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The “Other” Personality Theories The Neo-Freudians’ (Psychodynamic) Five Core Postulates ◦ Much of mental life – thoughts, feelings, and motives - is unconscious ◦ Mental processes, including affective and motivational processes, operate in parallel, so we can have conflicting feelings toward the same person or situation
The Neo-Freudians’ (Psychodynamic) Five Core Postulates Stable personality patterns start to form in early childhood, early experiences play a significant role in personality development Mental representations or understandings of the self, others, and relationships guide people’s social interactions and influence the ways in which they develop psychological symptoms Personality development involves more than learning to regulate sexual and aggressive impulses
Who are the Neo-Freudians? Carl Jung ◦ Collective unconscious Alfred Adler ◦ Inferiority complex Karen Horney ◦ Moving toward, against, or away from others ◦ Compliance (basic anxiety), Aggression (basic hostility), Detachment
A Jungian Walk in the Woods Close your eyes, DON’T say your answers out loud!! ◦ You’re walking through the woods. There’s someone with you. Who is it? ◦ You come to a house. What does it look like? ◦ You go inside the house and are in the dining room. What do you see? ◦ You’re back outside and you find a key. What do you do with it?
o. You find a cup. What does it look like? What do you do with it? o. You come to some water. How big is the body of water? o. You have to get to the other side of the water. How do you do it?
A Jungian Walk in the Woods, Explained The woods stand for the unconscious mind. The person with you is the person who is most important to you at this time. The house stands for the size of your ambition. The dining room stands for sociability.
A Jungian Walk in the Woods, Explained The key stands for knowledge. What is done with the key is what the person does with their education. The cup stands for love. The water stands for the person’s problems: the bigger the body of water, the bigger they perceive their problems to be. How they get across the water is how they deal with their problems.
The Humanistic Perspective Maslow Why we don’t become selfactualized: o It’s at the top of the pyramid, weakest of all needs o The Jonah Complex o Cultural environment may stifle self-actualization o Childhood experiences may inhibit personal growth
The Humanistic Perspective Carl Rogers ◦ The Perceived Self – On the sheet of paper, take 3 minutes to write a description of how you see yourself. ◦ The Ideal Self – Turn the paper over and take another 3 minutes to describe who you would like to be.
Why the Incongruence? Perceived (Real) Self 3 conditions necessary for personal growth ◦ Genuine ◦ Accepting ◦ Empathic Ideal Self Unconditional Positive Regard Client-centered Therapy
Trait / Big Five Theories Gordon Allport How many words in a dictionary could be used to describe people? 18, 000!!! Secondary traits • Central • Cardinal • Common App - What are the first words that come to mind to describe this student?
Trait / Big Five Theories The Myers-Briggs ◦ For each pair of items, check which one you agree with more. ◦ Add up the number of checks for each column and put that number in the box. ◦ E / I = extraversion / introversion ◦ S / N = sensing / intuition ◦ T / F = thinking / feeling ◦ J / P = judging / perceiving What do you think is Mr. Aiello’s “score”? ◦ I S F P (I N F J)
The Big Five (OCEAN) Take The Big Five Inventory (BFI) Scoring ◦ Extraversion – reverse the numbers placed in front of items 6, 21, & 31 (1 = 5, 2 = 4, 3 = 3, 4 = 2, 5 = 1) Add all the numbers for 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, & 36. Scores can range from 8 – 40. ◦ Agreeableness – reverse numbers 2, 12, 27, & 37. Add the numbers for 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, 32, 37, & 42. Scores can range from 9 – 45. ◦ Conscientiousness –reverse numbers 8, 18, 23, & 43. Add the numbers for 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, 33, 38, & 43. Scores can range from 9 – 45.
The Big Five (OCEAN) Scoring ◦ Neuroticism – reverse numbers 9, 24, & 34. Add all the numbers for 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, & 39. Scores can range from 8 – 40. ◦ Openness – reverse numbers 35 & 41. Add all the numbers for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 41, & 44. Scores can range from 10 – 50.
Social Cognitive Theories Reciprocal Determinism – Bandura
Internal vs. External Locus of Control Reverse the numbers you placed before statements 3, 6, 7, 8, and 10. ◦ (1 = 7, 2 = 6, 3 = 5, 4 = 4, 5 = 3, 6 = 2, 7 = 1) Add up the total score College students avg. = 52 The higher your score the greater your internal locus of control
Internals not only believe that they can control their own destinies, but in fact they are more effective in influencing their environments. grades and evaluations especially true in adolescence more responsible for their achievements believe that studying will pay off
• better ideas of how to prepare for an exam • grades due to abilities or effort, more likely to study for the next exam. • more successful at changing others’ beliefs • less susceptible to control and influence from others • particularly resistant to subtle forms of attempted influence • less likely to conform, not as likely to respond to the prestige of a message’s source
Internals also seem to exhibit greater selfcontrol. • When they attempt to quit smoking, fewer relapses. • More likely to engage in physical exercise, better at losing weight, more apt to use seatbelts, and more likely to practice preventive dental and medical care. • Better hospital patients, knowing more about their condition and less satisfied with the amount of information given them by their nurses and doctors.