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The New Science of Universal Usability Ben Shneiderman ben@cs. umd. edu Founding Director (1983 The New Science of Universal Usability Ben Shneiderman [email protected] umd. edu Founding Director (1983 -2000), Human-Computer Interaction Lab Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institutes for Advanced Computer Studies & Systems Research University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742

Interdisciplinary research community - Computer Science & Info Studies - Psych, Socio, Poli Sci Interdisciplinary research community - Computer Science & Info Studies - Psych, Socio, Poli Sci & MITH (www. cs. umd. edu/hcil)

Scientific Approach (beyond user friendly) • • • Specify users and tasks Predict and Scientific Approach (beyond user friendly) • • • Specify users and tasks Predict and measure • time to learn • speed of performance • rate of human errors • human retention over time Assess subjective satisfaction (Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction) Accommodate individual differences Consider social, organizational & cultural context

Design Issues • • Input devices & strategies • Keyboards, pointing devices, voice • Design Issues • • Input devices & strategies • Keyboards, pointing devices, voice • Direct manipulation • Menus, forms, commands Output devices & formats • Screens, windows, color, sound • Text, tables, graphics • Instructions, messages, help Collaboration & communities Manuals, tutorials, training

U. S. Library of Congress • Scholars, Journalists, Citizens • Teachers, Students U. S. Library of Congress • Scholars, Journalists, Citizens • Teachers, Students

Visible Human Explorer (NLM) • Doctors • Surgeons • Researchers • Students Visible Human Explorer (NLM) • Doctors • Surgeons • Researchers • Students

NASA Environmental Data • Scientists • Farmers • Land planners • Students NASA Environmental Data • Scientists • Farmers • Land planners • Students

NSF Digital Government Initiative • Find what you need • Understand what you Find NSF Digital Government Initiative • Find what you need • Understand what you Find Census, NCHS, BLS, EIA, NASS, SSA www. ils. unc. edu/govstat/

i. Sonic: Sonification for Maps • Motivation: improve vision-impaired users’ access to geo-referenced statistical i. Sonic: Sonification for Maps • Motivation: improve vision-impaired users’ access to geo-referenced statistical data • Approach: interactive sonification • Data-to-sound mapping: Piano pitch -> value. • User study: 7 blind subjects, 6 hours each • Users can recognize geographical patterns • Users preferred spatial audio map over table www. cs. umd. edu/hcil/audiomap

International Children’s Digital Library www. childrenslibrary. org International Children’s Digital Library www. childrenslibrary. org

Home Medical Devices • Bathroom scale • Thermometer • Blood pressure • Diabetes: Glucose Home Medical Devices • Bathroom scale • Thermometer • Blood pressure • Diabetes: Glucose • Asthma: Breath • Fat monitor • EKG www. cs. umd. edu/hcil/soh/ws_meddevice. htm

Electronic Health Records: Life. Lines www. cs. umd. edu/hcil/lifelines/ Electronic Health Records: Life. Lines www. cs. umd. edu/hcil/lifelines/

Spotfire: DC natality data Spotfire: DC natality data

Treemap: Stock market, industry clustered www. smartmoney. com/marketmap Treemap: Stock market, industry clustered www. smartmoney. com/marketmap

Treemap: Product catalogs www. hivegroup. com Treemap: Product catalogs www. hivegroup. com

Treemap: Newsmap Treemap: Newsmap

Creativity Support Tools More people, More creative, More often Creativity Support Tools More people, More creative, More often

 6 th Creativity & Cognition Conference • Washington, DC June 13 -15, 2007 6 th Creativity & Cognition Conference • Washington, DC June 13 -15, 2007 • Receptions at Nat’l Academy of Sciences & Corcoran Gallery of Art • Expand community of researchers • Bridge to software developers • Encourage art & science thinking http: //www. cs. umd. edu/hcil/CC 2007/ www. cs. umd. edu/hcil/CC 2007

Leonardo’s Laptop The old computing is about what computers can do, The New Computing Leonardo’s Laptop The old computing is about what computers can do, The New Computing is about what people can do mitpress. mit. edu/leonardoslaptop www. cs. umd. edu/hcil/newcomputing

Requirements Analysis In a fair society, all individuals would have equal opportunity to participate Requirements Analysis In a fair society, all individuals would have equal opportunity to participate in, or benefit from, the use of computer resources regardless of race, sex, religion, age, disability, national origin or other such similar factors. -- ACM Code of Ethics

Goals of Public Access • Enable participation by every citizen & visitor Voting Licenses Goals of Public Access • Enable participation by every citizen & visitor Voting Licenses Passports Registrations Permits Regulations • Social security services Police-fire-emergency National-local government Offer services to all Healthcare Housing Education Employment, Shopping Museums Libraries Transportation Recreation Sports Tourism Entertainment

Universal Usability Challenges • • • Technology variety • Fast & slow modems, small Universal Usability Challenges • • • Technology variety • Fast & slow modems, small & large displays • Diverse platforms, multiple versions User diversity • Novice & expert, old & young • Users with disabilities, poor literacy, or low motivation Bridge the gap between what users know and what they need to know • Multi-layer interfaces • Help vs. Show. Me! Communications of the ACM, May 2000

Technology variety 1 to 100 range in processor speeds 486 Pentium Multi-core 1 to Technology variety 1 to 100 range in processor speeds 486 Pentium Multi-core 1 to 100 range in screen sizes Palm devices 80, 000 Laptops 800, 000 Device Independence Input: keyboard, speech, . . . Output: visual, auditory, . . . Conversion Large Desktop or Wall Display 8, 000 pixels 1 to 100 range in network bandwidth 9. 6 K 56 K 10, 000 Kbps Software Versions Compatibility File conversion Multiple platforms

 User diversity: Accommodate all users Skills Computer newbie to hacker Knowledge Disabilities Visual, User diversity: Accommodate all users Skills Computer newbie to hacker Knowledge Disabilities Visual, auditory, motoric, cognitive Domain novice to expert Age Young to old Gender Male or Female Disabling conditions Mobility, injury, noise, sunlight Income Impoverished to wealthy

 User diversity: Accommodate all users Race Ethnicity Religion National Origin Culture Western, Eastern, User diversity: Accommodate all users Race Ethnicity Religion National Origin Culture Western, Eastern, developing. . . Personality Introvert vs extravert Thinking vs feeling Risk aversion Locus of control Planful vs playful Literacy Fluent to illiterate Multiple languages

Gaps in User Knowledge-Strategies Bridge the gap between what users know and what they Gaps in User Knowledge-Strategies Bridge the gap between what users know and what they need to know Online Learning Design Multi-Layered Task-oriented (evolutionary, phased) Introductory tutorials Getting started manuals, Cue cards Walkthroughs/Demos Minimalist/Active Training Fade-able scaffolding Training wheels Minimalist Online help Context sensitive, tables of contents, Indexes, Keyword search, FAQs, answer gardens

Gaps in User Knowledge-Strategies Bridge the gap between what users know and what they Gaps in User Knowledge-Strategies Bridge the gap between what users know and what they need to know Customer service Email Phone Help desks Supplements Online manuals, paper Audio, video, Live lecture, peer training, personal trainer Community Newsgroups, online communities Chat rooms

Research Agenda for Universal Usability For Desktop, Web, and Mobile Devices: • • • Research Agenda for Universal Usability For Desktop, Web, and Mobile Devices: • • • Evidence-based Guidelines Automated analysis tools Improved application generators Improved user customization tools Social facilitation • Tested with developers & users Shneiderman & Hocheiser, Behaviour & Info Technology, 2001

HCI Challenges • • • Information Access Universal Usability Trusted Voting Healthcare Information Visualization HCI Challenges • • • Information Access Universal Usability Trusted Voting Healthcare Information Visualization Creativity Support Tools

HCI Challenges • • • Information Access Universal Usability Trusted Voting Healthcare Information Visualization HCI Challenges • • • Information Access Universal Usability Trusted Voting Healthcare Information Visualization Creativity Support Tools Environmental Sustainability Emergency/Disaster Response International Development

UN Millennium Development Goals To be achieved by 2015 • Eradicate extreme poverty and UN Millennium Development Goals To be achieved by 2015 • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger • Achieve universal primary education • Promote gender equality and empower women • Reduce child mortality • Improve maternal health • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases • Ensure environmental sustainability • Develop a global partnership for development

Interdisciplinary Challenges • Modern problems are complex • Solutions require multiple disciplines • Laboratory Interdisciplinary Challenges • Modern problems are complex • Solutions require multiple disciplines • Laboratory studies have limited relevance • Natural sciences are not sufficient

Historic Transformation • Existing sciences have reached limits: • • • The End of Historic Transformation • Existing sciences have reached limits: • • • The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight of the Scientific Age, John Horgan End of Physics End of Computer Science End of History, Francis Fukuyama

Science 1. 0 • Reductionist • Controlled • • • Experiments Replicability Laboratory Natural Science 1. 0 • Reductionist • Controlled • • • Experiments Replicability Laboratory Natural World

Science 1. 0 + Science 2. 0 • Reductionist • Controlled • • • Science 1. 0 + Science 2. 0 • Reductionist • Controlled • • • Experiments Replicability Laboratory Natural World Integrated Case Studies Validity Situated Made World

Science 1. 0 + Science 2. 0 • Reductionist • Controlled • • • Science 1. 0 + Science 2. 0 • Reductionist • Controlled • • • Experiments Replicability Laboratory Natural World • • • Hypothesis Testing Predictive Theories Replications Integrated Case Studies Validity Situated Made World

Science 2. 0 Emerges Interdisciplinary study of the made world Socially embedded Bringing closer Science 2. 0 Emerges Interdisciplinary study of the made world Socially embedded Bringing closer together - theory & practice - basic & applied research New research directions (Emerson, Dewey, James, Vygotsky, Simon, Suchman, Berners-Lee, … … and many of you!)

Science 2. 0 Evaluation Methods Ethnographic Observational Situated • Multi-Dimensional • In-depth • Long-term Science 2. 0 Evaluation Methods Ethnographic Observational Situated • Multi-Dimensional • In-depth • Long-term • Case studies

Science 2. 0 Evaluation Methods Ethnographic Observational Situated • Multi-Dimensional • In-depth • Long-term Science 2. 0 Evaluation Methods Ethnographic Observational Situated • Multi-Dimensional • In-depth • Long-term • Case studies Domain Experts & Communities Doing Their Own Work for Weeks & Months

Science 2. 0 Evaluation Methods Ethnographic Observational Situated • Multi-Dimensional • In-depth • Long-term Science 2. 0 Evaluation Methods Ethnographic Observational Situated • Multi-Dimensional • In-depth • Long-term • Case studies MILCs Shneiderman & Plaisant, Be. LIV workshop, 2006

MILC example • Evaluate Hierarchical Clustering Explorer • • Focused on rank-by-feature framework 3 MILC example • Evaluate Hierarchical Clustering Explorer • • Focused on rank-by-feature framework 3 case studies, 4 -8 weeks (molecular biologist, statistician, meteorologist) 57 email surveys Identified problems early, gave strong positive feedback about benefits of rank-by-feature • • Seo & Shneiderman, IEEE TVCG 12, 3, 2006

MILC example • Evaluate Social. Action • • Focused on integrating statistics & visualization MILC example • Evaluate Social. Action • • Focused on integrating statistics & visualization 4 case studies, 4 -8 weeks (journalist, bibliometrician, terrorist analyst, organizational analyst) Identified desired features, gave strong positive feedback about benefits of integration • Perer & Shneiderman, 2007

Case Study Methodology 1) Interview (1 hr) 2) Training (2 hr) 3) Early Use Case Study Methodology 1) Interview (1 hr) 2) Training (2 hr) 3) Early Use (2 -4 weeks) 4) Mature Use (2 -4 weeks) 5) Outcome (1 hr)

Short Range Goals • Validate benefits of new designs • Collect evidence to support/reject Short Range Goals • Validate benefits of new designs • Collect evidence to support/reject hypothesis - rank-by-feature - integrating statistics & visualization • Rapid refinements of tools • Benefits to users

Long Range Goals • Harness Collaboration • • Pair-wise Small Team Larger Group Social Long Range Goals • Harness Collaboration • • Pair-wise Small Team Larger Group Social Creativity

Long Range Goals • Harness Collaboration • • Pair-wise Small Team Larger Group Social Long Range Goals • Harness Collaboration • • Pair-wise Small Team Larger Group Social Creativity Thomas Edison: 1% Inspiration, 99% Perspiration

Long Range Goals • Harness Collaboration • • Pair-wise Small Team Larger Group Social Long Range Goals • Harness Collaboration • • Pair-wise Small Team Larger Group Social Creativity Thomas Edison 2. 0: 1% Inspiration, 99% Collaboration

Long Range Goals • Understand dynamics of • • • Trust Empathy Responsibility Privacy Long Range Goals • Understand dynamics of • • • Trust Empathy Responsibility Privacy Etc.

Thomas Jefferson I feel. . . an ardent desire to see knowledge so disseminated Thomas Jefferson I feel. . . an ardent desire to see knowledge so disseminated through the mass of mankind that it may. . . reach even the extremes of society: beggars and kings. -- Reply to American Philosophical Society, 1808

25 th Annual Symposium May 29, 30, 2008 www. cs. umd. edu/hcil 25 th Annual Symposium May 29, 30, 2008 www. cs. umd. edu/hcil