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The Plagues of Ancient Egypt Ps 105: 27 -38
Ps 105: 3 -5 • • 3 Glory in His holy name; Let the heart of those who seek the LORD be glad. 4 Seek the LORD and His strength; Seek His face continually. 5 Remember His wonders which He has done, His marvels and the judgments uttered by His mouth. Vs 27 -38 Description of the plagues
The Plagues of Ancient Egypt Ps 78: 43 -53
Which Pharaoh? • Ramses II?
Too late for Ramses II 1188 -1155 BC • • • Referred to in the movie 1 Kings 6: 1 Now it came about in the four hundred and eightieth year after the sons of Israel came out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel. Solomon – 956 plus 480 years = 1436 BC
Thutmosh III 1482 -1450 • • Famous conqueror and empire builder Pharaoh of the oppression.
Amenhotep II 1450 -1425 BC • • Ruled 1450 -1425 BC thought to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus Firstborn slain in the last plague (Ex 12: 29) His eldest son did not follow him to throne. Thutmose IV took over, after “Dream Inscription of Thutmos IV”
Pharaoh • • The pharaoh was the political and religious leader of the Egyptian people, holding the titles: 'Lord of the Two Lands' and 'High Priest of Every Temple'. He owned all of the land, made laws, collected taxes, and defended Egypt against foreigners. As 'High Priest of Every Temple', the pharaoh represented the gods on Earth. He performed rituals and built temples to honor the gods and was considered a god himself!
Plagues were Divine • • • Elements used were not, but the huge amounts, their intensity, were. . The Timing and Manipulation were Geographical Features • Goshen was spared cannot be explained naturalistically.
“Against All The Gods of Egypt” • Ex 12: 12 “'For I will go through the land of Egypt and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments. ”
Egyptian pantheon = 80 gods • • • The ancient Egyptians believed in many different gods and goddesses. Each one with their own role to play in maintaining peace and harmony across the land. The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to recognize and worship these gods and goddesses so that life continued smoothly. When they won battles, it was proof their gods were with them and were more powerful than their enemies.
All Plagues she failed! Ma'at = Goddess of harmony. • Appearance: Woman with a feather on her head She was associated with the balance of things on earth. Ma'at was the daughter of the sun god Ra.
Plagues were Miraculous • • • Mighty Works (Source) Wonders (Response) Signs (Purpose) • Heb 2: 4 “Bear Witness. ” • Also “Judgments”
Ex 7: 3 -5 • 3 "But I will harden Pharaoh's heart that I may multiply My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt. 4 "When Pharaoh does not listen to you, then I will lay My hand on Egypt and bring out My hosts, My people the sons of Israel, from the land of Egypt by great judgments. 5 " The Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD
Importance of the Nile • • • "It was appropriate that the first of the plagues should be directed against the Nile River itself, the very lifeline of Egypt and the center of many of its religious ideas. The Egyptians considered the Nile sacred. Many of their gods were associated either directly or indirectly with this river and its productivity. The Nile was the heartbeat of Egypt -- all trade, commerce, and crops depended upon the Nile. Without the sun Egypt would have been plunged into darkness, but without the Nile every living creature within its borders would assuredly have perished. "
Plague #1 – Nile into Blood Hapi —Spirit of the Nile • Hapi was in male form well-developed, almost female, breasts. He was a personification of the waters of the Nile.
Plague #1 Osiris – God of the Underworld; Giver of Life. • • Osiris Appearance: A mummified man wearing a white cone-like headdress with feathers The Nile was his bloodstream.
Plague #2 – Frogs Heqt – goddess of birth • • • The Egyptians believed the frog was the symbol of the life-giving power-goddess, Hekt. She was the goddess who oversaw the women, the mid-wives, who helped women have babies. She was thought to blow the breath of life into the nostrils. Egyptians often had little statutes of frogs on their night-stands. The killing of a frog = punishable by death!
Plague #3 Lice“Sand/ flies. ” Geb was the earth god • • • Appearance: Man lying down below the arch of the sky goddess Nut. This plague would have been an embarrassment to Geb, . Egyptians gave offerings to Geb for the bounty of the soil -- yet it was from "the dust of the soil" that this plague originated. Priests shave hair, impure with lice unable to perform sacred tasks or beseech their gods for help!
Sekhmet was the goddess of war. • • Sekhmet 'The Powerful One' Appearance: Woman with the head of a lioness Not much help in the Red Sea crossing!
Plague #1 & #2 Sobek was a Nile god. • • Sobek Appearance: Man with the head of a crocodile and a headdress of feathers and a sun-disk. . Live crocodiles were kept in pools at temples built to honour Sobek.
Plague #1 Khnum – the Guardian of Nile • Appearance: Man with the head of a curly-horned ram Khnum was a creator god.
Plague #3 Swarms Amon-Ra – King of the Gods • • As a scarab beetle pushes a round ball of dung in front of it, the Egyptians pictured Ra as a scarab pushing the sun across the sky. ” Swarms of Scarabs, with teeth that were more destructive than termites!
• Plague #5 Hathor – Goddess of love “Sacred Cow. ” Perhaps Hathor's most famous manifestation is as a cow. . Even when appearing as a woman, she often sports a cow's head or at least a pair of cow ears, , the nourishing, generosity of the cow is always readily available under the surface
Plague #5 - Cattle Hathor – Mother Goddess • Appearance: Woman with the ears of a cow. Had a headdress of horns and a sun disk Hathor was a protective goddess. She was also the goddess of love and joy.
Plague #5 –Cattle Sacred Cows • Priests of the bull cults identified a sacred bull by its very specific markings (described below). Once the bull was proclaimed to be a god incarnate, it was taken to the temple compound where it was purified, stabled in majestic quarters, fed the best foods, and given a herd of the finest cows.
Plague #5 –Cattle The Apis Bull Cult
Plague #5 Animals Bast – The Cat Goddess of Love • Also would kill cats which were worshipped.
All Plagues she did not help! Bastet –Protective goddess Appearance: Woman with the head of a cat • The cat was a symbol of Bastet. The ancient Egyptians made many statues of cats like this one to honour Bastet.
Plague #6 – Boils Imhotep – the god of medicine • He was also associated with Thoth and became a patron of wisdom and medicine. “Miraculous” cures were often attributed to him.
Plague #7 Hail came from the sky • • Where was Nut the Sky Goddess? Appearance: Woman whose body arches across the sky, wearing a dress decorated with stars.
#7 Plague of Hail Seth – protector of crops • Appearance: Man with the head of an animal'
Plague #7 -8 Hail and Locust Seth –protector of Crops • • God of thunder and storm. Why allow Hail and Locusts?
Plague #7 -8 Hail & Locusts Shu – God of the wind • • • Solar deity; son of Ra and Hathor. God of air and the atmosphere.
Plague #8 – Locusts Where was Isis? • Goddess of life and nature.
Plague #9 - Darkness Aten – Form of Sun God • Appearance: A sun disk with rays which end in hands
Plague #10 Nekhebet –Protector of Royal children • • Nekhebet (Nekhbet) A guardian goddess who looked after children and mothers. She protected and suckled the royal children. • She is shown hovering over the Pharaoh in vultureform, holding a flywhisk and a seal
#10: Osiris – God of the Underworld; Giver of Life. • Why was Osiris unable to save all the first born children?
Plague #10 Bes – Protector of the family • • Bes Appearance: Dwarf with lion and human features, wearing the skin of a lion Bes was the protector of pregnant women, newborn babies and the family.