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The Perfect Storm of Sex, Class, Power, Money, Media, and Politics How the Duke The Perfect Storm of Sex, Class, Power, Money, Media, and Politics How the Duke University Lacrosse Team Ignited a Powder Keg…and Paid the Ultimate Price

Duke University • Located in Durham, NC • Atlantic Coast Conference for collegiate sports; Duke University • Located in Durham, NC • Atlantic Coast Conference for collegiate sports; D-1 school

Class/Money: The Duke Bubble • Durham’s murder rate rapidly increasing – murder capital of Class/Money: The Duke Bubble • Durham’s murder rate rapidly increasing – murder capital of NC • 35 murders in 2005 • Stark contrast between Duke students and surrounding community

Power and Politics: District Attorney Mike Nifong • Nearing end of his term; wanted Power and Politics: District Attorney Mike Nifong • Nearing end of his term; wanted to run again • Intense competition with popular Freda Black • Election: Fall 2006 • Needed some free Publicity: he was broke!

Power: Police Officers and Duke Students • Sergeant Mark Gottlieb: Arrested 10 X as Power: Police Officers and Duke Students • Sergeant Mark Gottlieb: Arrested 10 X as many Dukies as 3 other officers combined • Arrested Duke students at much higher rate than non-students

Money: Lacrosse Team and Reputation • Players came from upper middle-class families; athletic, smart Money: Lacrosse Team and Reputation • Players came from upper middle-class families; athletic, smart • Top of social hierarchy at Duke: women, admiration, parties, and privilege

Sex • After post-WWII industrial boom, Durham lost many jobs… • …Stimulating the sex Sex • After post-WWII industrial boom, Durham lost many jobs… • …Stimulating the sex industry: escort services, strip clubs, etc.

Class/Race: Kim Roberts (aka Nikki) and Crystal Mangum KIM CRYSTAL • Two poor, minority Class/Race: Kim Roberts (aka Nikki) and Crystal Mangum KIM CRYSTAL • Two poor, minority strippers with criminal records and wild imaginations • Kim: began college, dropped out after pregnancy, divorced, and embezzled $25 K • Crystal “Precious”: Drug/alcohol abuser, NCCU student, mother of 2, evaded arrest on speeding charges

Igniting the Storm • 3. 16. 06, 2: 00 PM: Spring Break, bored Duke Igniting the Storm • 3. 16. 06, 2: 00 PM: Spring Break, bored Duke lacrosse students make phone call to Allure Escort Services • Request placed for 2 strippers to come for Duke’s party that night at 610 Buchanan Blvd.

The Party House • March 13, 2006 — Three co-captains of the Duke lacrosse The Party House • March 13, 2006 — Three co-captains of the Duke lacrosse team host a team party at their offcampus residence at 610 N. Buchanan Blvd. during spring break. They hire two strippers to perform for two hours for $400 each. Approximately 40 other students attended the party; most, but not all, were team members.

Party House, cont. • March 13, 2006 —The first stripper, Kim Roberts, aka Nikki, Party House, cont. • March 13, 2006 —The first stripper, Kim Roberts, aka Nikki, arrived at the party shortly after 11 pm. At approximately 11: 40 pm the second dancer, Crystal Gail Mangum, aka Precious, was dropped off at the party house by her driver. Sometime just before midnight, the two veteran sex-workers entered the living room to begin their performance for the party attendees.

Disappointing Performance • Crystal on a muscle relaxant, possibly drunk, falls over Kim • Disappointing Performance • Crystal on a muscle relaxant, possibly drunk, falls over Kim • Show becomes boring and not what everyone expected (broom, jokes, etc. ) • After Duke players request more, strippers become agitated and leave to go to the bathroom

Leaving • March 14, 2006, 12: 30: 12 a. m — Crystal Mangum is Leaving • March 14, 2006, 12: 30: 12 a. m — Crystal Mangum is standing outside the back door of the house. The team captains told police she was pounding at the door around that time, but they wouldn’t let her in. She is carrying the shaving kit of Dave Evans, perhaps due to her intoxicated state. Her clothes are intact.

 • March 14, 2006, 12: 41 am — Mangum was helped to Roberts' • March 14, 2006, 12: 41 am — Mangum was helped to Roberts' car by some of the players and the night appeared to be coming to an end.

3. 14, 2: 30 AM: Rape Claimed at ER • “Two males, Adam and 3. 14, 2: 30 AM: Rape Claimed at ER • “Two males, Adam and Matt pulled the victim into the bathroom. Someone closed the door to the bathroom where she was, and said "sweet heart you can't leave. " The victim stated that she tried to leave, but the three males (Adam, Bret, and Matt) forcefully held her legs arms and raped and [gangraped her]. The victim stated she was hit, kicked, and strangled during the assault. As she attempted to defend herself, she was overpowered. The victim reported she was sexually assaulted for an approximately 30 minute time period by the three males. . . ” – Police Report, 3. 14. 06

Police/Players Reaction • Players shocked at rape claims • Police: – Immediately conduct search Police/Players Reaction • Players shocked at rape claims • Police: – Immediately conduct search of 610 – Lacrosse players completely compliant – Offer to let cops have anything – Pushed around and badgered by police

The Story • Starts out as a small story in Duke Chronicle • Duke The Story • Starts out as a small story in Duke Chronicle • Duke students quickly catch on and begin demonstrations/protests outside 610 • Parents of lacrosse players begin flying in to discuss strategy

Parents • “Why are we even talking about the student newspaper! If this get Parents • “Why are we even talking about the student newspaper! If this get out, it will be in every newspaper in America. ” » Bruce Thompson, parent

Coach Pressler • • • Coach of Duke lacrosse team 153 -82 won-loss record Coach Pressler • • • Coach of Duke lacrosse team 153 -82 won-loss record 3 ACC championships 10 NCAA tournament berths 100% graduation rate for players

Pressler • Adored and respected by players • Advised players early to keep quiet, Pressler • Adored and respected by players • Advised players early to keep quiet, “all this will go away”

“Blue Wall of Silence” • Players did not talk to media/reporters when ordered to “Blue Wall of Silence” • Players did not talk to media/reporters when ordered to take DNA testing • Pictures taken of players, “no comment” was stated many times • Story of DNA testing appears in Raleigh News-Observer next day

New York Times • Headline: “Rape Allegation Against Athletes is Roiling Duke” – Case New York Times • Headline: “Rape Allegation Against Athletes is Roiling Duke” – Case instantly gains national attention – Feminist groups, anti-discrimination groups demand action – Protesters take to homes of players

Mike Nifong’s Media Blitz • Instantly begins giving interviews to camera crews, TV reporters Mike Nifong’s Media Blitz • Instantly begins giving interviews to camera crews, TV reporters • Claims that Crystal has been violated by 3 guys in bathroom and demands them to step forward

Behind the Scenes… • “All this scandal is worth a million in free publicity Behind the Scenes… • “All this scandal is worth a million in free publicity dollars”

Two Duke’s • Duke basketball, football are “religions” • 10% of Duke undergrads are Two Duke’s • Duke basketball, football are “religions” • 10% of Duke undergrads are there for athletics • Duke-UNC rivalry is one of the most heated in sports • Many know Duke for athletics only and see it as “wannabe” Ivy League school

Ivy League Schools • • Cornell Brown Dartmouth Yale Harvard Columbia University of Pennsylvania Ivy League Schools • • Cornell Brown Dartmouth Yale Harvard Columbia University of Pennsylvania

The other Duke… • Wanted to be seen as progressive, highly academic, elite institution The other Duke… • Wanted to be seen as progressive, highly academic, elite institution of learning • Able to compete with Ivy League schools to attract top students and professors from world

New President, 2002 • Richard Brodhead – came from Yale • Unsure how to New President, 2002 • Richard Brodhead – came from Yale • Unsure how to balance athletics from academics/deal with radical faculty • Wary of clout/opinions of professors: Harvard President Lawrence Summers

Perfect Offenders, Perfect Victim • White, upper-class, privileged lacrosse players can afford Duke • Perfect Offenders, Perfect Victim • White, upper-class, privileged lacrosse players can afford Duke • VS. • Poor, underprivileged, helpless victim of racism and the system • Social Progressive’s dream come true

The Media Turns On Duke • • Nancy Grace Internet, newspapers, etc. “Team’s Silence The Media Turns On Duke • • Nancy Grace Internet, newspapers, etc. “Team’s Silence is Sickening” “Blue Wall of Silence – What are they hiding? ” • Depicted as privileged white males gangraping poor, black woman trying to provide for her family

Duke Administration Turns on Players • Athletic Director, President, Dean of Students seem to Duke Administration Turns on Players • Athletic Director, President, Dean of Students seem to support students at beginning • Remainder of season canceled • Do not publicly support students • Force Pressler to resign due to misconduct of players • Why?

No Match • DNA tests come back in late April and reveal no match No Match • DNA tests come back in late April and reveal no match with any of players • Not enough to silence rabid critics or Nifong • Support begins to shift in favor of players

Changing the Story • 12/06 - Crystal can’t remember if there was any penetration Changing the Story • 12/06 - Crystal can’t remember if there was any penetration or not • Rape charges dismissed

Aftermath • No apology from Duke administration • No apology from Group of 88 Aftermath • No apology from Duke administration • No apology from Group of 88 • No apology from Crystal

Important Issues • • • Charges of Rape/Credibility Jealousy/envy of power, money Mistrust in Important Issues • • • Charges of Rape/Credibility Jealousy/envy of power, money Mistrust in justice system? Media’s unbelievable influence Innocent until proven guilty Duke faculty/professors justified in forming Group of 88? • Inaction of Duke administration

Important Issues, cont. • What will people do to get elected? Important Issues, cont. • What will people do to get elected?