- Количество слайдов: 37
The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia Sui-Tang-Song China
Chinese Regionalism 220 -589 (Post Han. Sui) A time of political division, economic turmoil, and social conflict. Regional Kingdoms:
“Era of Division” 220589 C. E. Nomadic Invasions Endless wars amongst rival kingdoms Re-emergence of rule by aristocrats Decline of Bureaucracy Decline of Confucianism Rise of Buddhism Economic decline Great Wall divided Technological stagnation …it was bad.
China’s turbulent century th 4 Conquest and rule my non-Chinese peoples (Barbarians) shocked the Chinese. Huns and Xiongnu eroded the frontier defenses.
Confucianism in the Regional Era Confucianism: stressed ideas and practices that promoted social etiquette, family values, and political stability. These ideas were criticized for their failure and their value during the regional era. Regional monarchs began to “re-embrace” the value system, while scholars often condemned its shortcomings.
The Re-unification of China under the Sui
Re-emergence of Empire: Sui Dynasty 589 -618 C. E. Founded by Yang Jian Valued Chin style leadership with tight political control. Used propaganda Conquered southern China in a Naval War
Return to Chin ways Harsh, codified laws Standardized everything Written test for office holders Beginnings of civil service exam Refusal to serve in areas of birth “eyes and ears of the ruler” Elaborate building projects such as the capital Changan
Changan during the Sui
Emperor Yangdi and the Grand Canal Aka Yang Guang Great achievement: the Grand Canal Purpose
Fall of the Sui A short lived dynasty: 589 -618 C. E Despite the overwhelming success of the state economically as a result of the Grand Canal. Failed campaigns of conquest into Korea and against Central Asian Turks Relentless taxes to support these campaigns
The Tang Dynasty Founded by Li Yuan China’s Greatest Dynasty? Golden Age? “Qin-Han, Sui-Tang”
Tang Taizong Ambitious, Ruthless, arguably China’s greatest emperor. Believed in a Confucian, Chin, yet benevolent state. ’ Stable, peaceful, prosperous…
Reasons for Tang Success? 1. Well articulated roads and communication networks. (Canals) 2. Equal field distribution system of land sharing 3. Reliance on a very highly skilled bureaucracy governed by a civil service exam.
Civil Service Exam
Tang Conquest Brought Manchuria, the Silla Kingdom of Korea, Vietnam, and as far west as the Aral Sea (Russia) under their control.
Tang Decline Incapable emperors Dynastic wars (Du Fu) An Lushan Rebellion Talas River Battle of 751 Loss of Silk Roads Transfer of Power to Islam Buddhist Crisis of the mid 9 th Century.
Transition The Late Tang period saw individual armies loyal to their warlords dominating Chinese life. Period between the Tang and Song Age saw a return to regionalism. With non-Chinese peoples ruling North China. 907 -960 China was dominated by Political Fragmentation and Rivalry.
The Song Dynasty Song contradiction Early political stability: 960 -1127 Effective monarchs Civil Bureaucracy Founded by Zhao Guangyin Drunken generals story
Song Shortcomings and Decline Military weakness Economic costs of Bureaucracy Taxation issues Peasant woes Rise of nomads-The Khitan, Jurchen, and the Mongols
Song Demise 1215: lost control to Jin Dynasty Reverted to control Southern China 1279 Southern Song crushed by Mongols.
Tang/Song Culture Neo-Confucianism Wang Anshi: political and economic innovations Metaphysical (being) school of Zu Xi Good v. Evil: Confucian study and Buddhist meditation can treat evil. His work will be studied and admired for a millenium.
Tang/Song Economics “Champa” Rice: Porcelain Metallurgy Paper production “Flying Cash” Urbanization
Japanese Characteristics Geography? Comparison with Greece? Warrior Aristorcarcy Rigid society 5% of the population was slave Hundreds of early political units Clan based society governed by warrior chieftans Early socieity: Yamato Clan Religious beliefs: Shinto-the Way of the Gods
Japan Early Buddhism Deficits of Shinto faith Diffusion of things Chinese Seventeen Article Constitution-Buddhist and Confucian document Taika Reforms-attempt to recreate a Confucian style system in Japan (Exam, Bureaucracy)
Nara Japan (710 -794 C. E. ) The earliest inhabitants of Japan were nomadic peoples from northeast Asia Ruled by several dozen states by the middle of the first millennium C. E. Inspired by the Tang example, one clan claimed imperial authority over others Built a new capital (Nara) in 710 C. E. , modeled on Chang'an Adopted Confucianism and Buddhism, but maintained their Shinto rites
Heian Japan (794 -1185 C. E. ) Moved to new capital, Heian (modern Kyoto), in 794 Japanese emperors as ceremonial figureheads and symbols of authority Effective power in the hands of the Fujiwara family Emperor did not rule, which explains the longevity of the imperial house Chinese learning dominated Japanese education and political thought Buddhism exploded during this time, despite a strong reaction against it.
Heian Decline Feuds amongst the great families Local ambitions and political division War between the Taira and Minamoto clans Rise of Samurai class Rise of Yorimotoa Minamoto as Shogun (Kamakura Shogunate)
Japanese Cultural Achievements Began to make their mark in literature. Murasaki Shikibu-a female courtess during the Heian Age wrote the Tale of Genji. A story of court life and personality of Japanese during the age. First novel in human history
Decline of Heian Japan The equal-field system began to fail Aristocratic clans accumulated most land Taira and Minamoto, the two most powerful clans, engaged in wars Clan leader of Minamoto claimed title shogun, military governor; ruled in Kamakura