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The Restoration Of Coral Reefs Brett Crawford The Restoration Of Coral Reefs Brett Crawford

What are Coral Reefs? Represent one of the most diverse ecosystems on planet; “Rainforest What are Coral Reefs? Represent one of the most diverse ecosystems on planet; “Rainforest of the ocean”. Tropical and Semitropical waters. Temps range from 61 -86 degrees Fahrenheit. Three types of Coral Reefs.

What are Coral Reefs? Barrier Reef Occur offshore, separated from mainland by water. Great What are Coral Reefs? Barrier Reef Occur offshore, separated from mainland by water. Great Barrier Reef Largest reef system, 2, 900 individual reefs, 900 islands, stretches 1, 600 miles. Can be seen from space.

What are Coral Reefs? Fringing Reef Has shallow back reef zone, reef grows directly What are Coral Reefs? Fringing Reef Has shallow back reef zone, reef grows directly from shoreline. Most common reef type in Caribbean and Red Sea.

What are Coral Reefs? Atolls An island of coral that encircles a lagoon partially What are Coral Reefs? Atolls An island of coral that encircles a lagoon partially or entirely. Most are in Pacific Ocean.

What are Coral Reefs? Corals are very small animals. Sessile Eat small fish and What are Coral Reefs? Corals are very small animals. Sessile Eat small fish and plank-tonic animals using tentacles. Corals grouped into colonies, individual parts are “Polyps”. Polyps secrete Calcium Carbonate skeleton from base. Substrate for Corals. Coral grows as more Calcium Carbonate skeleton deposited. Living Coral on surface. Average growth 0. 3 -10 cm/per year.

What are Coral Reefs? Coral Polyp What are Coral Reefs? Coral Polyp

What are Coral Reefs? Zooxanthellae Algae Live in Polyps. Symbiotic Algae-photosynthesizes and creates food What are Coral Reefs? Zooxanthellae Algae Live in Polyps. Symbiotic Algae-photosynthesizes and creates food for coral. Coral-provides protection and gives access to light.

What are Coral Reefs? Provide food and habitat for Sponges, Crabs, Shrimp, Sea Slugs, What are Coral Reefs? Provide food and habitat for Sponges, Crabs, Shrimp, Sea Slugs, Sea Stars, Oysters, Sea Turtles and Fish. Good indicators for water quality in ocean. Protect coastlines from erosion.

Coral Reef Values Natural goods for fisheries industry. High value as fish sanctuary and Coral Reef Values Natural goods for fisheries industry. High value as fish sanctuary and nurseries. Tourism $483 million in annual net benefits to U. S. economy from tourism and recreational activities related to U. S. coral reefs. $1. 1 billion in annual net benefits to U. S. economy from overall goods and services related to U. S. coral reefs.

Threats to Coral Reefs Pollution Agricultural and Industrial runoff. Sewage and toxic waste discharge. Threats to Coral Reefs Pollution Agricultural and Industrial runoff. Sewage and toxic waste discharge. Erosion and sedimentation.

Threats to Coral Reefs Fishing Over-fishing can drastically decrease certain fish species, disrupt multiple Threats to Coral Reefs Fishing Over-fishing can drastically decrease certain fish species, disrupt multiple Trophic levels. Fishing techniques Fishing gear Anchoring of fishing vessels

Threats to Coral Reefs Global Climate Change Biggest threat to coral reefs. Bleaching and Threats to Coral Reefs Global Climate Change Biggest threat to coral reefs. Bleaching and spread of infectious diseases. CO 2 in atmosphere causing “ocean acidification”. Rising water level, harder for light to get to corals.

Solutions to Coral Reef Threats NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program and other agencies. Fishing Solutions to Coral Reef Threats NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program and other agencies. Fishing “No Take” Zones-Florida Keys Fish Replenishment Areas-West Hawaii

Solutions to Coral Reef Threats Pollution Control land based pollution sources. Focus on protection Solutions to Coral Reef Threats Pollution Control land based pollution sources. Focus on protection of watershed quality Easements, Trusts or Reserves from stakeholders party (local, state, federal, etc. )

Global Climate Change Too big for NOAA Reduce the emissions of Green House Gases. Global Climate Change Too big for NOAA Reduce the emissions of Green House Gases. Too much excess CO 2 already in atmosphere, coral reefs will be affected throughout this century. Ocean absorbs 1/3 of additional CO 2 from humans, causes further “ocean acidification”.

Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs Many coral reefs have passed their Abiotic threshold. Assisting Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs Many coral reefs have passed their Abiotic threshold. Assisting recovery of “freak landscapes”. Increase ecological integrity and historical fidelity. Goals must be dynamic, b/c ecosystems are dynamic.

Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs Coral Farming or Gardening Fragment poorly spaced Corals. Attach Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs Coral Farming or Gardening Fragment poorly spaced Corals. Attach to grate in nursery area. Transplant when mature.

Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs Collection of gametes during coral spawning. Rear juvenile coral Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs Collection of gametes during coral spawning. Rear juvenile coral communities in lab from fertilized eggs. Once mature, transplanted back into reef.

Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs Education “Adopt-A-Coral” program. Increase public awareness No social constraint Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs Education “Adopt-A-Coral” program. Increase public awareness No social constraint

Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs Coral Farming http: //www. youtube. com/watch? feature=player_embe dded&v=I 69 Restoration Ecology & Coral Reefs Coral Farming http: //www. youtube. com/watch? feature=player_embe dded&v=I 69 is. SS 1 Tv. I

References Coral Reef-http: //www. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http: //images. sciencedaily. com/2008/04/080401200446 large. jpg&imgrefurl=http: //www. sciencedaily. References Coral Reef-http: //www. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http: //images. sciencedaily. com/2008/04/080401200446 large. jpg&imgrefurl=http: //www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2008/04/080401200446. htm&usg=__Ofe. Yb 3 DVd. B 119 mx. Ww 3 u 7 GKc. Cq 0 c=& h=398&w=600&sz=6 4&hl=en&start=93&sig 2=C 48 b 32 Ql. A 1 Et. Xazfaw. CRqw&zoom=1&tbnid=ls 3 a 2 Xfr. Uifw. M: &tbnh=175&tbnw=233&ei=i. GKs. Tc_b. B 8 rki. AKw 7 a 3 v. DA&prev=/search%3 Fq%3 DCoral%2 Breef%26 hl%3 Den%26 client%3 Dsafari%26 rls%3 Den%26 biw%3 D 128 0%26 bih%3 D 680%26 tbm%3 Disch 0%2 C 3453&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=760&vpy=158&dur=2158&hovh=183&hovw=276&tx=154&ty=80&oei=c. WKs. Tfb 0 H-Tm 0 QGqyb 3 BQ&page=7&ndsp=16&ved=1 t: 429, r: 9, s: 93&biw=1280&bih=680 Barrier Reef-http: //www. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http: //www. treehugger. com/great-barrierreef. jpg&imgrefurl=http: //www. treehugger. com/files/2009/06/oceans-of-change-protecting-the-planets-life-support-system. php&usg=__d. Jh. OHd- VKHy. MQon. REya. G 5 skq. Xu 4=&h=351&w=468&sz=36&hl=en&start=57&sig 2=j. TGYu. RZOicd 7 v. Pj. Oc. HHGSg&zoom=1&tbnid=rv_v. PRGrsz. Di. WM: &tbnh=152&tbnw=205 &ei=Bm. Os. Tcj. GAHii. AKWucnv. DA&prev=/search%3 Fq%3 Dbarrier%2 Breef%26 um%3 D 1%26 hl%3 Den%26 client%3 Dsafari%26 sa%3 DN%26 rls%3 Den%26 biw%3 D 1280%26 bih%3 D 680%26 tb m%3 Disch 0%2 C 1711&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=792&vpy=282&dur=295&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=168&ty=136&oei=_m. Ks. Tfve. L 9 KP 0 QHJts. T 5 CA&page=4&nd sp=15&ved=1 t: 429, r: 8, s: 57&biw=1280&bih=680 Fringing Reef- http: //www. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http: //coralreef. capiz. biz/images/fringing. jpg&imgrefurl=http : //coralreef. capiz. biz/fringing. html&usg=__yx. NGO 3 mc. OQAmr. Dfx. NQq 9_w 5 va. U=&h=285&w=380&sz=39&hl=en&start=0&sig 2=L 8 e. Dd. YLIJC 73 J 6 alqhafkg&zoom=1&tbni d=97 Ao. OHm_GQSMM: &tbnh=156&tbnw=208&ei=d 2 Os. Te. Lr. I 8 OP 0 QH 2 p. YX 5 CA&prev=/images%3 Fq%3 Dfringing%2 Breef%26 um %3 D 1%26 hl%3 Den%26 client%3 Dsafari%26 rls%3 Den%26 biw%3 D 1280%26 bih%3 D 680%26 tbm%3 Disch&um=1&it bs=1&iact=hc&vpx=143&vpy=139&dur=777&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=219&ty=128&oei=d 2 Os. Te. Lr. I 8 OP 0 Q H 2 p. YX 5 CA&page=1&ndsp=15&ved=1 t: 429, r: 0, s: 0 Atolls- http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Atafutrim. jpg

References Coral Polyp-http: //gc. kuty. cz/redsea/coralpolyp. jpg Zooxanthelae Algae-http: //agsci. oregonstate. edu/aquatic-bt/sites/default/files/zooxanthellae_SANTOS. jpg Sedimentationhttp: References Coral Polyp-http: //gc. kuty. cz/redsea/coralpolyp. jpg Zooxanthelae Algae-http: //agsci. oregonstate. edu/aquatic-bt/sites/default/files/zooxanthellae_SANTOS. jpg Sedimentationhttp: //coralreef. noaa. gov/aboutcrcp/strategy/reprioritization/wgroups/resources/lbsp/resources/kanakakai_% 20 wharf_kc. JPG Blast Fishinghttp: //w 3. shorecrest. org/~Lisa_Peck/Marine. Bio/syllabus/ch 11_ecosystems/ecosystem_wp/coralreefs_johnatha n_alexj/dynamite_reef_1. jpg Bleaching-http: //africanalchemy. files. wordpress. com/2010/07/coral-bleaching. jpg Coral Farming-http: //www. ramadianbachtiar. com/assets/20060512_Indonesia_Voices. From. The. Sea_RB_010. jpg Coral Spawning-http: //imgak. verticalresponse. com/media/d/5/1/d 51 c 21 facf/be 324 c 6740/63 b 08 ae 701/library/CORAL%20 NL%20 Aug%20201 0/Coral-spawning. jpg Adopt-A-Coralhttp: //2. bp. blogspot. com/_3 Mp 5 QFpd. Lm. E/Sq 832 m. SGT 2 I/AAAAEd 4/1 vz. Ck 8 a. A 3 q 8/s 400/sidebar. jpg Adopt-A-Coral-http: //www. floridakeysdivectr. com/images/adopt-a-coral-program-key-largo. jpg

References EPA, . References EPA, . "Coral Reef Protection: What Are Coral Reefs? . " United States Environmental Protection Agency 04/06/2011: n. pag. Web. 18 Apr 2011. . NOAA, . "NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program. " U. S. Department of Commerce: National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration. NOAA, 02/02/2010. Web. 18 Apr 2011. . Linden, B. , and B. Rinkevich. "Creating Stocks Of Young Colonies From Brooding Coral Larvae, Amenable To Active Reef Restoration. " Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 398. 1 -2 (2011): 40 -46. Web. 18 Apr 2011. . Waddell, , and Clark. "The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems Of The United States And Pacific Freely Associated States. " NOAA's State Of The Coast 2008: n. pag. Web. 18 Apr 2011. .