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The New Nation Mrs. Quimby US History I Sophomores Quincy High School Washington through The New Nation Mrs. Quimby US History I Sophomores Quincy High School Washington through Polk 1790 -1848

Washington elected President • George Washington was a popular general during both the French Washington elected President • George Washington was a popular general during both the French and Indian and the Revolutionary War. • Once the Constitution was ratified, he was quickly elected as the nation’s first President. • It wasn’t long before Washington’s presidency faced a major conflict - the French Revolution.

The French Revolution • The American people were split over the French Revolution. -> The French Revolution • The American people were split over the French Revolution. -> Many people supported it because it was a lot like the war that the Americans had just won. • Others felt obliged to help King Louis XVI, who had funded their independence. • However, still others were worried that if America supported either side at all, it would not survive. The country was still very young.

France vs. Britain -> Ultimately, Washington decided to not support the French Revolution. The France vs. Britain -> Ultimately, Washington decided to not support the French Revolution. The American country could not afford to fund either side. • Also, with the rise of the radical government in France (The Terror), France soon declared war on Britain. - America was left at a crossroads. They traded with both France and Britain. They didn’t want to make either side angry by supporting the other one.

Staying Neutral -> On April 22, 1793, Washington issued a proclamation declaring the United Staying Neutral -> On April 22, 1793, Washington issued a proclamation declaring the United States to be “friendly and impartial” toward both warring parties. • However, there were problems - France expected America to help protect its ports in the Caribbean. And, though America was neutral, Britain kept attacking American ships. • Washington ultimately sent John Jay (co-author of the Federalist Papers) to England to negotiate a treaty.

Jay’s Treaty -> Eventually, Britain agreed to Jay’s treaty, however, it was a hard Jay’s Treaty -> Eventually, Britain agreed to Jay’s treaty, however, it was a hard sell. - > Jay was forced to agree that Britain had the right to seize French cargoes and attack French ships. • In return, however, Britain agreed that American merchants would have benefits when selling in Britain, and that Britain would no longer attack American ships. -> This treaty was NOT popular. Many Americans thought that it made America look “pro British”, and would alienate America from possible French alliances. • This treaty also caused issues with Spain…

Pinckney’s Treaty • Pinckney’s Treaty did help the United States win some land from Pinckney’s Treaty • Pinckney’s Treaty did help the United States win some land from Spain. At this point, Spain controlled Florida and all territory west of the Mississippi River. -> Pinckney’s Treaty resolved all outstanding issues that the United States had with Spain allowing specifically, that Americans should have access to the Mississippi River for trading purposes. • Unlike Jay’s Treaty, Pinckney’s Treaty was very popular - especially with Western farmers who wanted to be able to sell their goods.

Westward Expansion -> During Washington’s term, more Americans were also looking to settle west. Westward Expansion -> During Washington’s term, more Americans were also looking to settle west. • After the Revolutionary War, Americans controlled land west of the Appalachian Mountains, and east of the Mississippi River. -> However, settlers encountered problems when they attempted to move into this land – there were already people living there. • The sudden rise of white settlers caused problems with the Native Americans.

Westward Expansion • Ultimately, after several battles, the Native American Confederacy was forced to Westward Expansion • Ultimately, after several battles, the Native American Confederacy was forced to surrender. -> In August 1795, 12 Native American nations signed the Treaty of Greenville. This treaty stated that land in Ohio and Indiana, as well as places in Illinois and Michigan were now part of the United States. • In return, the United States government would pay these nations $10, 000 per year. Do you think this was a fair agreement?

Washington Leaves Office • Washington was re-elected once, and many people wanted him to Washington Leaves Office • Washington was re-elected once, and many people wanted him to run for President again. • However, Washington was tired of the job dealing with party politics, and other countries, and personal attacks. • Washington decided to leave office. • Before he left, however, he gave a Farewell Address.

Washington’s Farewell Address • Washington’s Farewell Address warned against several things. -> It warned Washington’s Farewell Address • Washington’s Farewell Address warned against several things. -> It warned against sectionalism - dividing the country by political party, geography, or ideology. - > It also warned future presidents against becoming involved in foreign wars. • Washington was concerned that the new America was too young and inexperienced, and said that America should keep to itself.

Washington’s Farewell Address • DO NOW: • What two things did Washington warn against Washington’s Farewell Address • DO NOW: • What two things did Washington warn against in his farewell address? • Write in your notebooks!

Issues with Election • With Washington needing to leave office, there was a new Issues with Election • With Washington needing to leave office, there was a new election for the first time. -> Federalists supported John Adams -> Democratic-Republicans supported Thomas Jefferson • At this point in history - the law stated that the winner of the election would be President, and the second-place person would be vice-President.

Adams Elected -> Adams won the election with 71 electoral votes to Jefferson’s 68. Adams Elected -> Adams won the election with 71 electoral votes to Jefferson’s 68. -> This made Adams President and Jefferson Vice President. However, it also made for a very tense Presidency. • Jefferson and Adams had very different ideas, and couldn’t agree on much. • It would be as if today, a Republican and Democrat had to work together in an office.

Adams as President • President Adams faced immediate problems. - > The French were Adams as President • President Adams faced immediate problems. - > The French were still upset about Jay’s Treaty and started stopping American ships and taking their goods if they were going to Britain. -> Many Americans called for war against France. • However, Adams wanted to follow Washington’s advice, and stay out of the war. - > Instead, he sent Charles Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall to negotiate with France.

XYZ Affair -> When Gerry, Pinckney and Marshall arrived in France, they were met XYZ Affair -> When Gerry, Pinckney and Marshall arrived in France, they were met by three French agents. • Before negotiations even began, the French agents (code named X, Y, and Z) demanded a bribe to even start talking to the Americans. - > The French agents (XYZ) demanded $250, 000 just to initiate talks. They also wanted an additional loan of $12 million to help the French in the war. - > Instead, Pinckney said, “no, not a sixpence” and refused to bribe the French. - > This event made the French look bad. Because of the XYZ affair, even more people wanted to go to war with France, rather than negotiate peace.

XYZ Affair This British cartoon shows the United States (pink dress) surrounded by men XYZ Affair This British cartoon shows the United States (pink dress) surrounded by men representing France. Classwork – answer the following questions. • What does this cartoon say about the French? • What does it say about the United States? • How does it make both countries look? • Do you think this is positive or negative press? • Imagine you are Charles Pinckney. Write a brief letter (a few sentences) to the British newspaper responding to this political cartoon.

The Quasi-War • In reaction to the XYZ Affair, and the fact that the The Quasi-War • In reaction to the XYZ Affair, and the fact that the French were still attacking American ships, America entered a Quasi-War with France. - > Congress suspended trade with France, and told the American navy to start attacking French ships. • This developed into a naval Quasi-War. - > America did not declare war on France. The conflict became known as the “Quasi-War” because it was not quite a real war.

The Quasi-War • By 1798, both France and America were sick of the Quasi-War. The Quasi-War • By 1798, both France and America were sick of the Quasi-War. • The two countries met at the Convention of 1800. - > In this agreement, the United States gave up all claims to money owed by France. - > In return, France released the United States from its obligations in earlier treaties (such as defending the Caribbean). • The Quasi-War came to an end, and the two countries were at peace. • However, Adams had a different war to deal with…

The War Between the Parties • The Quasi-War with France also affected domestic policies The War Between the Parties • The Quasi-War with France also affected domestic policies in the United States. • Several resolutions were passed… - > The Alien and Sedition Acts: This was a new set of laws aimed at people who were not American citizens - called “aliens” • Many of these new immigrants were from France and Ireland were therefore anti. British. The Federalist government knew that these immigrants tended to vote Republican when they became citizens.

The War Between the Parties • The Alien and Sedition Acts stated… 1. An The War Between the Parties • The Alien and Sedition Acts stated… 1. An immigrant must wait 14 years to become a citizen. 2&3. The President has the power to deport without trial - any alien deemed dangerous to the United States. 4. It is now a federal crime to say or print anything “false, scandalous and malicious” against the federal government, or anyone working for it. • In short - the Alien and Sedition Acts made it illegal to criticize the government, and ensured the other side (Republicans) would not get support from new immigrants.

The War Between the Parties - >The Alien and Sedition Acts were extremely unpopular. The War Between the Parties - >The Alien and Sedition Acts were extremely unpopular. • This led to a huge drop in support of John Adams. Americans thought he was censoring the population. • In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, Kentucky and Virginia passed new laws (secretly written by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson).

The War Between the Parties • The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions criticized the Alien The War Between the Parties • The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions criticized the Alien and Sedition Acts. Both resolutions argued that since the states had created the Constitution, they could declare federal laws unconstitutional. - > The Virginia Resolutions introduced the idea of interposition. Which meant the state government could stop illegal actions by stepping in to protect the people in the state. - > The Kentucky Resolutions were about nullification if the federal government passed an unconstitutional law, the states had the right to nullify that law. • These Resolutions did not have much impact at the time, however, they would come into play later - to defend states’ rights.

The Election of 1800 • John Adams wanted to win re-election, but he faced The Election of 1800 • John Adams wanted to win re-election, but he faced an uphill battle. • The Alien and Sedition Acts made a lot of people angry. • Adams had also introduced a new tax on houses, and slaves, which again, made people angry. • Also, Adams had to face off against Jefferson his own vice President. • Federalist Candidates: John Adams, Charles Pinckney. • Republican Candidates: Thomas Jefferson, Aaron Burr.

The Election of 1800 -> Thomas Jefferson won the election - but it was The Election of 1800 -> Thomas Jefferson won the election - but it was close. • The Electoral College was not set up perfectly, and the Republicans at first had Burr and Jefferson tied as their Presidential candidate. • However, once Jefferson promised that he wouldn’t completely overhaul the government, or the national bank, the Electoral College agreed to elect him. • Jefferson called his victory the “Revolution of 1800”. He thought Washington and Adams had acted like royalty, and so Jefferson decided on a more casual Presidency.

Jefferson • Jefferson was a more casual President. • He rode horseback instead of Jefferson • Jefferson was a more casual President. • He rode horseback instead of in carriages. • He often answered the door of the white house wearing slippers and a bathrobe. • When he had guests, they would sit around a round table, so that they “were all perfectly equal”. - > Jefferson was also a strong believer in small government. He wanted to pay off the federal debt, and cut government spending. - > Many Federalists were worried that the Republican Jefferson would remove the national bank, but Jefferson did not.

Alexander Hamilton and the Bank • Under Washington, many people believed that the government Alexander Hamilton and the Bank • Under Washington, many people believed that the government needed to be able to borrow money from individuals and other countries. -> After the Revolutionary War, the US government owed $40 million to their citizens, and another $11. 7 to France and Spain. • Instead, the government issued bonds which were promissory notes saying the money, plus interest, would be paid back. - > Alexander Hamilton didn’t think that debt was a bad thing. “A national debt, if it is not excessive will…be a powerful cement of our new union. ” - > He said that debt would also encourage taxation, which could be good in moderation.

Alexander Hamilton and the Bank -> Eventually, the Bank of the United States was Alexander Hamilton and the Bank -> Eventually, the Bank of the United States was passed. • Hamilton had established a system of public credit. • He argued that the government needed a way to manage its debts and interest payments. - Not everyone agreed with the bank. Madison said that it was unconstitutional because the federal government didn’t have that power stated in the constitution. - > The supporters of the Bank said that this power could be covered under the “necessary and proper” clause of the Constitution.

Westward Expansion -> One of Jefferson’s strongest beliefs was that a republic could only Westward Expansion -> One of Jefferson’s strongest beliefs was that a republic could only survive if most of the people in the country owned their own land. • He wanted to expand the country farther west. • By 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte was starting to take over Europe, and he needed money. • Additionally, being friendly to the Americans could help Napoleon later, especially if he succeeded in conquering Europe.

Louisiana Purchase -> Napoleon sold the entire Louisiana territory, as well as the port Louisiana Purchase -> Napoleon sold the entire Louisiana territory, as well as the port of New Orleans, to the United States. -> Jefferson’s government paid $11. 25 million, and took on the French debts owed to Americans (making the total cost about $15 million – 283 million in today’s money) - That is cheap! Only 4 cents an acre. • The Senate overwhelmingly ratified the Louisiana Purchase. • As a result of this, the US more than doubled its size, and gained control of the entire Mississippi River.

Louisiana Purchase • Napoleon sold the entire Louisiana territory, as well as New Orleans, Louisiana Purchase • Napoleon sold the entire Louisiana territory, as well as New Orleans, to the United States. • Jefferson’s government paid $11. 25 million, and took on the French debts owed to Americans (making the total cost about $15 million). • The Senate overwhelmingly ratified the Louisiana Purchase. • As a result of this, the US more than doubled its size, and gained control of the entire Mississippi River.

Lewis and Clark -> Even before Louisiana became an official part of the U. Lewis and Clark -> Even before Louisiana became an official part of the U. S. , Jefferson asked Congress to fund a secret expedition into the Louisiana Territory to try to find a route to the Pacific Ocean. -> Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to lead the expedition. • Lewis and Clark soon encountered Sacagawea, a Shoshone woman who served as their guide and interpreter.

Sacagawea -> Essential to Lewis and Clark’s expedition was Sacagawea. • Sacagawea was born Sacagawea -> Essential to Lewis and Clark’s expedition was Sacagawea. • Sacagawea was born in Idaho in a tribe of Shoshone Native Americans. She was kidnapped as a young child by Hidatsa Natives, who transported her to North Dakota. • At age 13, she married a Québécois trapper named Toussaint Charbonneau. • Lewis and Clark arrived in North Dakota and were having issues - they needed guides and translators. • Lewis and Clark chose Toussaint and Sacagawea because Sacagawea spoke French and several Native American dialects, including Shoshone. Her husband then would translate from French to English.

Sacagawea • Eventually, Lewis, Clark, Sacagawea and the rest of their crew would follow Sacagawea • Eventually, Lewis, Clark, Sacagawea and the rest of their crew would follow the Columbia river all the way to the Pacific. • This gave the United States knowledge of the new territory, and also allowed them to claim Oregon. • Sacagawea was pregnant when the journey started, and on the way to Oregon gave birth to Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, who Lewis and Clark nicknamed “Pompy”, and who Sacagawea carried the whole way. • Sacagawea and Toussaint settled in Missouri, near where Clark lived. • Sadly, Sacagawea died young, leaving behind Jean Baptiste and a daughter, Lizette. No one knows what happened to Toussaint, but Clark was made guardian of the children.

Writing Assignment • Mini Project – see handout for more details Writing Assignment • Mini Project – see handout for more details

War of 1812 • At the end of his term, Thomas Jefferson decided not War of 1812 • At the end of his term, Thomas Jefferson decided not to run for President again. • Instead, James Madison (Republican) ran against Charles Pinckney (Federalist). Madison easily won, however, he soon faced a crisis… • The War of 1812.

Causes of the War of 1812 - > Thomas Jefferson decided not to run Causes of the War of 1812 - > Thomas Jefferson decided not to run for a second term. James Madison was elected easily. - > Madison faced issues immediately. Britain was (again) seizing American ships and taking American goods. • However, Madison, like the earlier presidents, wanted to avoid war if he could. • At first, Madison tried to negotiate trade agreements with both France and Britain. • Though Britain eventually removed the restrictions on trade, America had already declared war.

Causes of the War of 1812 • When Congress voted for war, the votes Causes of the War of 1812 • When Congress voted for war, the votes were split. -> Representatives from the South and West voted to go to war. - > Representatives from the North (Northeast) voted against war. - > Americans in the South and West wanted war for two main reasons: - 1. British trade restrictions hurt southern farmers. - 2. Western farmers believed the British were encouraging the Native Americans in the area to be more aggressive toward American settlers.

Causes of the War of 1812 • Those who voted for war were led Causes of the War of 1812 • Those who voted for war were led by… - > John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay and Felix Grundy. Together, these three men were called the War Hawks. • The War Hawks won the vote - those representatives in favor of war outnumbered those against it. • America was at war with Britain… again.

Tippecanoe • Although many Western settlers blamed the British for encouraging the Native Americans Tippecanoe • Although many Western settlers blamed the British for encouraging the Native Americans to attack, the real issue was Western settlers moving in on more Native American land. • Two major Native American leaders stepped up: - > Tecumseh: Believed the Native Americans could only survive if they were united under one leader. He led the political/military aspect. - > Tenskwatawa aka The Prophet: A spiritual/religious leader. He had a lot of support from his followers in Prophetstown.

Tippecanoe • William Henry Harrison worried that the Native Americans were becoming more militant, Tippecanoe • William Henry Harrison worried that the Native Americans were becoming more militant, and decided to strike first. -> The battle of Tippecanoe left huge losses on both sides - Harrison lost nearly 1/4 th of his troops, but far more Native Americans died. - > Tecumseh and his troops were forced to retreat. • Harrison was so pleased with this victory, and it made him so popular, that it became the basis for his political campaign when he ran for president.

Invasion of Canada • Madison had issues from the start with the War of Invasion of Canada • Madison had issues from the start with the War of 1812. He needed money for the war. At this point, the National Bank had collapsed Madison needed to borrow money from rich New England merchants. • Despite these problems, Madison ordered American troops to invade Canada (controlled by Britain). -> The American plan to win the war was called “Three Strikes” - a three-pronged attack against Canada. -> Every strike failed.

Invasion of Canada -> Strike 1: Detroit- Americans attacking Montreal from Detroit were quickly Invasion of Canada -> Strike 1: Detroit- Americans attacking Montreal from Detroit were quickly shut down by the British navy. -> Strike 2: Niagara Falls- Americans tried to attack Canada over the Niagara River. o The American army here was extremely small - many New Yorkers opposed the war and refused to fight. The Americans were easily pushed back by the British. -> Strike 3: Hudson River- The American commander was forced to call off the attack when the NY militia refused to cross into Canada.

Victory on Lake Erie - > One of the first (and one of the Victory on Lake Erie - > One of the first (and one of the few) major victories America had was at Lake Erie in 1813. • Oliver Perry and the American navy managed to defeat the British on Lake Erie, however, the troops were not able to meet up with Harrison’s troops. -> Ultimately, though this battle was a victory for the Americans, they gained no Canadian land.

End of the War • Eventually, Napoleon lost power in France, and so Britain End of the War • Eventually, Napoleon lost power in France, and so Britain was able to send more troops to America. - > While American attention was focused on Canada, the British troops raided major cities in the Northeast. • This included Washington D. C. and Baltimore. - > While in Washington, the British set fire to the White House. This event has become famous because of Dolley Madison’s response - rushing into the burning building to save historical paintings.

End of the War • With the British becoming more aggressive, New Englanders called End of the War • With the British becoming more aggressive, New Englanders called for a stop to the war. Some even argued that New England should break off (secede) and become its own country. -> American victory at the Battle of New Orleans changed public opinion. - > At the Battle of New Orleans, Andrew Jackson used clever battlefield tactics to win the day including using cotton bales to protect troops from gunfire. • This battle made Jackson a war hero, and made him extremely popular.

Treaty of Ghent - > The War of 1812 ended with the Treaty of Treaty of Ghent - > The War of 1812 ended with the Treaty of Ghent. - > The Treaty was pretty straightforward: it returned everything to the way it had been before the war. • All borders were restored. • No side gained or won anything. • However, both sides were glad the war was over. • (Even so… Canada definitely won)

The Era of Good Feelings • After Madison left office, James Monroe was elected The Era of Good Feelings • After Madison left office, James Monroe was elected President. • Monroe’s presidency was marked by several important trend, importantly: - There was a huge increase in national pride • Now that the war of 1812 was over, nationalism spread. For the first time, people’s loyalty to the country was more important to them than their loyalty to their states.

The Era of Good Feelings - There was also unity on the political front: The Era of Good Feelings - There was also unity on the political front: the Republican party was the only party with any power. • The Federalists had lost political influence after the Hartford Convention. - Most people now favored a stronger federal government, which was good for Monroe. - > Together, all these factors (unified congress, strong government) led to Monroe’s presidency being called the Era of Good Feelings.

Economic Nationalism -> Monroe’s presidency was important because of the country’s newfound nationalism. - Economic Nationalism -> Monroe’s presidency was important because of the country’s newfound nationalism. - > National pride, and political unity, plus a stronger government meant that Monroe could focus on improving the country. • Monroe and his cabinet put together a series of plans that included creating a new national bank, protecting American manufacturers from foreign competition, and building canals and roads to improve transportation.

Economic Nationalism -> The Second Bank - > Republicans (like Monroe) traditionally did not Economic Nationalism -> The Second Bank - > Republicans (like Monroe) traditionally did not like the idea of a national bank. -> In 1811 (right before the war), Madison’s government did not renew the bank’s charter. • This means that the bank wasn’t outlawed, but had no support from the government. - To fund the War of 1812, Madison had to rely on privately owned banks. • Privately owned banks were not as regulated, and had huge interest rates. • After the War of 1812, many Republicans supported the bank instead. - > Monroe’s gov’t re-established the National Bank in 1816

Economic Nationalism -> Tariffs -> The Republicans also wanted to protect American manufacturers, and Economic Nationalism -> Tariffs -> The Republicans also wanted to protect American manufacturers, and increase business. • During the War of 1812, no British goods were being traded in America (because we were at war with Britain), which helped American manufacturers. • Once the war was over, though, cheap British goods flooded the market. -> Congress responded with the Tariff of 1816. - > This was a protective tariff. - > This means it taxed imports (from other countries) to encourage people to buy locally.

Economic Nationalism -> Transportation - > The Republicans also wanted to improve the transportation Economic Nationalism -> Transportation - > The Republicans also wanted to improve the transportation system. - > Under the guidance of John C. Calhoun, road and canal construction soon began. • This helped standardize transportation across the country. • This meant that now, goods could travel more easily across the country.

Nationalist Diplomacy -> The wave of nationalism within the country also influenced the nation’s Nationalist Diplomacy -> The wave of nationalism within the country also influenced the nation’s foreign affairs. • The United States under President Monroe expanded its borders and asserted itself as a force to be reckoned with. • Monroe (and the American army) began to expand America’s borders westward and southward.

Nationalist Diplomacy - > Throughout the early 1800 s, Spanish-held Florida was a source Nationalist Diplomacy - > Throughout the early 1800 s, Spanish-held Florida was a source of anger and stress for Americans in the South. • Many runaway slaves fled to the Spanish territory, knowing that Americans could not cross the border into Florida. • Also, many Creek Native Americans had resettled in Florida as American settlers seized their lands. - > This combined group of runaway slaves and Native Americans re-named themselves the Seminole (which means runaway). - > The Seminole used Florida as a base to raid American settlements.

Nationalist Diplomacy • Tensions increased when the Spanish settlers in Florida refused to patrol Nationalist Diplomacy • Tensions increased when the Spanish settlers in Florida refused to patrol the border. • Meanwhile, the Seminole were becoming more aggressive, and with good reason. “You charge me with killing your people, stealing your cattle and burning your houses; [but] it is I that have cause to complain of the Americans… I shall use force to stop any armed Americans from passing [into] my towns or my lands. ” - Kinache, Seminole leader

Nationalist Diplomacy • Kinache’s warning was not heeded. -> John C. Calhoun (now appointed Nationalist Diplomacy • Kinache’s warning was not heeded. -> John C. Calhoun (now appointed Monroe’s secretary of war) sent General Andrew Jackson into Florida. -> Jackson destroyed several Seminole villages, and also seized Spanish settlements. -> Jackson also removed the Spanish governor from power. - > The Spanish were furious. They demanded Jackson be punished.

Nationalist Diplomacy • Monroe initially sided with Spain - Jackson had stepped out of Nationalist Diplomacy • Monroe initially sided with Spain - Jackson had stepped out of line by attacking the Spanish settlers. • Secretary of State John Quincy Adams defended Jackson. • Adams said Spain wasn’t controlling Florida properly, and Jackson was right to step in. -> J. Q. Adams put pressure on Spain, and Spain signed the Adams-Onis Treaty. -> The Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 gave Florida to the United States, and also officially defined the border of the Louisiana Purchase.

Nationalist Diplomacy • Monroe initially sided with Spain - Jackson had stepped out of Nationalist Diplomacy • Monroe initially sided with Spain - Jackson had stepped out of line by attacking the Spanish settlers. • However, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams defended Jackson - he said Spain wasn’t controlling Florida properly, and Jackson was right to step in. - J. Q. Adams put pressure on Spain, and ultimately, Spain ceded all of Florida to the United States. - The Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 gave Florida to the United States, and also officially defined the border of the Louisiana Purchase.

Nationalist Diplomacy -> New Issues with Europe -> Between 1809 and 1824, all of Nationalist Diplomacy -> New Issues with Europe -> Between 1809 and 1824, all of Spain’s colonies in the Americas had declared independence. • Spain now only controlled Cuba, Santo Domingo, and Puerto Rico. • Meanwhile… in Europe: -> The Metternich System is suppressing rebellions across Europe. The Quadruple Alliance (Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia) wondered whether it should interfere in the Americas.

Nationalist Diplomacy • This angered Britain and the United States. • They both traded Nationalist Diplomacy • This angered Britain and the United States. • They both traded with Mexico and Latin America, and did not want the Spanish to take control again. -> Russia also claimed the Alaskan territory at this point, and tried to take land in Canada. • Britain wanted the U. S. to issue a joint statement supporting the independence of the new Mexico and Latin America. - > Monroe agreed to the idea of an anti-conquest statement - but did not want to do it jointly. - > Instead, he asked J. Q. Adams to draft a document.

Monroe Doctrine -> Monroe issued a statement (written by J. Q. Adams): -> “The Monroe Doctrine -> Monroe issued a statement (written by J. Q. Adams): -> “The American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers. ” • This proclamation was later known as the Monroe Doctrine.

Monroe Doctrine • The Monroe Doctrine was a bold move on the Americans’ part. Monroe Doctrine • The Monroe Doctrine was a bold move on the Americans’ part. • The United States may have not been able to back up the new policy if they were challenged by Spain. ->The Monroe Doctrine is so important because… - > This is the beginning of the American policy of preventing other countries from interfering in the Americas. - > The United States is saying that it supports the new independence of the Latin American countries, and will support them as needed - something that the U. S. still does today.

Industrializing America • By the early 1800 s, America was beginning to follow Europe Industrializing America • By the early 1800 s, America was beginning to follow Europe into the Industrial Revolution. - > The National Road - an East-West highway across most of the American territory - was started in 1811 • Other roads were also built - especially toll roads that brought in revenue. - > Steamboats also became very popular, especially for navigating the Mississippi River. - Trains - also called “Iron Horses” would help Americans settle the West.

Industrializing America -> There was also change in the work environment. -> Factories became Industrializing America -> There was also change in the work environment. -> Factories became more popular - allowing for cheaper labor and faster production. • This meant that skilled laborers - people working out of their homes - would lose work. • It also meant a move to the cities - > A huge benefit to American economy was the cotton gin, a cotton cleaning machine. • This made cotton production faster and easier, which helped make America a major player in the world economy. However, the use of the cotton gin also increased the popularity of slavery.

The Missouri Compromise • Even though Monroe’s presidency was called the Era of Good The Missouri Compromise • Even though Monroe’s presidency was called the Era of Good Feelings, there were still some major issues in the country: - > There was growing sectionalism, especially between the North and the South. - > Many people also had differing opinions about slavery. - > Tensions rose to the boiling point in 1819, when Missouri applied for statehood.

The Missouri Compromise -> Missouri officially applying to become a state raised the political The Missouri Compromise -> Missouri officially applying to become a state raised the political issue of slavery. - > In 1819, there were 22 official states - 11 slave states, and 11 free. - > Congress worried that admitting a new state either a slave state or a free state - would upset this balance. • At this point, the North (free states) had a huge majority in the House of Representatives. • It was concern for the possible southern (slave state) majority in the Senate that caused issues.

The Missouri Compromise • Missouri wanted to be added as a slave state, which The Missouri Compromise • Missouri wanted to be added as a slave state, which would cause issues. -> A Congressman from New York (James Tallmadge) proposed a new resolution. -> The resolution would stop slaveholders from bringing new slaves into Missouri. -> The resolution also called for all enslaved children in Missouri to be freed at age 25. -> The House of Representatives accepted Tallmadge’s idea, but the Senate rejected it. IT WAS NEVER PUT INTO PLACE!

The Missouri Compromise • The Solution: -> A solution emerged when Maine, which was The Missouri Compromise • The Solution: -> A solution emerged when Maine, which was still a part of Massachusetts - requested admission to the union as a separate state. -> The Senate agreed to combine the two requests - Missouri would be added to the United States as a slave state, but Maine would be added as a free state. - Problem solved! (For now)

The Missouri Compromise • Also added to the Missouri Compromise was a plan to The Missouri Compromise • Also added to the Missouri Compromise was a plan to outline what new states would do about slavery. - > Senator Jesse Thomas proposed that a line be drawn under the border of Missouri. - > This would allow slavery in the Arkansas territory, but not in the rest of the Louisiana purchase. • Many people thought settling in the Great Plains was a bad idea as it was, and that the area would be bad for farming - so the compromise was accepted by both sides.

The Missouri Compromise • Also added to the Missouri Compromise was a plan to The Missouri Compromise • Also added to the Missouri Compromise was a plan to outline what new states would do about slavery. - Senator Jesse Thomas proposed that a line be drawn under the border of Missouri. This would allow slavery in the Arkansas territory, but not in the rest of the Louisiana purchase. • Many people thought settling in the Great Plains was a bad idea as it was - so the compromise was accepted by both sides.

The Missouri Compromise • Once the issue was settled, however, a new problem developed. The Missouri Compromise • Once the issue was settled, however, a new problem developed. In order to be added as an official state, Missouri needed to write a state constitution. - Pro-slavery members of the state gov’t added a clause to the state constitution, which made it illegal for any free African Americans to enter the state. • This new controversy threatened to make it hard to approve the constitution. - Henry Clay found a solution - the Missouri legislature agreed to not honor the new clause.

Reaction to the Missouri Compromise -> Despite Clay’s efforts, many leaders feared that the Reaction to the Missouri Compromise -> Despite Clay’s efforts, many leaders feared that the Missouri Compromise was only a temporary solution. -> John Quincy Adams said: “I take it for granted that the present question is a mere preamble – a title page to a great tragic volume. ” • What does J. Q. Adams mean with this quote? What does he think might happen?

The Election of 1824 -> By 1824, the Era of Good Feelings was coming The Election of 1824 -> By 1824, the Era of Good Feelings was coming to an end. -> Sectionalism was spreading. • People now disagreed about beliefs, policies, and hot button topics such as slavery. - The Presidential campaign of 1824 showed how splintered the Republican party had become. - > Four Republican candidates ran for President in 1824, and all had huge amounts of support.

A Battle of Favorite Sons • Four candidates ran for president in 1824. All A Battle of Favorite Sons • Four candidates ran for president in 1824. All belonged to the Republican party. - > All four candidates were “favorite sons” - men who had support of leaders from their own state and region. - Henry Clay was from Kentucky - Western son - Andrew Jackson was from Tennessee Western son - John Quincy Adams was from Massachusetts and was the current secretary of state for Monroe - New England son - William Crawford from Georgia - Southern son

 • Each of these candidates had support from their Henry Clay different Andrew • Each of these candidates had support from their Henry Clay different Andrew Jackson West (Kentucky) regions. West (Tenn) • This led to conflict on election day, because no one candidate had a majority. John Quincy Adams William Crawford South (Georgia) New England (MA)

A Battle of Favorite Sons • Each candidate also had his own platform - A Battle of Favorite Sons • Each candidate also had his own platform - Crawford: Ran on the original principles of Jefferson’s party - state’s rights, and a strict interpretation of the Constitution - Clay: Improvement on the national bank, increased protective tariffs, nationwide internal improvements - > J. Q. Adams: In favor of internal improvements, but less enthusiastic about tariffs - > Jackson: Little/no stance on politics. His platform focused on his heroism and fame during the War of 1812.

A Battle of Favorite Sons • On election day, there were several big issues. A Battle of Favorite Sons • On election day, there were several big issues. -> Jackson won the most popular votes, but no candidate won a majority in the Electoral College. - > The election then when to the House of Representatives, who would choose between Jackson, J. Q. Adams, and Crawford. • Clay had the least votes and was eliminated. • Crawford had a heart attack and died. - > However… Clay was also Speaker of the House, and in case of a tie vote, he made the decision on the President. Henry Clay

A Battle of Favorite Sons • Clay needed to choose a candidate to support A Battle of Favorite Sons • Clay needed to choose a candidate to support all who had run against him. • Clay hated Jackson. He thought Jackson was “ignorant…hypocritical and corrupt”. • Jackson called Clay, “the meanest scoundrel that ever disgraced the image of his god”. • So, it seemed obvious that Clay would support J. Q. Adams. - > Clay threw his political weight behind J. Q. Adams and helped him win the House election. - J. Q. Adams became President… but not everyone was happy.

The Corrupt Bargain • There was a rumor at the time of the election The Corrupt Bargain • There was a rumor at the time of the election that Clay had agreed to support J. Q. Adams if Adams would make Clay his Secretary of State. -> This rumor seemed to be proven true when, upon his election, J. Q. Adams did make Clay his Secretary of State. -> Jackson and his supporters accused Adams and Clay of striking a “corrupt bargain”. This political cartoon shows Clay literally sewing Jackson’s mouth shut.

The Corrupt Bargain • J. Q. Adams and Clay denied any wrongdoing, and there The Corrupt Bargain • J. Q. Adams and Clay denied any wrongdoing, and there was no official evidence. • However, Jackson and his supporters were so upset, that they formed a new political party in opposition to the Republicans. -> Jackson’s new party called themselves the Democratic Republicans. This was to set them apart from J. Q. Adams’ National Republicans. -> Eventually, the pro-Jackson party shortened the name to “Democrats”.

Andrew Jackass • Not everyone supported Andrew Jackson. Some thought he was very stubborn. Andrew Jackass • Not everyone supported Andrew Jackson. Some thought he was very stubborn. -> At one point, someone coined the nickname “Andrew Jackass”. • Jackson was not insulted however, and instead, decided to embrace the nickname for his new political party. -> That is why the symbol of the Democratic Party is the donkey - aka the jackass.

John Quincy Adams • John Quincy Adams had earned a good reputation as a John Quincy Adams • John Quincy Adams had earned a good reputation as a Secretary of State. Most people thought he was the best Secretary of State that the country had ever had. • As President, J. Q. Adams wanted to improve the country internally, but the Corrupt Bargain made him lose popularity. -> Adams wanted to build a national university, observatories for science, and to spend more money on science and education in general. -> Adams’ proposals were not approved. Many people though it was “extravagant”, and a waste of money. -> In the end, Adams was able to improve the transportation system a bit, extend the National Road, but not do much else. He was defeated on his reelection by Jackson.

Election of 1828 • In 1828, J. Q. Adams ran for re-election against Andrew Election of 1828 • In 1828, J. Q. Adams ran for re-election against Andrew Jackson. -> Jackson had huge support - many people believed he should have won the last election. -> The campaign quickly descended into mudslinging.

Mudslinging -> “Mudslinging” describes when candidates (or their parties) try to make one candidate Mudslinging -> “Mudslinging” describes when candidates (or their parties) try to make one candidate look better by making the opponent look bad. • Adams said Jackson was, “incompetent both by his ignorance and by the fury of his passions. ” • Or… “He can’t do this job because he’s not just stupid, he cares about stupid things, and gets angry too easily. ” • Adams also slung personal attacks at Jackson’s wife. • Jackson attacked Adams for being an “out of touch aristocrat”, while Jackson himself was the “everyman”. • Jackson also called Adams a gambler for buying a pool table and a chess set. • Jackson’s campaign also brought up the “corrupt bargain”, to show Adams as untrustworthy.

Victory for Jackson -> Jackson won the election, in a clear victory. -> Most Victory for Jackson -> Jackson won the election, in a clear victory. -> Most of the people who supported Jackson were form the West and South - mostly rural and small town - who saw Jackson as “one of them”. • Jackson was in the white house. • The first thing he did was throw a party.

King Mob -> Jackson was so popular with the average person that he was King Mob -> Jackson was so popular with the average person that he was called “King Mob”. -> However, this is important - it’s the first time that the average person was participating so actively in politics. Jackson was truly the “People’s President”. • During his presidency, government became more accessible to the average person, and ordinary citizens became a greater political force.

Jackson’s Presidency - > Voting rights had also expanded - most states had eliminated Jackson’s Presidency - > Voting rights had also expanded - most states had eliminated the “property” requirement. • Now, any white male in the states could vote. - > These “expanded voting rights” still left out a lot of people - women, African Americans, other minorities etc, but it was a step in the right direction. • It was thanks to these expanded voting rights that Jackson was elected - the average man whether he owned property or not - could vote for his candidate.

Jackson • Jackson was an interesting president. Unlike his predecessors, he had little formal Jackson • Jackson was an interesting president. Unlike his predecessors, he had little formal education. • Jackson was the last president who was a veteran of the Revolutionary War. He joined as a messenger at age 13.

Jackson • The 13 year old Jackson and his brother were taken hostage by Jackson • The 13 year old Jackson and his brother were taken hostage by British officers. • At one point, one of the officers demanded that Jackson clean his boots. Jackson refused. The officer slashed at Jackson with his sword, and Jackson blocked the blow with his arm. • Eventually, Jackson’s mother secured his release, agreeing to work as a nurse aboard a British ship (nursing Colonial prisoners). • However, shortly afterward, Jackson’s brother died of smallpox (Jackson survived it) and his mother died of cholera. Jackson’s father had died before he was born. • Jackson was a war veteran and an orphan by age 14.

Jackson • Jackson received little formal education, however, he learned enough to become a Jackson • Jackson received little formal education, however, he learned enough to become a lawyer in Tennessee. • Eventually, he became the first Representative of the new state, and later, a court Judge. • Jackson became more and more wealthy eventually becoming a plantation owner with 150 slaves. • Despite this, however, most people saw him as an “everyman”.

Jackson • Jackson also had a popular military career. • He was already famous Jackson • Jackson also had a popular military career. • He was already famous for the Revolutionary War, and his victory at the Battle of New Orleans made him even more popular. • Jackson also loved duels - taking part in 5 before he became President, and once killing an opponent. • He also once beat up a would-be assassin with his hickory cane. • However, as interesting as his early life was… he was a controversial President.

The Nullification Crisis - > Jackson had not been in office long before he The Nullification Crisis - > Jackson had not been in office long before he had to focus on a national crisis. • It centered on South Carolina - but it also highlighted the growing rift (sectionalism) between the South and North. • South Carolina’s economy was weakening - many people blamed it on tariffs. - > South Carolina didn’t have good manufacturing in the state, and relied on imports from England for a lot of things. - > When Congress levied another tax - called the Tariff of Abominations - many South Carolinians threatened to secede from the Union.

The Nullification Crisis -> This growing issue bothered one person in particular - John The Nullification Crisis -> This growing issue bothered one person in particular - John C. Calhoun. • Calhoun was Vice President, and was born in South Carolina. -> Calhoun felt torn - he wanted to defend the nation’s policies, but also wanted to support the South Carolinians. - > Calhoun suggested nullification - Nullification argues that states should have the right to declare a federal law null (not valid) if they do not like it. - Calhoun said that, since the states had created the Union, they should have control over whether they follow its laws.

The Nullification Crisis • Jackson disagreed with his Vice President saying that the Union The Nullification Crisis • Jackson disagreed with his Vice President saying that the Union was more important than the happiness of one state. -> In 1832, South Carolina adopted an ordinance of nullification. • Jackson considered this to be an act of treason, and sent a warship to Charleston. -> In 1833, Congress passed the Force Bill authorizing the President to use the military to enforce the law in the country.

The Nullification Crisis • The Force Bill made South Carolinians even more angry (and The Nullification Crisis • The Force Bill made South Carolinians even more angry (and also angered Calhoun) - > Many people though Jackson had gone too far by authorizing the use of military against American citizens. • Eventually, Henry Clay proposed a solution. - > Under Clay’s solution, the tariffs would lower gradually over time, until 1842. In response, South Carolina repealed its nullification of the tariff law. • The problem was solved temporarily.

Jackson and Native Americans • Though under Jackson’s presidency, there were more rights for Jackson and Native Americans • Though under Jackson’s presidency, there were more rights for the common citizen of the United States, it certainly wasn’t fair for everyone. - > Jackson’s view towards Native Americans reflected the views of many Westerners at the time. • Jackson had fought Creek and Seminole people in Georgia and Florida. - > During his inaugural address, he also expressed his plan to move all Native Americans to the Great Plains.

Jackson and Native Americans • Most people thought the Great Plains was a wasteland. Jackson and Native Americans • Most people thought the Great Plains was a wasteland. Jackson figured if he moved the Native Americans to that region, they would cease to be a problem for settlers. -> In 1830, Jackson pushed through the Indian removal Act which provided money for “relocating” Native Americans. -> Most Native American groups gave in, and resettled in the West, but the Cherokee did not want to stand for it.

Jackson and Native Americans • The Cherokee had adopted aspects of “white” culture - Jackson and Native Americans • The Cherokee had adopted aspects of “white” culture - including a written language based on English. -> Cherokee leaders hired lawyers to sue the state of Georgia. -> Worcester v. Georgia eventually reached the Supreme Court… and won. -> Justice John Marshall ordered state officials to honor Cherokee property rights. -> However… Jackson refused to support the decision saying: “Marshall has made his opinion. Now let him enforce it. ”

Jackson and Native Americans • The Cherokee resisted until 1838. -> Jackson’s successor - Jackson and Native Americans • The Cherokee resisted until 1838. -> Jackson’s successor - Martin Van Buren – eventually sent in the United States army to “resolve the conflict”. • The army forced the remaining Cherokee out of their homes and marched them to what is now Oklahoma. -> About 2, 000 Cherokee died in camps while waiting for the migration to begin. -> 2, 000 more died of starvation, disease, and exposure on the 1000 -mile journey. -> This forced migration became known as the Trail of Tears.

Jackson and Native Americans Jackson and Native Americans

Jackson and the Bank - >One of Jackson’s main goals in his Presidency was Jackson and the Bank - >One of Jackson’s main goals in his Presidency was to remove the National Bank -> Jackson was suspicious of the Bank - he thought it was a monopoly that benefited the wealthy elite. • However, the Bank actually kept the money system of the United States stable. • State banks were un-regulated - and often printed more paper money than could be backed up by gold and silver. The National Bank didn’t have this problem. -> Many people in the West though hated the Bank – they wanted lines of credit to run their farms. • Jackson also believed that the National Bank went against the Constitution, despite a Supreme Court case that had ruled that the National Bank was constitutional.

Jackson and the Bank • Jackson believed that the ruling of the Supreme Court Jackson and the Bank • Jackson believed that the ruling of the Supreme Court didn’t apply to him, because he was President. • Jackson ran for reelection in 1832 and won. - > Jackson’s opponents (the Whigs) created a bill to extend the bank’s charter. - > Congress passed the bill, but Jackson vetoed it. - >Jackson won re-election, and proceeded to destroy the Bank.

Jackson and the Bank -> Jackson “killed” the Bank by removing all government deposits Jackson and the Bank -> Jackson “killed” the Bank by removing all government deposits and putting them in state banks • This meant the Bank had to call in its loans and stop lending. - Jackson had “won” a political victory - > However, this also meant there would be serious financial issues in the future of the USA. • It also lost Jackson a lot of support.

The Whigs • By the mid-1830 s, a party had formed against “King Andrew”. The Whigs • By the mid-1830 s, a party had formed against “King Andrew”. - > Whigs wanted a larger federal government, with a President that had less power. - > However, the Whig party was not strong enough by the Election of 1836 to win the election. - Democrat Martin Van Buren was elected President - and left to clean up after Jackson.

Martin Van Buren • Shortly after Van Buren took office, a crippling economic crisis Martin Van Buren • Shortly after Van Buren took office, a crippling economic crisis hit the nation. - > The Panic of 1837 almost collapsed the economy. - > Banks and businesses failed. - > Thousands of farmers lost their land. - > Unemployment soared among eastern factory workers. • Van Buren (who believed in limited federal government) did little to help the crisis.

Martin Van “Ruin” - > Though Van Buren was President during the Panic of Martin Van “Ruin” - > Though Van Buren was President during the Panic of 1837, it was Jackson’s removal of the bank that set him up to fail. • Martin Van Buren was not re-elected, and was nicknamed “Martin Van Ruin”, and blamed for ruining the economy. - > William Henry Harrison - the nominee of the new Whig party - was elected President. Van Buren Fun Fact: Martin Van Buren was afraid of trains! “Railroad carriages are pulled at the enormous speed of 15 miles per hour. The Almighty certainly never intended that man should travel at such breakneck speed. ”

“Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” • Many Americans blamed the Democrats for the depression. • “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” • Many Americans blamed the Democrats for the depression. • With the nation now facing hard times, the Whigs wanted to remove the Democrats from power. - > William Henry Harrison was the Whig candidate. - > He became famous after the Battle of Tippecanoe, and used this fame to boost his support. - > His running mate, Tyler, was a former Democrat who left the party during the Nullification Crisis.

“Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” • The Whig party wanted Harrison to look like he “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” • The Whig party wanted Harrison to look like he was a frontiersman - an everyman who had gained fame from the war. (Even though Harrison had been born into wealth) - > The campaign adopted the slogan, “Tippecanoe and Tyler too!” • Harrison won a decisive victory.

Harrison • On March 4, 1841, Harrison delivered his inauguration speech. • The weather Harrison • On March 4, 1841, Harrison delivered his inauguration speech. • The weather was bitterly cold, but Harrison refused to wear a hat or coat. He didn’t want to look weak. -> Harrison stood there - in the cold and rain - and gave his speech for two hours. - > Harrison contracted pneumonia and died 32 days later. - > Harrison has had the longest inaugural speech in history - and the shortest presidency. • Tyler became President instead.

Tyler • John Tyler’s sudden rise to the presidency shocked Whig leaders. - > Tyler • John Tyler’s sudden rise to the presidency shocked Whig leaders. - > Tyler had been a Democrat before and was against many Whig policies. - > The Whig party had only put him on the ticket to attract Southern voters. • No one actually expected him to become President! - > Congress and the press mockingly called Tyler “His Accidency”. • Tyler also went against his party (Whigs) in many ways - supporting the Democrats on tariffs, and not re-instating the Bank.

Tyler • Tyler’s administration focused on foreign relations. • There were disputes about the Tyler • Tyler’s administration focused on foreign relations. • There were disputes about the Maine/ Canada border, which caused issues with Britain. - > The Webster-Ashburton Treaty was created to established a firm boundary between the U. S. and Canada. - > Also, under Tyler, American culture started becoming established.

Manifest Destiny -> In the 1830 s-40 s, Americans also started moving West. • Manifest Destiny -> In the 1830 s-40 s, Americans also started moving West. • In 1800, only about 387, 000 United States settlers lived west of the Appalachians. -> Many people thought it was the right of Americans (white Americans, that is) to settle “from sea to shining sea”.

Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny

Texas -> Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821. For several years, Texas Texas -> Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821. For several years, Texas was simply a territory of Mexico. - >Tejanos were Spanish-speaking residents of Texas • Tejanos settled in San Antonio and Hidalgo, but did not settle further north. • The area in northern Texas was the territory of Apache, Comanche and other Native Americans. • Since few Tejanos would move closer to the Native Americans, Mexico began inviting Americans and other foreigners to settle there.

Texas • Between 1823 and 1825, Mexico passed colonization laws, which offered cheap land Texas • Between 1823 and 1825, Mexico passed colonization laws, which offered cheap land to anyone who was willing to move to Texas. - > One law made it so new settlers didn’t have to pay taxes for 10 years. - > This law also required settlers to become Mexican citizens. - > Empresarios encouraged Americans to settle in Texas, and acted like real estate agents. • They had been granted huge tracts of land, and in turn found settlers for the land. • One of these empresarios was called Stephen Austin. By the mid 1830 s, he had convinced 1, 500 American families to emigrate to Texas.

Texas • At first, American settlers in Texas accepted the land, and became Mexican Texas • At first, American settlers in Texas accepted the land, and became Mexican citizens. -> However, many American immigrants refused to learn Spanish, or convert to Catholicism (required in Mexico) -> A rebellion soon broke out - with a small group of American settlers claiming to be their own country (Fredonia) and immune to Mexican law. • Stephen Austin soon stopped the revolt. • However, it was obvious that soon, issues in Texas would come to a head.

Texas -> American settlers (including Austin) met at two conventions in San Felipe. -> Texas -> American settlers (including Austin) met at two conventions in San Felipe. -> Convention 1: Asked Mexico to re-open Texas to American settlers. Asked for lower taxes on imports from US. -> Convention 2: Texas wanted to be recognized as its own Mexican state. • At first, the Mexican government listened to the Texans. • However, communications stalled. • The Mexican government intercepted letters saying the Texans were organizing their own government • Stephen Austin was arrested and put in jail.

Texas -> April of 1834: Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna declared himself dictator of Texas -> April of 1834: Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna declared himself dictator of Mexico. • Santa Anna declared Mexico’s constitution to be invalid, and took complete power. • Austin (now released from prison) saw that war could not be avoided, and urged the Texans to form an army. -> 1834 - Mexico and Texas were at war.

Texas v. Mexico - Early Battles • The Mexican army had serious problems. -> Texas v. Mexico - Early Battles • The Mexican army had serious problems. -> The army was not well organized or well trained. -> First Texan victory: Gonzalez – a military base. • Mexican troops ordered the Texan rebels to surrender their guns and cannon. • Texans responded by putting a flag over the cannon which said “come and take it”. • The Mexican army had no orders to attack, and retreated instead. -> The Texans were able to take over San Antonio by December, 1835.

Texas v. Mexico - The Alamo -> February, 1836: Mexican forces enter Texan territory. Texas v. Mexico - The Alamo -> February, 1836: Mexican forces enter Texan territory. -> Over 180 Texan rebels were holed up in the Alamo. • The Texan rebels were under the command of Lt. Col. William B. Travis. -> The Texans never thought they could win. -> The goal was for the small force at the Alamo to delay Santa Anna to give Sam Houston’s army more time to prepare.

Texas v. Mexico - The Alamo -> The Texans managed to hold off Santa Texas v. Mexico - The Alamo -> The Texans managed to hold off Santa Anna’s troops for 13 days. -> During the standoff, the new Texas government formally declared independence from Mexico. -> March 6, 1836, Santa Anna’s army stormed the Alamo. • The Texans managed to kill or incapacitate over 600 Mexican troops before the Alamo was overrun. • Though the Texans had been defeated at the Alamo, they had given Houston’s army two extra weeks to organize.

Texas v. Mexico - The Alamo -> Of roughly 250 people at the Alamo Texas v. Mexico - The Alamo -> Of roughly 250 people at the Alamo before the battle, there were fewer than 50 survivors. • Santa Anna executed all remaining Texan troops (some had left earlier to try to get reinforcements) • The Texan survivors left at the Alamo were all women, children, and slaves. • Each woman was given a blanket and two pesos and allowed to return home. • Santa Anna hoped that the women and slaves would spread the word that the Mexican army could not be defeated. Casualties of the Alamo included Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett

Texas v. Mexico -> Two weeks after the Alamo, Mexican troops also won a Texas v. Mexico -> Two weeks after the Alamo, Mexican troops also won a battle at Goliad. • The Texan soldiers surrendered - hoping for mercy, but Santa Anna ordered the execution of over 300 Texan survivors. -> The losses at the Alamo and Goliad made Texans upset, but also united them behind a common cause. • Rallying cries of “Remember the Alamo” and “Remember Goliad” now were used during Texan battles, to remind troops of why they were fighting.

Texas v. Mexico - San Jacinto -> The war turned in favor of the Texas v. Mexico - San Jacinto -> The war turned in favor of the Texans at the Battle of San Jacinto - April 21, 1836. • Houston kept retreating away from Santa Anna’s army. Eventually, both armies were camped at the San Jacinto river. But Houston had been biding his time. -> Santa Anna had seen Houston retreating again and again, and no longer saw Houston’s army as a threat. • Santa Anna allowed the Mexican troops to relax napping in the afternoon. -> Houston’s army attacked - shielded from sight by a hill, and attacking the sleeping soldiers. -> The battle lasted less than 20 minutes. -> Hundreds of Mexican soldiers were killed, and over 700 were taken captive. The Texans only lost 9.

Texas v. Mexico - San Jacinto -> Santa Anna himself was captured at the Texas v. Mexico - San Jacinto -> Santa Anna himself was captured at the battle of San Jacinto. • Houston forced Santa Anna to sign a treaty. -> The treaty recognized Texas as an independent republic, and forced all Mexican troops out of Texas. ->The Republic of Texas was now its own country.

The Republic of Texas -> Sam Houston was elected President of Texas. -> Texans The Republic of Texas -> Sam Houston was elected President of Texas. -> Texans also voted 3, 277 to 91 in favor of becoming a part of the United States. -> However, Texas wanted to be added as a slave state • This would cause an imbalance in the House of Reps. • President Tyler brought the issue to the Senate, but senators from the North called it a “pro-slavery plot” -> The U. S. also wanted to avoid issues with Mexico. • In 1836, the United States recognized Texas as an independent country, but did not add it as a state. • Whether to add Texas as a state became an issue during the Election of 1844. • Soon after, the U. S. would be at war with Mexico.

Election of 1844 • The issue of Texas was also a point of issue Election of 1844 • The issue of Texas was also a point of issue in the election of 1844. - At first, the front-runners for the election were Henry Clay (Whig) and former President Van Buren (Democrat). • Van Buren refused to choose a side on the annexation issue whether or not Texas should become a state. - Democrats did not like that Van Buren was indecisive. - James K. Polk became the Democratic candidate instead.

Election of 1844 - Polk promised that, if elected, he would add Texas to Election of 1844 - Polk promised that, if elected, he would add Texas to the United States. - He also promised to annex the Oregon territory, and said he would buy California from Mexico. • Northerners and Southerners both liked this platform - it would add free states and slave states. - Polk won the election, and became President.

Election of 1844 • Before Tyler left office, Texas joined the Union. - One Election of 1844 • Before Tyler left office, Texas joined the Union. - One of the biggest things that new President Polk faced was the Oregon territory. - Both Britain and America claimed the territory. • Many of Polk’s supporters called “Fifty-four Forty or Fight” declaring that they wanted all of the Oregon territory to the line of 54 degrees and forty minutes north latitude. - Privately, however, Polk made a deal with Britain to split the territory right down the middle. • The Oregon territory had been added to the United States.

Issues with Mexico • Texas had now been added to the United States, but Issues with Mexico • Texas had now been added to the United States, but now the issue was where the Mexican/American border was. -> Americans claimed the border with Mexico was the Rio Grande – Mexicans said it was the Nueces River. -> Polk’s intention to buy California also caused issues with Mexico. - When Polk sent an envoy to Mexico to buy California, the Mexican President refused to even meet with him.

The War with Mexico • The snub from the Mexican president ended any chances The War with Mexico • The snub from the Mexican president ended any chances the U. S. and Mexico had for a peaceful solution. -> Polk ordered troops (led by Gen. Zachary Taylor) to cross the Nueces River. - The land between the Nueces and the Rio Grande was disputed - both America and Mexico laid claim to it. -> Mexico saw this as an invasion, but to the Americans, it technically wasn’t… -> Polk wanted the Mexicans to fire the first shot, so that he could claim that Mexico “started it”.

The War with Mexico -> Finally, the Mexican army attacked Taylor’s army in the The War with Mexico -> Finally, the Mexican army attacked Taylor’s army in the disputed territory. -> This was the chance Polk had been waiting for. He declared that the United States was at war saying: “American blood has been shed on American soil!” • Not all Americans supported war though. -> Whigs were against the war, seeing it as another plot to extend slavery • However, the Senate and the House of Representatives voted in favor of war.

The War with Mexico • Polk’s strategy… • Polk had a three-pronged strategy 1. The War with Mexico • Polk’s strategy… • Polk had a three-pronged strategy 1. Taylor’s troops would continue to move south, crossing the Rio Grande into official Mexico territory 2. A separate force to the northwest would capture Santa Fe - a trading center in what is now New Mexico - and then march west to take control of California 3. U. S. forces would advance to Mexico City and force Mexico to surrender.

The War with Mexico The War with Mexico

The War with Mexico • Polk’s strategy for the war was ambitious -> In The War with Mexico • Polk’s strategy for the war was ambitious -> In order to have enough troops for the three-part attack, the United States needed a bigger army. • Polk called for 50, 000 volunteers to join the army - > Men from all over the country signed up almost 73, 000 new troops

The War with Mexico - Even though the 73, 000 new troops helped add The War with Mexico - Even though the 73, 000 new troops helped add to the army, there were issues -> The volunteers were undisciplined and unruly - they were not ideal soldiers • One officer observed: “They will do well enough to defend their own firesides, but they can not endure the fatigue incident to an invading army. ” -> This means the soldiers would defend themselves, but over time, would get tired and might give up.

The War with Mexico • The fighting officially began in early May, 1846. 1. The War with Mexico • The fighting officially began in early May, 1846. 1. Zachary Taylor’s troops defeated Mexican forces, and then moved south. -> By late September, Taylor’s army had marched about 200 miles west, conquering along the way. 2. Meanwhile, Col. Kearny led troops toward Santa Fe. The march through the dry countryside was brutal. -> When they arrived, the Mexican army had already fled. Santa Fe was easily secured.

The War with Mexico -> Meanwhile, in California… -> American settlers in California Territory The War with Mexico -> Meanwhile, in California… -> American settlers in California Territory (controlled by Mexico) began an uprising against the Mexican government there. • The settlers - led by John C. Fremont - had little trouble overcoming the few Mexican troops there. -> On June 14, 1846, the rebels declared California independent: the Bear Flag Republic -> However, the 2 nd prong of Polk’s strategy had the U. S. navy conquering California in a matter of weeks.

The War with Mexico • So far, the war had gone just as Polk The War with Mexico • So far, the war had gone just as Polk had planned. • However, Mexico refused to surrender. -> Polk decided to force the war to come to an end by finishing the 3 rd part of his plan. -> Polk sent soldiers to Veracruz, where they would march west and conquer the capital - Mexico City. • At this point, Polk saw Taylor as a possible threat. He didn’t want Taylor - with his military success to turn into a rival during Polk’s bid for re-election. - Polk phased Taylor out of the war - having Gen. Winfield Scott (Whig) in command of the campaign to take Mexico City.

The War with Mexico -> On September 14 th, 1847, Gen. Scott took Mexico The War with Mexico -> On September 14 th, 1847, Gen. Scott took Mexico City. • With the capital captured, Mexico could not hold out any longer. -> On February 2, 1848, the Mexican government signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. -> In the agreement - Mexico ceded (gave up) more than 500, 000 square miles of land. • This land became California, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, and Arizona. -> In exchange, the U. S. paid Mexico $15 million.

The War with Mexico -> With the official addition of Oregon and California, the The War with Mexico -> With the official addition of Oregon and California, the United States had completed Manifest Destiny. - The United States now officially stretched form ocean to ocean. • However, the question of whether the new territory would allow slavery or not, and what rights these newly formed states would have, soon led the country into another conflict. • The country was rising toward Civil War