- Количество слайдов: 96
The relation of rational and experiential information processing styles to personality, basic beliefs, and the ratiobias phenomenon. Pacini, Rosemary, Epstein, Seymour A new version of the Rational-Experiential Inventory (REI), which measures rational and experiential thinking styles and includes subscales of self-reported ability and engagement, was examined in two studies. In Study 1, the two main scales were independent, and they and their subscales exhibited discriminant validity and contributed to the prediction of a variety of measures beyond the contribution of the Big Five scales. A rational thinking style was most strongly and directly related to ego strength, openness, conscientiousness, and favorable basic beliefs about the self and the world, and it was most strongly inversely related to Neuroticism and Conservatism. An experiential thinking style was most strongly directly related to Extraversion, Agreeableness, Favorable Relationships Beliefs, and Emotional Expressivity, and it was most strongly inversely related to Categorical Thinking, Distrust of Others, and Intolerance. In Study 2, a rational thinking style was inversely related an experiential thinking style was unrelated to nonoptimal responses in a game of chance. It was concluded that the new REI is a significant improvement over the previous version and measures unique aspects of personality. (Psyc. INFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 1
Chapter 5 Memory Structures and Processes Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 2
Memory The Man with the 30 Second Memory Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 3
Are Some things Easier (Harder) to remember than others? Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 4
Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 5
Memory Processes -Encoding – getting information into memory -Storage – keeping it in memory -Retrieval – getting information from memory Information Processing View Divides memory into functional stages Printer email keyboard Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 6
Modal model of Memory Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) S S e t n o s r o e r y Retrieval Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Encoding Rehearsal Loss Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 7
Sensory Store Sperling’s Experiment (1960) Whole Report Presented Array of letters for Brief Period Subject report all letters they can recall. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 8
Results - recalled 33% of letters (4/12) Partial Report Brief Presentation of Array. Subjects cued to recall 1 row. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 9
Results If cue is immediate subject recalls 100% (4/4) If row cue delayed less letters recalled. - by 1 sec delay letters could not be recalled. To move to STM sensory information must be attended to. If not, it is quickly lost. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 10
Iconic (Visual) Memory Duration 1 second Echoic (Auditory) Memory Duration 4 seconds Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 11
Tactile Sensory Memory 5 second duration Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 12
Two Stages of Sensory Memory Stage 1 – raw, unprocessed perceptual information is stored Stage 2 – perceptual information connects with Long Term memory (LTM) Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 13
Two stages may explain differences in estimates of durations of iconic, echoic and tactile sensory memories. Visual may be measuring only stage 1, whereas echoic and tactile may include stage 2. Regardless, what does not get processed, quickly fades and is unavailable to the memory system. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 14
Neuroscience and Sensory Memory Duration of sensory memory corresponds with activation in areas of cortex that process each modality of information. FYI Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 15
Patients with early Alzheimer’s have shorter lasting sensory memories than do controls. FYI Given what we know about the function of Sensory memory, how might this effect the day to day activities of a person with early stage Alzheimer’s? Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 16
Short Term Working Memory (STWM) A. K. A. – Primary memory, Immediate Memory, Shortterm store, Temporary Memory, Supervisory-Attention System (SAS) and Working Memory (WM) Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 17
Short Term Memory (STM) as a storage space. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 18
Demonstration I will read a list of words, one at a time. Hold them in your memory. When I say to write them down in any order you wish. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 19
Maintenance Rehearsal: Mentally repeating items in STM Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 20
George Miller (1956) – free recall test of memory for words and numbers. Capacity of STM - The Magic Number 7: +/- 2 Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 21
STM Span Miller defined memory span as the average number participants could remember in order 50% of the time. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 22
Memory Chunks – Seven Chunks of Memory can be retained in STM. Chunking – increases capacity of STM BATCARBOYERA - requires processing for meaning (recoding) Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 23
Factors that effect memory span Less syllables (Shorter Pronunciation) = Higher Digit Span Larger Chunks reduce memory span. Chunk Size Unrelated words Memory Span 6 or 7 Two Word Phrases 4 Eight Word Phrases 3 Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 24
Did you remember less words this time? Retaining memory is STM depends on the items active in attention. When your attention is shifted to something else, you lose the information from STM. Peterson found that when not attended for as little as 18 seconds, an item is lost. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 25
Duration of STM Peterson & Peterson (1959) Increasing the time of the secondary task (counting backwards by 3’s) reduces Memory Span. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 26
Interference Retroactive Interference – new information replaces old information in STM. Proactive Interference – old information already stored in STM keeps new information from being stored. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 27
Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 28
Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 29
Short Term vs. Long-Term Memory (LTM) Double Dissociation? Milner (1966) patient H. M normally working short-term memory with an impaired long term one. Shallice & Warrington (1970) patient K. F. unimpaired long-term memory performance while a severe impairment in short-term memory. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 30
Long Term Memory (LTM) Based on semantic (meaning) organization. Unlimited Capacity and Duration for some information (factors effecting LTM discussed in chapter 6). Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 31
Memory for high school classmates. (Bahrick, & Witlinger, 1975) Records of the Delaware Ohio school system were used to identify and recruit a group of 392 research participants who had graduated at various times over the previous 47 years. They were grouped according to the time passed since graduation. cogltm(1) 32
The participants in each group differed from another in numerous characteristics. For example, the average in each group differed. cogltm(1) 33
The participants were tested in three ways: Free recall of the names of as many of their exclassmates as possible. A photo recognition test. The participants were asked to identify their former classmates from a set of 50 photos. A name recognition test. The participants were asked to identify their former classmates from a set of 50 Names.
FINDINGS: There was 90% accuracy in face and name recognition even with the participants who had left High School 34 years previously. This dropped to 80% after 48 years for name recognition and 40% after 48 years for face recognition. Free recall was less accurate: 60% after 15 years and only 30% after 48 years. cogltm(1) 35
But other things are not as accurately recalled. . Bahrick et al. (2008). College students memory for academic grades. Eighty percent of errors inflated the actual grade. Distortions occur soon after graduation, remain constant during the retention interval. Memory is more accurate for better students and for courses students enjoyed most. Confidence in recall is unrelated to distortion.
Memory for Spanish and algebra. Bahrick tested the memory of volunteers who had learned beginning algebra or Spanish as much as 50 years earlier. Retention test was the equivalent of a final examination in beginning algebra or Spanish. Performance on this test would be determined not only by how much algebra or Spanish people remembered but also by factors such as whether they used their knowledge in subsequent courses or their occupation. cogltm(1) 37
For those who had continued through advanced algebra, calculus and at least one more course retention of algebra-I skills was above 90% after 55 years. cogltm(1) 38
After a gradual decline of memory over the first six years since last studying Spanish there is little additional forgetting over the ensuing decades. cogltm(1) 39
Bahrick characterizes such durable long -term memories as being in a state called permastore. Knowledge that survives after six years seems to have entered permastore and is unlikely to be forgotten over the entire life span. cogltm(1) 40
Long-Term Memory Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 41
Types of LTM Episodic Memory – “Time That” memories. Contains contextual information (time, place, mood). • Autobiographical – re-experiencing the past - flashbulb or vivid memories • Non-autobiographical – knowing that something happened without feeling of reexperiencing it. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 42
Semantic Memory – “Knowing that” fact based general memory. Not connected to time and place. Includes language stores (lexicon of word meanings and their grammatical roles). Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 43
Procedural Memory – “knowing how” - automatic “flow” of how to do things. Evidence that this is separate store. - Clive Wearing lost episodic memory but not procedural memory (could remember how to play the piano). Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 44
Loss of specific procedural memories without lose of semantic of episodic memory. e. g. , Dressing apraxia is usually involves lesions to the inferior parietal region. The patient has difficulty putting on their clothes. For example, a patient may attempt to put a shirt on upside down, then inside-out, and then backwards. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 45
Patients with Episodic and Semantic loss can acquire procedural memories. e. g. , Patients such as H. M. shown to improve in procedural memory (get better at skills) without memory for having done the task before or semantic knowledge related to the task. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 46
Neurology and Types of Memory Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 47
Working Memory (WM) (Baddley & Hitch) Place where mental work is done. - activates flow of information from LTM into WM and from WM to LTM. Consists of two levels of processors • Central Executive • Helper Systems – modality specific memory stores Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 48
Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 49
Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 50
Central Executive (Boss) - Directs the flow of Information - limited capacity - role is of attention rather than memory - activation of info from LTM Control Processes - rehearsal - coding for meaning - integration of information - decision making Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 51
Central Executive - Resembles an attention System - No storage ability - Frontal Lobes Thought to play a large role. Dysexecutive syndrome is a neurological impairment of executive function, where patients have trouble with complex thinking and reasoning tasks. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 52
Storage Systems Store information for each sensory modality. The most studied stores are the visuospatial sketchpad (visual) and the Phonological (sound based) loop. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 53
Demonstration – single versus dual task. Storage systems have limited capacity but do not interfere with each other. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 54
Quinn & Mc. Connell (1996) Dual Tasks Remember a list of words by either • Maintenance rehearsal (phonological loop) • Visual images (visuospatial sketchpad) Presented with a visual display (random dots) Visual display interfered with image memory but not verbal memory. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 55
Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Mental rotation studies For each row, which of the three comparison shapes on the right is identical to the shape on the left? Module 27 - Thinking 56
Shepard and Metzler (1971) found that the farther you have to rotate an object mentally, the longer the comparison takes. The speed at which you can complete the tasks provides a general measure of your spatial ability. -takes time to mentally rotate object -greater the rotation, longer the time Module 27 - Thinking 57
What does this tell us about the visuospatial sketchpad. - Holds three dimensional images that can be manipulated. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 58
Central Exec Phonological loop Holds sound based information giving Central Exec longer to process it. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 59
Phonological Loop (video 37: 55) Phonological Similarity Effect - more errors when recalling items that sound alike. Shows that storage is according to sound. Articulatory Suppression Effect – having participants repeat irrelevant words out loud while trying to maintain information in the phonological loop reduces memory for the to be recalled words. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 60
Word Length Effect – Longer words (with more syllables) show lower recall rates than shorter words. 1 syllable words = 80% recall 5 syllable words = 30% recall Interpreted as a time limited loop. Not number of items but how long it takes to pronounce them. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 61
More on word length effect Adults who speak faster than children tend to have larger memory span. Memory span is larger in languages that are spoken faster (e. g. , Chinese). Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 62
Episodic Buffer – storage system that can hold information from the phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad. -General storage system for combining and integrating information from other components and from long-term memory. - Limited capacity Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 63
Episodic Buffer Link between working and LTM Evidence this is a separate store 1) STM for sentences is better than for word lists indicating that binding information (language and semantics) increases overall word recall. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 64
2) The sentence recall advantage effect is found even when concurrent tasks are added that occupy the Visuospatial or the phonological loop. see Figure 5. 10 Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 65
Evidence from Case Studies The main motivation for introducing this component was the observation that some (in particular, highly intelligent) patients with amnesia, who presumably have no ability to encode new information in long-term memory, nevertheless have good short-term recall of stories, recalling much more information than could be held in the phonological loop. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 66
Working Memory Capacity Information is stored briefly while processing other information. Working Memory Capacity = Ability to combine processing and storage of Information. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 67
Measuring WM Capacity Reading Span – Largest number of sentences from which an individual can recall the final words 50% of the time. Operation Span (demo at 3: 17) Dual task (math and memory). Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 68
• Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 69
WM Capacity is more strongly related to Fluid than to Crystalized Intelligence! This is a correlation!! WM capacity could be causing higher IQ. IQ could be causing higher WM Capacity. Both could be related to some third factor!! Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 70
Retrieval From LTM Several different tasks are used when we test memory and the results we get depends on the type of task we use. Intentional vs. Incidental Memory Tasks? Are cues given to guide memory? Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 71
Explicit Memory A. K. A. Declarative Memory Explicit memory requires conscious thought —such as recalling who you had lunch with yesterday or naming animals that live in the jungle. Semantic and episodic memory can be tested using explicit tests. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 72
Recall Tests Free recall tasks – Asked to retrieve information without additional memory. Recall the names of the Seven Dwarfs. If I added to that the information the 6 of the names end in “y” and one is a name of a profession, the task is now a cued recall task. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 73
Recognition Task The cue given is the answer, your task is to verify the correct answers. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 74
Comparison and Recall and Recognition tasks Study method effects memory. Eagle & Leiter (1964) Participants used an intentional to learn half a lest of words and an incidental learning method (classify these words by parts of speech) but were not told their memory would be tested. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 75
Results On a recall test the words that were intentionally learned were better recalled. But on a recognition test, the incidental learning task produced better results. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 76
Common words are more likely to be recalled, but uncommon words are more likely to be recognized (perhaps because they are more distinctive). Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 77
Implicit Memory Tasks We have already seen some of these with priming. Tasks are designed to measure memory without intentional memory. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 78
L T E P A PLATE PETAL GP Mem(1) 79
BECOMING “FAMOUS OVERNIGHT” (Jacoby, 1988) Subjects read a list of names, including Sebastian Weisdorf that they were told were nonfamous. Immediately after reading that list, people could respond with certainty that Sebastian Weisdorf was not famous because they could easily recollect that his name was among those they had read. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 80
However, when there was a 24 -hr delay between reading the list of nonfamous names and making fame judgments, the name Sebastian Weisdorfand other nonfamous names from the list were more likely to be mistakenly judged as famous than they would have been had they not been read earlier. The names became famous overnight. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 81
Why? Reading a nonfamous name must increase its familiarity, and the delay must influence familiarity less than recall. After a delay, an old nonfamous name is judged as famous because it seems familiar. Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 82
A return to the “What” and “Where/How” pathways: The Capgra Delution Video (11 mins) Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 83
Prospective Memory Retrospective memory (RM): Memory for things that happened in the past. Prospective memory (PM): Memory for intended future actions. Related to plans, motives and goals.
Related to plans, motives and goals. Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) Prospective Long-term Do they fail to mention or give something to a visitor that they were asked to pass on? Prospective Short-term Do they intend to take something with them, before leaving a room or going out, but minutes later leave it behind, even though it is there in front of them? General Memory Factor - Prospective and retrospective measures are correlated.
Age and Memory RM and PM both decline with age. PM is best in the teen years! Steady decline through the 20’s, 30’s . . Females better RM than males.
Stages of PM Encoding - of what, when and intention. Retention – over a period of time. Retrieval – at suitable time. Execution – acting upon intention. Evaluation- replanning if need be.
Prospective Memory Tasks Event-based tasks • Triggered by events Time-based tasks • Performed at a certain time or after a certain time has elapsed Event-based easier (52%) than Times-based (33%).
Self-initiating Processes Rehearsals of Intended Processes Time Based often lack external cues. People use more self-initiating processes for a time-based than an event based? Half of these rehearsals were spontaneous.
Specificity of Targets More Processing resources are needed when targets are poorly specified. When the target is poorly specified (call me next week) it is less likely to be recalled than when the target is well specified (call me next Tuesday). True for both Time and Event based tasks!
Improving Prospective Memory External Aids - diaries, calendars, lists, sticky notes, finger crossing, smartphones. - Visual cues and reminders.
Have someone remind you. Do reminders work? ? - Not Always. Remember to take the garbage out when you leave for school! Reminders that referred only to the intended activity did improve PM but not to the level of reminders that referred both to the target events and to the intended activity.
Prevent Unexpected Interruptions!! Several airline catastrophes have occurred because pilots were interrupted while performing critical preflight tasks — after the interruption was over, the pilots skipped to the next task, not realizing that the interrupted tasks hadn’t been finished. When interrupted pause to make a new plan to carry out ALL intended actions!
Avoid Multitasking is also a major cause of prospective memory failures. Research has shown that problems arise when we become too focused on the task we are performing — a situation call cognitive tunneling — forgetting to switch our attention back to the other tasks at hand.
Reminding Oneself Context needs to be part of the intention. Very similar to encoding specificity principle in retrospective memory.
Video (FYI) https: //www. ted. com/talks/joshua_foer_feats_ of_memory_anyone_can_do? language=en Chapter 5 – Memory Processes 96