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The New South SS 8 H 7: Student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 18771918 a. Evaluate the impact of the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton States Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank case, and the [effect that] the county unit system had on Georgia during this period.
Bourbon Triumvirate John Gordon Alfred Colquitt Joseph Brown Redemption Era : period after Reconstruction and before the “New South” • Redeem the state from the hardships of Reconstruction (i. e. …The Republican Party) • The Bourbon Triumvirate: Joseph Brown, Alfred Colquitt, and John Gordon • Democrats who wanted stronger economic ties with northern industry but • maintain “old South traditions” (White Supremacy) The three men dominated Georgia politics for a quarter century
The Bourbon Triumvirate • Democrats controlled Georgia’s government after Reconstruction. • Powerful Democratic leaders, known as the “Bourbon Triumvirate” were Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon. • Their goals were: – expand Georgia’s economy and ties with industries in the North; – maintain the tradition of white supremacy.
Joseph Brown • Opened law office in • • Governor Joseph Brown Canton, GA State senator Judge N. Georgia farmer 1857: elected governor – – State’s rights activist Remained until June 1865 —lost popularity by asking Georgians to go along with Rad. Repub. Policies, believing it would shorten Reconstruction
Alfred Colquitt • Princeton Law School • State congressman – Served at Georgia’s secession convention • Maj. Gen. in Confederate • Army 1876: elected Governor – State debt reduced – New state constitution (1877) Alfred Colquitt
John B. Gordon • Lt. Gen. in Confederate Army • US Senator from GA: 1872 -1880 – Resigned 1880 (scandal) – Gov. Colquitt appointed Joseph E. Brown to fill his place – Revolters within his own party (Democrat) felt that a corrupt deal had been struck – Rebecca Latimer Felton was critical of his involvement • Contributed to the Compromise of • • Lt. Gen. John B. Gordon • • 1877—gave Rutherford B. Hayes the presidency in exchange for the removal of Federal troops from the South Manager of coal mine Rumored Head of Georgia’s KKK during Reconstruction 1886: elected Governor Brought new industry to Georgia
The Bourbon Triumvirate group of three (Brown, Colquitt, Gordon)—wanted to strengthen economic ties with the North, while keeping white supremacy— considered old Southern traditions Successes • State taxes lowered • State war debts reduced • Business and industry expanded Failures • Did not improve lives of poor • Education suffered • Did not reform prisons • Poor working conditions in factories
Decline of the Bourbon Triumvirate • “Independent Democrats” criticized the Bourbons for not attending to the needs of the poor or improve education and working conditions in factories. • Leaders William and Rebecca Felton worked to improve conditions for poor Georgians using newspapers to highlight problems in the state. • The convict lease system “rented” prisoners to companies to use as workers. It took many years for the poor conditions the prisoners endured to be brought to light and changed.
The New South Era • Challengers to the Bourbon Triumvirate wanted Georgia to be more industrialized. • Henry Grady was a speaker and newspaper editor. • Grady described Georgia as a place which could have competitive industry and more efficient farming. • Grady envisioned improved race relations in a “New South” which left its antebellum past behind.
“The New South” • New South: A Henry W. Grady phrase used to describe southern progress in the late 1800 s…Industry! – Henry W. Grady: first to use the phrase…editor for the Atlanta Constitution Example of Georgia Industry
Henry Grady: “Voice of the New South” • 1880: became managing editor of the Atlanta Constitution – Known for his controversial editorials • Visited northern cities and spoke about the “New South” – Southern economy was growing as agriculture was replaced by industry (textile mills, coal mining, tobacco factories) – Pointed out that race relations had improved (had they? ) – Ability to sell the New South brought jobs, recognition, and investments to GA economy • Principal planner for 1881 • • International Cotton Exposition Increased circulation of Atlanta Constitution from 10, 000 to 140, 000 (used interview process) Died in 1889 at 39
Georgia’s Granges • • The National Grange: Groups of Southern sharecroppers, tenant farmers, and farmers with small plots of land – Faced growing debts – Could not feed/clothe their families – Could not pay their debts to merchants/landowners 1872: Georgia’s Granges become political (Along with others in the South and Midwest). – Applied political pressure (lobbying) to state legislature and forced the formation of a State Department of Agriculture (1 st in the nation) – Established Grange-owned stores and cotton gins to reduce costs for farmers – Helped establish that farmers wanted to improve their lives
The Farmers’ Alliance • Farmers’ Alliance: began as social organizations in the Northwest and the South. – Formed co-ops: purchased goods and equipment directly from producers and sold to farmers at wholesale prices -cost of production (No taxes). – Called for more U. S. production of paper money – Higher credit limits to farmers
The Populist Movement • Rose from farmers and workers who were becoming tired, poor, and discouraged! The Grange: name used for the “Patrons of Husbandry”, a group organized to allow social gatherings where farmers could talk about common problems. – Early 1870 s prices began to drop – Banks not lending as much money to farmers
The Populist Party The Farmers’ Alliance joined with labor organizations (unions) to form this new political party. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Platform: 8 hour workday Gov’t ownership of railroad, telephone, and telegraph Graduated federal income tax Direct election of U. S. Senators Restriction of immigration Use of Australian Ballot: Ballot printed by gov’t, distributed at voting places, and collected in secret sealed boxes. 1892 Election: Democrat Grover Cleveland won…Populist candidate: James B. Weaver White and black farmers
Tom Watson • Georgia’s best known • • Tom Watson, Populist. 1882: elected to Georgia General Assembly 1890: elected to Congress with backing of Farmers’ Alliance – Introduced the Rural Free Delivery Bill (RFD): required the postmaster general to find a way to deliver mail to rural homes free of charge – Created a boom in the building of roads, bridges, and other improvements needed for the delivery to rural areas. • 1896: ran as vice-president under William Jennings Bryant (Lost)
Rebecca Felton • A leader towards suffrage-votes, particularly • • for women. Pushed for temperance-anti-alcohol Popular writer for the “Atlanta Constitution” • Used paper as a forum (Way to communicate ideas…TV, paper, radio, speech…) • Began Georgia Training School for Girls in Atlanta • With Margaret Olivia Slocum Sage • First female U. S. Senator in nation’s history • Replaced another Senator due to death (24 hours)
Rebecca and William Felton • Roots of Populist • • Movement Led a group of independent Democrats against the Triumvirate From Cartersville Rebecca Latimer Felton William Felton: U. S. Congressman; served in GA General Assembly – Worked to improve education, prison reform, and paved the way for controls and limits on alcohol. Picture of 1930 Prohibition
Industrial Revolution • New inventions and leaps forward in technology • The rise of the factory and industry – Assembly Line – Poor, difficult and dangerous working conditions (Laissezfaire) • Rise of the City (Urban) • Labor Organizations: Unions – Worked for the improvement of safety and working conditions in the work place. • Religious and Charitable (Philanthropic) organizations came to the aid of workers and child laborers.
The Progressive Movement Goal: Progress! Society Business • fight poverty • break up large • improve working corporations conditions • regulate • votes for women businesses • decrease • prison reform • outlaw alcohol corporate power in government Government • greater voice of “the people” • more voters • did not seek to increase participation of blacks in elections