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The Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative Informal Meeting of African Institutions on Livestock Policy Making The Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative Informal Meeting of African Institutions on Livestock Policy Making for Africa 8 & 9 March 2005 FAO, Rome A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative • • • Overall goal: Entry point: Mechanism: • Operationalized Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative • • • Overall goal: Entry point: Mechanism: • Operationalized through: • • Poverty Reduction Livestock Policies and Institutions A Central Facility at HQ (PPLPF) Regional Modules/Hubs – Focus Countries A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Why Policies (and Institutions)? Increasing population pressure Transition from extensive livestock farming to crop Why Policies (and Institutions)? Increasing population pressure Transition from extensive livestock farming to crop farming Intensification without industrial inputs: manure, draft power Intensification with industrial inputs: eg fertilizer for manure Extensification Substitution of labour for land Substitution of capital for land, capital for labour Substitution of land for labour ACCESS RIGHTS MARKET INTEGRATION Reducing vulnerability Conditions for growth CONSERVATION, PROTECTION Coping with growth A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

But. . . • Livestock sector policy in developing countries rarely favours the poor, But. . . • Livestock sector policy in developing countries rarely favours the poor, and • “Institutions are not [. . ] created to be socially efficient. ” (North, 1990) • “Rather they [. . ] are created to serve the interests of those with the bargaining power to devise new rules. ” (North, 1990) A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Scope of Policy Analysis • Analyse the effects of existing policies on different groups Scope of Policy Analysis • Analyse the effects of existing policies on different groups of producers and consumers • Predict the impact of policy changes on different groups of livestock producers and consumers • Identify opportunities for intervention through adjustment of livestock-related policies • Help formulate policies consistent with equitable and sustainable livestock production A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

PPLPI Purpose & Outputs Purpose Outputs Strengthened capacity of FAO member nations & international PPLPI Purpose & Outputs Purpose Outputs Strengthened capacity of FAO member nations & international organizations to formulate [livestock] sector policies & implementation plans that reduce poverty whilst managing environmental and public health risks Increased awareness & consideration of the potential contribution of livestock to poverty red. Portfolio of livestockrelated policy interventions for poverty reduction, whilst …. Mechanisms for stakeholder representation & negotiation of policies & institutional changes … Effective systems for livestock policy information, analysis, decision support and M&E A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Role of the Central Facility • Fostering policy dialogue / promoting pro-poor livestock policies Role of the Central Facility • Fostering policy dialogue / promoting pro-poor livestock policies at international level • • • Cross-regional assessments of issues Standardizing approaches and methodologies Co-ordinating and fostering information exchange among the regional hubs and with other partners A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Role of the Regional Hubs • Fostering policy dialogue / promoting pro-poor livestock policies Role of the Regional Hubs • Fostering policy dialogue / promoting pro-poor livestock policies at national and regional level • Identifying policy issues that impact directly on ultimate beneficiaries, i. e. poor livestock producers, processors and consumers • Enhancing local capacity for policy analysis, formulation and negotiation A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Regional Hubs South Asia India Nepal West Africa Senegal Burkina Faso Andean Region Peru Regional Hubs South Asia India Nepal West Africa Senegal Burkina Faso Andean Region Peru Bolivia Horn of Africa Uganda Ethiopia Kenya South-East Asia Viet Nam Cambodia A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

The Focus on SSA Number of undernourished million Number of poor (<1 USD/day) A The Focus on SSA Number of undernourished million Number of poor (<1 USD/day) A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Livestock Sector ‘Policy Making’ • • • Supply driven ‘planning’ with little consultation Insufficient Livestock Sector ‘Policy Making’ • • • Supply driven ‘planning’ with little consultation Insufficient realization that many important decisions are taken by ‘nonlivestock actors’, eg ministry of finance, ministry of trade, private sector, etc Poor data and little or no analysis of the observed data The solitary policy maker A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Livestock Sector ‘Policy Making’ • • • Production is the principle focus and the Livestock Sector ‘Policy Making’ • • • Production is the principle focus and the only productivity measure used is production per animal Little understanding about interaction livestock and other sectors (upstream, downstream & horizontal links) ‘Markets & demand’ are rarely taken into account and poorly understood A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Elements of the ‘IDEAL’ Policy Process Transparency Stakeholder Engagement Communication and Information Decision support Elements of the ‘IDEAL’ Policy Process Transparency Stakeholder Engagement Communication and Information Decision support Issues & priorities Negotiation & Conflict Resolution Research and Analysis Research needs A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

PPLPI: Content Issues 1. Role of livestock in economic development, poverty reduction and livelihood PPLPI: Content Issues 1. Role of livestock in economic development, poverty reduction and livelihood support 2. Markets & market access (domestic & international) 3. Access to livestock services (extension, health, AI, insurance, etc. ) 4. Pro-poor policies, policy instruments and policy processes A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

PPLPI: Process Issues 5. Information management • Information needs & sharing • Decision support PPLPI: Process Issues 5. Information management • Information needs & sharing • Decision support tools • Communication strategies • Monitoring & evaluation 6. Instigating change • Advocacy / awareness • Stakeholder engagement • Capacity building • Establishment of fora A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Making a Difference • • • Networks vs hierarchies Bottom-up vs top-down Demand-led vs Making a Difference • • • Networks vs hierarchies Bottom-up vs top-down Demand-led vs supplydriven Adaptive processes & mechanisms vs blueprints Partnerships with defined and agreed roles vs overlapping competences and competition A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Working Groups: Themes • • • Trade in livestock and livestock products • • Working Groups: Themes • • • Trade in livestock and livestock products • • • International Intra-/interregional Domestic • Livestock health • • • Intensification of mixed crop-livestock systems Pan African (eg rinderpest) Regional (PPR, ECF) National Feeding & breeding Technology adoption Processing & marketing Protection of pastoral systems • • • Drought preparedness Conflict management Health service delivery A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Working Groups: Tasks • • • Identify ‘priority actions’ to be initiated / issues Working Groups: Tasks • • • Identify ‘priority actions’ to be initiated / issues to be tackled within 6 to 12 months Identify ‘lead’ institution(s) and role(s) in the above Identify on-going or pipeline projects that could support / serve as demonstration for the above A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative

Working Groups: Composition Eastern & Southern Africa • Tawah, C. L. • Zziwa, S. Working Groups: Composition Eastern & Southern Africa • Tawah, C. L. • Zziwa, S. • Mwila, C. • Odwongo, W. • Sinyangwe, P. • Kwendakwema, N. • Katepa-Kalala, P. • Boehle, W. • Robinson, T. • Chilonda, P. Western Africa • Bicaba, M. • Maiga, M. • Sawadogo, A. • Gado, A. • Rhissa, Z. • Ly, C. • de. Balogh, K. • Costales, A. • Gerber, P. • (Rass, Nikola) A Living from Livestock Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative