- Количество слайдов: 70
The Palestinian – Israeli Conflict The Key to Winning the War on Terror?
The Dreyfus Case, 1894 Capt. Alfred Dreyfus Emile Zola
Zionism Y GOALS: The spiritual and political renewal of the Jewish people in its ancestral homeland of Palestine. Y Freedom from Western anti. Semitism. Theodore Herzl 1860 -1904
First Zionist Conference, 1897 Y Herzl writes Der Judenstaat, or The Jewish State in 1896. Y Met in Basel, Switzerland. Y Creates the First Zionist Congress. Y Becomes an international Jewish organization. Y “Next Year in Jerusalem!”
The Ottoman Empire in WW 1
The Main Players in WW 1 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Enver Pasha [Turkey] Franz Josef [A-H]
The Middle East in 1914
T. E. Lawrence [1888 -1935] “Lawrence of Arabia, ” The Legend Begins
Hussein-Mc. Mahon Letters, 1915. . Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca. . Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca
Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916
The Arab Revolt: 1916 -1918
The Allied Advance Against the Ottoman Turks Br. General Edmund Allenby
The British & Arab Armies Meet British Forces Lawrence & Faisal’s Forces
British Promise to the Jews: Balfour Declaration, 1917 Sir Arthur James Balfour Br. Foreign Secretary His Majesty’s Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine…
Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918 Arab Disappointment!
The League of Nations Mandates
“New” Countries & Ruling Families Emerge! Z Prince Faisal “ruler” of Trans-Jordan. Z Prince Abdullah “ruler” of a newly-created Iraq [pasted together from three distinct geographic regions]. Z The House of Saud put on the throne of the newly-created Saudi Arabia. Z The Pahlavi Family put on the throne of a new Iran. Z Mustafa Kemal leads a military/nationalist movement in Turkey.
The Middle East Between the Wars
British Mandate in Palestine Created July, 1922
1929 Arab Riots IZBAH AL-YAHUD! [“Slaughter All the Jews!”] Jewish Immigration 1919 1, 806 1931 4, 075 1920 8, 223 1932 12, 533 1921 8, 294 1933 37, 337 1922 8, 685 1934 45, 267 1923 8, 175 1935 66, 472 1924 13, 892 1936 29, 595 1925 34, 386 1937 10, 629 1926 13, 855 1938 14, 675 1927 3, 034 1939 31, 195 1928 2, 178 1940 10, 643 1929 5, 249 1941 4, 592 1930 4, 944
Jewish Settlements: The Kibbutz System Y First one founded in 1908. Y Communal living. Y “Make the Desert Bloom!”
Palestine Arab Revolt: 1936 -1939 Their Goals: Z An end to Jewish immigration to Palestine. Z An end to the transfer of lands to Jewish owners. Z A new “general representative government. ” The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Hussani, with Adolf Hitler.
The Peel Commission Partition Plan, 1937
British White Paper of 1939 ¯ Limited Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75, 000 over the next five years. ¯ It ended Jewish land purchases. ¯ Independence for Palestine within 10 years. ¯ It is NOT British policy that Palestine become a Jewish state.
Aliyah Bet : Illegal Jewish Immigration
Aliyah Bet § Illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine. § The Exodus, 1947.
British “Detention” Camps in Cyprus : 1946 -1948
Jews & Arabs in Palestine, 1946 1850 Census: 600, 000 (30, 000 Jews, 6%) • 1922 Census: 757, 182 (83, 794 Jews, 11%) • 1931 Census: 1, 035, 821 (174, 000 Jews, 16%) • 1947 Census: 1, 908, 775 (589, 341 Jews, 31%)
Jewish “Freedom Fighters” (or “Terrorists”? ) Irgun Zvai Leumi [Natl. Military Org. ] Avraham Stern & The Stern Gang
King David Hotel Jerusalem, June 1946
U. N. Partition Plan of 1947
Truman Opts for Partition Over Objections of Departments of State and Defense • “I'm sorry, gentlemen, but I have to answer to hundreds of thousands who are anxious for the success of Zionism: I do not have hundreds of thousands of Arabs among my constituents. " --Harry S. Truman
Israel Becomes a Nation: May 14, 1948 Chaim Weizmann, 1 st President David Ben-Gurion, 1 st Prime Minister
War Begins!: May 15, 1948
Arab Refugees, 1948 The Palestinian Diaspora begins!
Armistice Signed, 1949
Israel: 1947 & Israel: 1949
Palestinian Refugees Palestinian Diaspora
Suez Crisis (1956) Gamal Abdul Nasser President of Egypt
Six-Day War (1967) ¯ UN Resolution 242
UN Security Council Resolution 242, 1967 • Affirms that the fulfillment of Charter principles requires the establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East which should include the application of both the following principles: – Withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict; – Termination of all claims or states of belligerency and respect for and acknowledgement of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force.
Palestine Liberation Organization And the War of Terror Yassir Arafat
Yom-Kippur War (Oct. , 1973)
UN Security Council Resolution 338, 1973 • Calls upon all parties to present fighting to cease all firing and terminate all military activity immediately, no later than 12 hours after the moment of the adoption of this decision, in the positions they now occupy; • Calls upon all parties concerned to start immediately after the cease-fire the implementation of Security Council Resolution 242 (1967) in all of its parts; • Decides that, immediately and concurrently with the cease-fire, negotiations start between the parties concerned under appropriate auspices aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East.
The Expansion of Israel
The Search for Peace
Camp David Accords (1979) President Anwar Sadat of Egypt President Prime Minister Jimmy Carter. Menachem Begin of the U. S. Of Israel
Palestinian Intifada-Part I (1987 -1993)
The Oslo Peace Process • On 9 September 1993, the Norwegian Foreign Minister announced that secret negotiations had been completed between the PLO and Israel which resulted in an agreement in principle to end their conflict. • On 13 September 1993, the Declaration of Principles between the Israelis and Palestinians was signed in Washington, DC.
Palestinian Areas on The West Bank
The Clinton Effort for a Comprehensive Agreement
Camp David Peace Plan 2000
Ariel Sharon Steps In
Two Plans for Peace
The Saudi Peace Plan, 2000 • Until the adoption of the Saudi initiative by the Arab League, only two Arab states, Egypt and Jordan, recognized Israel's right to exist. Under the Saudi plan all 22 Arab states have offered to – Consider the Arab-Israeli conflict ended – Enter into a peace agreement with Israel – Provide security for all the states of the region – Establish normal relations with Israel in the context of this plan "
The Saudi Peace Plan • In return, the Arab League calls upon Israel to: – Withdraw fully from all the territories occupied since 1967 (including the Syrian Golan Heights and the remaining occupied territories in Lebanon) to the lines of June 4, 1967 – Achieve a just solution to the Palestinian refugee problem in accordance with the December 1948 UN General Assembly Resolution 194 – Accept a sovereign independent Palestinian state in the Palestinian-occupied territories in the West Bank and Gaza strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital"
Sharon’s Plan: Unilateral Israeli Actions • "In any future final-status agreement, there will be no Israeli settlement in the Gaza Strip. – "Israel will supervise and guard the external envelope on land, will maintain exclusive control in the airspace of Gaza, and will continue to conduct military activities in the sea space of the Gaza Strip. " – "Israel will continue to maintain a military presence along the border line between the Gaza Strip and Egypt. " • “It is clear that in the West Bank, some areas will remain part of the state of Israel, among them civilian settlements, military zones and places where Israel has additional interests. "
The Separation Wall
President Bush Welcomed Sharon’s Plan, Ignored the Saudi Plan
President Bush’s Comments • President Bush said that Sharon’s plan would "make a real contribution towards peace" and help fulfill Bush's own vision of two states side by side. • He broke with previous U. S. policy which characterized Israeli west bank settlements as “illegal” by agreeing that Israel should retain at least some West Bank settlements. – “The realities on the ground and in the region have changed greatly over the last several decades, and any final settlement must take into account those realities and be agreeable to the parties. ” • He also seemed to remove a key Palestinian demand from the negotiating table. – “It seems clear that an agreed, just, fair and realistic framework for a solution to the Palestinian refugee issue as part of any final status agreement will need to be found through the establishment of a Palestinian state and the settling of Palestinian refugees there rather than Israel. ”
The Underlying Philosophy of The Bush Administration • “I am a Christian. But I believe with the Psalmist, that the Lord God of Israel neither slumbers nor sleeps. Understanding my administration should not be difficult. We will speak up for our principles; we will stand up for our friends in the world. And one of the most important friends is the State of Israel. “ • “At my first meeting of my National Security Council, I told them that a top foreign policy priority of my administration is the safety and security of Israel. My administration will be steadfast in supporting Israel against terrorism and violence ” … President George W. Bush, 3 May 2001
How is U. S. Policy Perceived In the World?
Reaction to U. S. Policy “As to America, I say to it and its people a few words: I swear to God that America will not live in peace before peace reigns in Palestine, and before all the army of infidels depart the land of Mohammad, peace be upon him. ” 6 October 2001
The Palestinian – Israeli Conflict The Key to Winning the War on Terror?