Скачать презентацию The Presence of Non-Parent Adults and Economic Realities Скачать презентацию The Presence of Non-Parent Adults and Economic Realities

35f11bd7c801243678e888a02eab93f1.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 21

The Presence of Non-Parent Adults and Economic Realities for Children in Low-income Neighborhoods Kate The Presence of Non-Parent Adults and Economic Realities for Children in Low-income Neighborhoods Kate Bachtell, Ph. D. Nola du Toit, Ph. D. Catherine Haggerty.

http: //www. norc. org/News. Events. Publications/Pages/working- http: //www. norc. org/News. Events. Publications/Pages/working-

Background Twenty-five years of extensive and rigorous research has shown that children raised in Background Twenty-five years of extensive and rigorous research has shown that children raised in stable, secure families have a better chance to flourish. Family structure is an important factor in reducing poverty, too: children raised in single-parent families are nearly five times as likely to be poor as those in married-couple families. In part, this is the result of simple math: two parents, on average, have far greater resources to devote to raising children than does one parent attempting to raise children alone. Aber, L. , Butler, S. , Danziger, S. , Doar, R. , Ellwood, D. T. , Gueron, J. , Haidt, J. , Haskins, R. , Hymowitz, R. , Mincy, R. , Reeves, R. , Strain, M. R. , & Waldfogel, J. (2015). Opportunity, responsibility, and security: A consensus plan for reducing poverty and restoring the American dream. AEI/Brookings Working Group on Poverty and Opportunity. Washington, D. C. : American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research and the Brookings Institution.

The Problem(s) • For many children, especially the most economically vulnerable, their primary social The Problem(s) • For many children, especially the most economically vulnerable, their primary social setting—the household—includes adults other than their parents • Prevailing framing of family “instability” elicits a fictional dichotomy of secure versus insecure families among the poor Insert Presentation Title and Any Confidentiality Information 4

Our Contribution • Define household structure based on the relationship of each adult to Our Contribution • Define household structure based on the relationship of each adult to a focal child • Include non-parent adults such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, unrelated others, etc. • Define instability based on any change in the adult composition of the household 5

Data Title Making Connections Survey Funding agency Annie E. Casey Foundation Summary Longitudinal study Data Title Making Connections Survey Funding agency Annie E. Casey Foundation Summary Longitudinal study of families in low-income neighborhoods in ten U. S. cities Access Restricted use within NORC's Data Enclave Sample type Key advantages AP and list of focal children • Representation of very poor and racial/ethnic minority households • Detailed household roster information (relationship of each person to the R and FC) and linked personal identifiers 6

Current Objectives 1) Quantify the prominence of grandparents, aunts, uncles, etc. in low-income households Current Objectives 1) Quantify the prominence of grandparents, aunts, uncles, etc. in low-income households 2) Determine whether the presence of these nonparent adults is associated with any benefit or detriment to economic wellbeing 3) Examine the impact of losing and/or gaining non-parent adults on economic wellbeing 7

Analytic Sample • Panel of 1, 619 households with children that participated in waves Analytic Sample • Panel of 1, 619 households with children that participated in waves 2 and 3 of the Making Connections Survey • Inclusion criteria: • Same focal child selected in both waves • Valid relationship codes • n = 1, 212 8

Dependent Variables • Square root of household income per capita: continuous measure of the Dependent Variables • Square root of household income per capita: continuous measure of the household's total income from all sources in the year prior to the wave 3 interview • Economic hardship: 6 -point continuous measure indicating how many of the following the household experienced in the past year: (1) did not fill or postponed filling a prescription for drugs; were not able to pay the (2) mortgage, (3) phone, or (4) utility bills; or (5) were without enough money to buy food. 9

Independent Variables • Focus variables: • Ever had a non-parent present in the household: Independent Variables • Focus variables: • Ever had a non-parent present in the household: Dummy variable indicating whether, across two waves, the focal child EVER lived with a non-parent adult (e. g. grandparent, aunt or uncle, other extended relative, unrelated adult, etc. ) in the home • Ever had a change in non-parent adult in the household: three dummy variables indicating whether the household experienced a numeric change in the number of non-parent adults living in the home between waves (gained, lost, no change) 10

Independent Variables • Family Disruption variables: • Ever a change in parents • Moved Independent Variables • Family Disruption variables: • Ever a change in parents • Moved since prior wave • Controls: • Respondent characteristics: foreign-born, race/ethnicity, sex, age, highest level of education, married, cohabiting • Household characteristics: number of people, number of parents, relationships to the focal child, employment status across all adults 11

Analysis • Descriptive statistics • OLS regression models • Weighted to represent households with Analysis • Descriptive statistics • OLS regression models • Weighted to represent households with children in MC neighborhoods as of wave 2 (2005 -2007) 12

Current Study: RQ 1 R 1: What are the characteristics of families that include Current Study: RQ 1 R 1: What are the characteristics of families that include one or more nonparent adults? 13

Table 1. Household and Respondent Characteristics: Select Controls (unweighted) Never included nonparent adult (NNP) Table 1. Household and Respondent Characteristics: Select Controls (unweighted) Never included nonparent adult (NNP) Figure Household Characteristics Number of people in the HH (mean) Number of parents (%) None One Two Relationships to focal child (adults, %) Aunt/uncle Grandparent Other relative Boarder/roommate/unrelated Employment status (adults, mean) Employed Disabled Retired Unemployed Family Disruption Moved since prior wave (%) Ever a change in parents (%) 3. 87 SD 1. 32 Ever included non-parent adult (ENP) Figure 4. 17 0. 00 49. 60 50. 40 1. 47 16. 09 51. 50 32. 40 0. 00 SD 18. 03 39. 70 5. 36 12. 66 1. 11 0. 08 0. 01 0. 20 48. 53 15. 15 0. 82 0. 29 0. 08 0. 44 1. 20 0. 23 0. 17 0. 25 55. 58 31. 76 0. 96 0. 49 0. 45 0. 53

Current Study: RQ 2 R 2: What impact, if any, does the presence of Current Study: RQ 2 R 2: What impact, if any, does the presence of one or more non-parent adult have on household economic wellbeing? 15

Table 2. Regression Models Predicting Household income per Economic Outcomes, Isolating Presence of capita Table 2. Regression Models Predicting Household income per Economic Outcomes, Isolating Presence of capita (sq root) Non-Parent Adult Estimate Std Error Intercept Focus Variables Ever with non-parent adult in the home Household Characteristics Number of parents in household Number of employed adults Number of disabled adults Number of retired adults Number of unemployed adults Economic hardship Square root of income per capita Family Disruption Moved since prior wave N R-Squared F Degrees of Freedom *p<0. 05, **p<0. 01, ***p<0. 001 Economic hardship Estimate 2. 12 *** Std Error 64. 02 *** 6. 92 -3. 49 2. 08 -0. 08 0. 09 3. 15 5. 80 *** -7. 82 ** -4. 89 1. 81 1. 28 2. 60 3. 60 -0. 12 -0. 10 0. 25 * -0. 25 0. 08 0. 06 0. 11 0. 16 -8. 83 *** 2. 12 -4. 39 *** 0. 65 0. 20 0. 31 0. 09 -0. 01 *** -6. 14 ** 1, 212 0. 34 41. 55 15 1. 88 0. 00 0. 03 1, 212 0. 10 9. 24 15 0. 08

Current Study: RQ 3 R 3: What impact, if any, does change in the Current Study: RQ 3 R 3: What impact, if any, does change in the presence of one or more non-parent adult have on household economic wellbeing? 17

Table 3. Regression Models Predicting Economic Outcomes, Isolating Change in Presence of Non-Parent Adult Table 3. Regression Models Predicting Economic Outcomes, Isolating Change in Presence of Non-Parent Adult Household income per capita (sq root) Estimate Economic hardship Std Error Estimate Intercept Focus Variables Added a non-parent adult Lost a non-parent adult Household Characteristics Number of parents in household Number of employed adults Number of disabled adults Number of retired adults Number of unemployed adults Economic hardship Square root of income per capita Family Disruption Change in number of parents Moved since prior wave 67. 55 *** 11. 05 6. 76 9. 25 * 4. 20 3. 94 N R-Squared F Degrees of Freedom 466 0. 63 12. 69 17 *p<0. 05, **p<0. 01, ***p<0. 001 -0. 26 5. 28 -6. 90 -6. 16 -9. 29 -4. 95 * ** *** 0. 63 -8. 02 * Std Error 1. 84 *** 0. 45 0. 33 0. 21 0. 17 0. 16 2. 81 2. 07 3. 51 4. 32 3. 30 1. 15 -0. 02 -0. 10 0. 42 -0. 22 -0. 09 -0. 01 3. 23 3. 55 -0. 42 -0. 07 466 0. 14 4. 27 17 ** *** 0. 11 0. 08 0. 14 0. 17 0. 13 0. 00 0. 13 0. 14

Recap of Objectives 1) Quantify the prominence of grandparents, aunts, uncles, etc. in low-income Recap of Objectives 1) Quantify the prominence of grandparents, aunts, uncles, etc. in low-income households 38% at one or both waves 2) Determine whether the presence of these non-parent adults is associated with any benefit or detriment to economic wellbeing No significant impact for income nor hardship 3) Examine the impact of losing and/or gaining non-parent adults on economic wellbeing à Adding a non-parent=no impact à Losing a non-parent=more HH income per capita à No impact on economic hardship 19

Next Steps • Quantitative: • Use personal identifiers to capture substitutions of adults • Next Steps • Quantitative: • Use personal identifiers to capture substitutions of adults • Try fixed effects regression? • Qualitative: • Gather additional data? Insert Presentation Title and Any Confidentiality Information 20

Contact me: bachtell-kate@norc. org Download the Working Paper: http: //www. norc. org/News. Events. Publications/Pages Contact me: [email protected] org Download the Working Paper: http: //www. norc. org/News. Events. Publications/Pages /working-paper-series. aspx Thank You!