different colored patches represented different groups. The colors and their meanings were: • Yellow= Jew • Brown=Gypsy • Violet=Jehovah's Witness • Pink=Homosexual • Green=Habitual criminal • Red=Political prisoner • Black=asocial • Blue=Emigrant • Asocial= including prostitutes, vagrants, alcoholics, murderers, thieves, and those who violated laws prohibiting sexual intercourse between Aryans and Jews

Targets • Roma a. k. a. Gypsies – “racially inferior” – name originates from Targets • Roma a. k. a. Gypsies – “racially inferior” – name originates from mistakenly believed they came from Egypt. – Some Christian, some Muslim – Migrated from India, to E. Europe • worked as craftsmen & were blacksmiths while others were performers such as musicians, circus animal trainers

Targets • Jehovah’s Witnesses – intense persecution under the Nazi regime – unwilling to Targets • Jehovah’s Witnesses – intense persecution under the Nazi regime – unwilling to accept the authority of the state, and because they were strongly opposed to the war – unwillingness to give the Nazi salute, to join party organizations or to let their children join the Hitler Youth

Nazi Eugenics • Eugenics= “good genes” • “Sterilization Law” • The basic provisions of Nazi Eugenics • Eugenics= “good genes” • “Sterilization Law” • The basic provisions of the 1933 law stated that: – (1) Any person suffering from a hereditary disease may be rendered incapable of procreation by means of a surgical operation (sterilization), if the experience of medical science shows that it is highly probably that his descendants would suffer from some serious physical or mental hereditary defect. • ~ 300, 000 -500, 000 people were sterilized against their will!

*Decree from 18 August 1939, the Nazis enacted the obligatory registration of all births *Decree from 18 August 1939, the Nazis enacted the obligatory registration of all births of physically and mentally handicapped children. *selected children were sent to several mental homes where they were killed by lethal drugs or withdrawal of food. * At least 8, 000 children via "children euthanasia. " *Extended to adults on 1 September 1939, day of the German attack on Poland. . * The Nazis could get rid of "useless eaters" to save money and personnel, and have more free beds in hospitals.

Poland-1940 http: //www. deathcamps. org/euthanasia/t 4 poland. html • naked patients received an injection Poland-1940 http: //www. deathcamps. org/euthanasia/t 4 poland. html • naked patients received an injection and were bundled into a mobile gas chamber • an advertisement for "Kaiser's Kaffee Geschäft". • The van's (or trailer's) inner sides were lined with metal sheets, the floor was covered with a wooden grate and a lamp on the ceiling illuminated the gas chamber for inspection through a peephole in the back door. • SS man started engine, exhaust fumes were emitted into the loading space. • Victims screamed loudly before they died. • After 15 -20 minutes the van finally reached the forest, and nobody in the gas chamber was left alive – -buried the corpses in mass graves. • Apart from mentally handicapped patients, blind children from Lodz were killed at this time.

Infamous Hadamar * One of the 6 centers that used gas * ~15, 000 Infamous Hadamar * One of the 6 centers that used gas * ~15, 000 men, women, and children were killed between 1941 -1945. Who would die? -those w/disabilities -mentally disoriented elderly persons from bombed-out areas -"half Jewish" children from welfare institutions, - psychologically and physically disabled forced laborers and their children, -German soldiers deemed psychologically incurable. (PTSD perhaps) • Silent film from Hadamar (1 min) .

Robert Wagemann Describes fleeing from a clinic where, his mother feared, he was to Robert Wagemann Describes fleeing from a clinic where, his mother feared, he was to be put to death by euthanasia • http: //www. ushmm. org/wlc/media_oi. php? lang=en &Module. Id=10005200&Media. Id=1208

By definition, the Holocaust was…. • the systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately By definition, the Holocaust was…. • the systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews (and others) by the Nazi regime. • "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire. " Buchenwald crematorium

1 st camps (1933 -39) review • Labor camps>>many worked to death • Political 1 st camps (1933 -39) review • Labor camps>>many worked to death • Political prisoners • By 1939, expansion occurs to extermination camps Click on map to enlarge

Concentration Camps vs. Death Camps Concentration Camps vs. Death Camps

CONCENTRATION/WORK CAMPS • hard labor • might die but not “planned” executions – Later CONCENTRATION/WORK CAMPS • hard labor • might die but not “planned” executions – Later experiments conducted (Dachau)

Pushing to survive Pushing to survive

The Camps The Camps

Losing hope Losing hope

The Final Solution • the plan to annihilate the Jews of Europe • The The Final Solution • the plan to annihilate the Jews of Europe • The Germans invaded the Soviet Union in June, 1941. • EINSATZGRUPPEN (Mobile Killing Units) – Shooting inferiors • Jews and non-Jews alike (Communists) – Not efficient method + psychologically damaging

Operation Reinhard • Code name for the German plan to murder the approximately two Operation Reinhard • Code name for the German plan to murder the approximately two million Jews • Eastern Europe • Construction of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka II began in autumn 1941 – Escape From Sobibor (movie you might enjoy, next slide) Thomas (Tovi) Blatt

Famous escape~ Escape from Sobibor • You. Tube Clip #1, then watch them until Famous escape~ Escape from Sobibor • You. Tube Clip #1, then watch them until the end

 • Once operational, German SS and police forces liquidated the ghettos and deported • Once operational, German SS and police forces liquidated the ghettos and deported by rail to those killing centers. • In all, the SS and police killed approx. 1. 7 million Jews as part of Operation Reinhard. • Unknown # of Jehovah Witnesses, Roma & Soviet prisoners

If you missed the movie, Memory of the Camps or want to watch more If you missed the movie, Memory of the Camps or want to watch more on your own Assignment #6 Create a T-chart where you have facts on left and commentary on the right. Commentary is more important—it’s a running stream of commentary (reactions, questions, pictures, etc. ) as you watch.

Liberation!! • Mr. Leo Hymas- – 3/16…. 11: 00 -12: 10 pm in auditorium. Liberation!! • Mr. Leo Hymas- – 3/16…. 11: 00 -12: 10 pm in auditorium. (Take 2 nd lunch) • Buchenwald Conc. Camp • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v= m. GRv 55 e. Gsmo&feature=related • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v= N 2 o. No. T 0 MPlk – Leo the Liberator • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v= w. YVn 0 hzc. Ss 0 • http: //video. google. com/videosearch ? q=buchenwald&hl=en&emb=0&aq =f#

Auschwitz, Poland • Largest of its kind established by the Nazi regime • Three Auschwitz, Poland • Largest of its kind established by the Nazi regime • Three main camps • Over 1. 1 million Jews, as well as tens of thousands of Christian Poles, Roma, and Soviet prisoners of war, perished at Auschwitz. • When the Soviets liberated Auschwitz at the end of January, only several thousand emaciated prisoners remained alive.

3 purposes • 1) to incarcerate real and perceived enemies of the Nazi regime 3 purposes • 1) to incarcerate real and perceived enemies of the Nazi regime for an indefinite period of time; • 2) to have available a supply of forced laborers for deployment in SS-owned, construction-related enterprises (and, later, armaments and other warrelated production); and • 3) to eliminate small, targeted groups of the population whose death was determined by the SS and police authorities to be essential to the security of Nazi Germany.

EXPERIMENTATION AT THE CAMPS • AUSCHWITZ-BIRKENAU most famous • Josef Mengele- “Angel of Death” EXPERIMENTATION AT THE CAMPS • AUSCHWITZ-BIRKENAU most famous • Josef Mengele- “Angel of Death” • It has been described by the survivors that he thought he was “Playing God”

3 types of experiments • 1. experiments aimed at facilitating the survival of German 3 types of experiments • 1. experiments aimed at facilitating the survival of German military personnel. • 2. developing & testing pharmaceuticals and treatment methods for injuries and illnesses which German military and occupation personnel encountered in the field. • 3. advance the racial ideas of the Nazis

Category 1. High Altitude Experiments a low-pressure chamber, to determine the maximum altitude from Category 1. High Altitude Experiments a low-pressure chamber, to determine the maximum altitude from which crews of damaged aircraft could parachute to safety.

HOW ABOUT HYPOTHERMIA? HOW ABOUT HYPOTHERMIA?

Category 2: injected with disease • scientists tested immunization compounds for the prevention and Category 2: injected with disease • scientists tested immunization compounds for the prevention and treatment of contagious diseases, including malaria, typhus, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, yellow fever, and infectious hepatitis • subjected to phosgene and mustard gas in order to test possible antidotes

Category 3: Racial purity • SS would shout Category 3: Racial purity • SS would shout "Zwillinge!" ("twins!") Eva Moses Kor As adults, Eva and Miriam suffered serious health problems. Eva suffered from miscarriages and tuberculosis. Her son had cancer. Miriam's kidneys never fully developed and she died in 1993 of a rare form of cancer, probably brought on by the unknown medical experiments and injections which she was subjected to at the hands of Josef Mengele.

MENGELE’S FAVORITES-TWINS • Less than 300 twins survived Auschwitz • Inject disease, sex changes, MENGELE’S FAVORITES-TWINS • Less than 300 twins survived Auschwitz • Inject disease, sex changes, etc. • Physical abnormality? – they might have been radiated & then have skeletons researched

 • Measurements http: //history 1900 s. about. com/od/auschwitz/a/mengeletwins. htm – The twins were • Measurements http: //history 1900 s. about. com/od/auschwitz/a/mengeletwins. htm – The twins were forced to undress and lay next to each other. Then every detail of their anatomy was carefully examined, studied, and measured. What was the same was deemed to be hereditary and was different was deemed to be the result of the environment. These tests would last for several hours. • Blood – Blood tests included mass transfusions of blood from one twin to another. • Eyes – In attempts to fabricate blue eyes, drops or injections of chemicals would be put in the eyes. This often caused severe pain, infections, and temporary or permanent blindness.

 • Shots and Diseases Mysterious injections that caused severe pain. Injections into the • Shots and Diseases Mysterious injections that caused severe pain. Injections into the spine and spinal taps with no anesthesia. Diseases, including typhus and tuberculosis, would be purposely given to one twin and not the other. When one died, the other was often killed to examine and compare the effects of the disease. • Surgeries Various surgeries without anesthesia including organ removal, castration, and amputations. • Death Dr Miklos Nyiszli was Mengele's prisoner pathologist. The autopsies became the final experiment. Dr. Nyiszli performed autopsies on twins whom had died from the experiments or whom had been purposely killed just for after-death measurements and examination. Some of the twins had been stabbed with a needle that pierced their heart and then were injected with chloroform or phenol which caused near immediate blood coagulation and death.

And these too • Effects of electric shock to the brains on Jewish teenagers. And these too • Effects of electric shock to the brains on Jewish teenagers. • Unnecessary surgeries for doctors so they could get the practice. • Thresholds of pain. • Mass doses of radiation – Testes, ovaries, etc.

Experiments on Jews & Gypsies • Effects of starvation on children Experiments on Jews & Gypsies • Effects of starvation on children

Mengele Video clips • 1. For those interested Mengele Video clips • 1. For those interested

Holocaust deniers • Did it ever happen? Holocaust deniers • Did it ever happen?

Germany empire grows (after Spanish Civil War) • 1936: Marches into Rhineland • 1938: Germany empire grows (after Spanish Civil War) • 1936: Marches into Rhineland • 1938: Annex Austria • 1938: Claims Sudetenland (Czech region inhabited by Germans) – Appeasement policy – Hitler agrees to “no more territorial gains” • 1939: Invades Poland WWII begins. • **Need labensraum “living space” for the master race.

Italy • WWI left Italy in economic chaos • Benito Mussolini (Il Duce=The leader) Italy • WWI left Italy in economic chaos • Benito Mussolini (Il Duce=The leader) 1925 -1943 – Fascist (nation & race is more important than the individual. Violence!) – Black shirts(local fascist militia) broke up opposition – Helped bring Italy out of Depression • Engineering project (similar to New Deal) – 1936 controls Ethiopia • Why? Historians are mixed on reasons why

Japan • To become industrial power, resources were necessary • Dependency on oil, coal, Japan • To become industrial power, resources were necessary • Dependency on oil, coal, iron, timber, rubber. How to get these resources • Japan got a foothold on mainland Asia after Russo. Japanese War • Manchuria(1931): overpowers them & sets up Japanese controlled govt. – Impact on the US? Economics • “China Incident” Attacks on Shanghai and Nanking(1937) • US Response: Embargo (cut off supplies) • Japan’s response Pearl Harbor

The “Neutral” U. S. • After Ethiopia, & Sp. Civil War (1936) Neutrality Acts The “Neutral” U. S. • After Ethiopia, & Sp. Civil War (1936) Neutrality Acts – Purpose: • 1. prohibit sale of weapons to warring nations • 2. keep US citizens off warring nations’ ships • 3. Warring nations pay cash for trade goods • In addition, increased military spending – 1938=$300 million, 1939= $1. 3 B • After France falls, Intervention vs. Isolation • Lend Lease ($50 B in military supplies to Allies) – US Military deployed to protect shipments (1941) – U boat attacks & US soldiers die