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The Protection of Children Online ITU Council WG on Child Online Protection 7 October The Protection of Children Online ITU Council WG on Child Online Protection 7 October 2011 Laurent Bernat laurent. [email protected] org

OECD Mission • Promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of OECD Mission • Promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world. – Forum, place for dialogue and sharing of experience – Seeking solutions to common problems • Measure, compare, analyse data • Understand economic and social changes • Help governments to develop better policies in many areas

OECD Structure Council … ICCP WPISP WPIE Information Security and Privacy Information Economy Information, OECD Structure Council … ICCP WPISP WPIE Information Security and Privacy Information Economy Information, Computer & Communications Policy WPCISP … WPIIS Communication Indicators for the Infrastructures Information and Services Policy Society

WP on Information Security & Privacy • 1980 Guidelines for the Protection of Privacy WP on Information Security & Privacy • 1980 Guidelines for the Protection of Privacy – Cross-Border Co-operation for Enforcement of Privacy Laws – The value of personal data (current) • 2002 Guidelines for the Security of Information Systems and Networks: Towards a Culture of Security – E-authentication, Digital Identity Management – Policies for the Protection of Critical Information Infrastructures – Malware – Cybersecurity Strategies (current) – ISPs and Botnets (current) – Cloud Computing (current) • Other: RFID, Spam, Cryptography Policy, etc.

Global Partners 34 member countries Japan Australia Korea Austria Luxembourg Belgium Mexico Canada Czech Global Partners 34 member countries Japan Australia Korea Austria Luxembourg Belgium Mexico Canada Czech Republic Netherlands New Zealand Chile Norway Denmark Poland Estonia Portugal Finland Slovak republic France Slovenia Germany Spain Greece Sweden Hungary Switzerland Iceland Turkey Ireland United Kingdom Israel United States Italy Japan + European Union Candidate to accession (and observer): Russia Observers India, South Africa, Egypt, Latvia, Singapore Council of Europe International Conference of Data Protection & Privacy Commissioners Strong co-operation with APEC Stakeholders Business and Industry (BIAC) Civil Society (CSISAC) Internet Technical Community (ITAC) Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC)

Seoul Ministerial Meeting • June 2008 – 40 Ministers • Declaration on « The Seoul Ministerial Meeting • June 2008 – 40 Ministers • Declaration on « The Future of the Internet Economy » calls for – A collaborative effort by governments, the private sector, civil society and the Internet technical community to build a common understanding of the impact of the Internet on minors and to enhance their protection and support when using the Internet. – Increased cross-border co-operation on the protection of minors by governments and enforcement authorities

Overview of the work • Seoul Ministerial Declaration • 2009 APEC – OECD Symposium Overview of the work • Seoul Ministerial Declaration • 2009 APEC – OECD Symposium (Singapore) • 2010 - 2011 Report on « The protection of children online: risks faced by children online and policies to protect them » – www. oecd-ilibrary. org/science-and-technology/theprotection-of-children-online_5 kgcjf 71 pl 28 -en • 2011 – Draft Council Recommendation

Scope • Very rich area • Scope – Includes children (minors) as users of Scope • Very rich area • Scope – Includes children (minors) as users of the Internet – Does not include offline risks, child sexual abuse • Snapshot of an evolving landscape

Overview • Report – Data – Risks – Policies • Draft Recommendation Overview • Report – Data – Risks – Policies • Draft Recommendation

Children & the Internet • Internet access is on the rise for children – Children & the Internet • Internet access is on the rise for children – US home Internet access for 8 -18: 47% in 1999 to 84% in 2009 – EU teenagers using Internet: 70% in 2005, 75% in 2008 • A high percentage of older children have Internet access – Teenagers with access to the Internet : 99% in UK, 93% in US, >90% in Japan, 75% average in EU

Children & the Internet • Internet use increases with age Children's Internet use by Children & the Internet • Internet use increases with age Children's Internet use by age in the European Union Source: Eurobarometer

Children & the Internet • Children start to use the Internet younger – Children’s Children & the Internet • Children start to use the Internet younger – Children’s first use of the Internet: 13 in 2000 to 4 in 2009 (Sweden) • Children spend more time on the Internet than before – UK: 7. 1 h/week in 2005, 13. 8 h/week in 2007 • Children use the Internet mostly at home

Children have a multitude of online activities Children’s use of the Internet by age Children have a multitude of online activities Children’s use of the Internet by age group in the United Kingdom (2007) Source: Ofcom, 2007, p. 19.

Devices to access the Internet are diversifying Percentage of children owning a mobile phone Devices to access the Internet are diversifying Percentage of children owning a mobile phone with Internet access in Japan and the EU , 2008 Source: Japanese delegation to the OECD and Eurobarometer 2008 (EU 27).

Risks Risks

About data on risks • A large quantity of data is available. – Ex About data on risks • A large quantity of data is available. – Ex : 441 European studies • The number of studies varies across countries and regions • The availability varies depending on the risk Small amount of Data Larger amount of Data • Illegal interaction • Harmful Advice • Online marketing • Fraudulent transactions • Information security risks • Privacy risks related to location information • Exposure to inappropriate content (mainly on adult pornography) • Cyberbullying • Cybergrooming

About data on risks • • • Studies become obsolete rapidly Few recurrent studies About data on risks • • • Studies become obsolete rapidly Few recurrent studies Researches focus on teenagers Mobile Internet not considered Comparability is a challenge – No consensus on the definition of risks – Age groups are not standard Exposed to sexual content Has given out personal information Age group considered UK 57% 46% 9 -19 Italy 25% - 7 -11 Ireland - 79% 10 -20 Belgium Up to 40% 13% 9 -12

Policies • Multilayered Legal measures Positive content provision National Policy Mix Awareness & education Policies • Multilayered Legal measures Positive content provision National Policy Mix Awareness & education Co & selfregulation Technical measures

Policies • Multistakeholder – Governments and public authorities – Children – Parents and caregivers Policies • Multistakeholder – Governments and public authorities – Children – Parents and caregivers – Educators and public institutions – Private sector

Policies • Multi-level – National and International level • APEC, Council of Europe, ITU, Policies • Multi-level – National and International level • APEC, Council of Europe, ITU, IGF, OECD, UNICEF – Policy and operational • E. g. INHOPE, INSAFE

Managing Policy Complexity • Co-ordination within the government, with stakeholders, at international level To Managing Policy Complexity • Co-ordination within the government, with stakeholders, at international level To promote mutually reinforcing policy measures To increase visibility of actions By identifying leadership within the government Through inclusive and sustainable platforms for information exchange and co-ordination • Consistency o Consolidating definitions and instruments o Maximising protection, preserving benefits o With economic and social dimensions of the Internet, including fundamental values • Objective : Mutually reinforcing policy action o o

Measurement • Measurement of risks o Input for evidence-based policy/ national priority setting o Measurement • Measurement of risks o Input for evidence-based policy/ national priority setting o Systematic and quantitative data surveys o Harmonisation of methodologies and definitions (national/ international level) • Policy impact assessments o Enhancing the precision of policy making o Come to terms with conflicting policy objective • Performance evaluation o Public/ private sector initiatives

Draft Recommendation • Broad scope, all risk categories: General approach rather than risk-specific • Draft Recommendation • Broad scope, all risk categories: General approach rather than risk-specific • Includes all stakeholders • Two facets: making the Internet more secure, empowering children • Shared responsibility, primary role of parents

Draft Recommendation • Proportionality & fundamental values – Maximising protection without limiting benefits – Draft Recommendation • Proportionality & fundamental values – Maximising protection without limiting benefits – Protecting without disrupting openess – Fundamental values • Flexibility: age appropriateness, technology neutrality) • Policy mix • Foster public-private dialogue • International co-operation