- Количество слайдов: 19
The Neolithic Revolution (8000 BCE-3500 BCE) • Sometimes termed the Agricultural Revolution. • Humans begin to slowly domesticate plant and animal stocks in Southwest Asia. • Agriculture requires nomadic peoples to become sedentary. • Populations begin to rise in areas where plant and animal domestication occurred.
WHEN? End of the last ice age about 10, 000 years ago Some groups adapted to the new environment Some groups remained hunter gatherers The groups that adapted created a more reliable food supply less diversified huge impact upon the environment animals were domesticated for food and labor RESULT Populations increased Family groups gave way to village and later urban life Patriarchy and forced labor developed Emergence of Pastoralism in Africa and Eurasia. Pastoralists mobility became conduits for spreading technology and ideas as the interacted with settled communities
Around 10, 000 years ago, NR let to the development of new and more complex ECONOMIC and SOCIAL systems Mesopotamia, Nile River, Indus River, Yellow River, Mesoamerica Pastoralism developed on the grasslands of Eurasia and Africa Different crops and animals were domesticated Agricultural impacted environmental diversity Grazing large numbers of animals led to erosion
Costs & Advantages of Agriculture Advantages • Steady food supplies • Greater populations • Leads to organized societies capable of supporting additional vocations (soldiers, managers, etc. ) Costs • Heavily dependant on certain food crops (failure = starvation) • Disease from close contact with animals, humans, & waste • Can’t easily leave sites
You must be able to identify the CORE and FOUNDATIONAL CIVILIZATIONS on a map. Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valley Egypt in the Nile River Valley Mohenjo-Daro and the Harappa in the Indus River Valley Shang in the Yellow or Hwang He River Valley Olmecs in Mexico Chavin in Andean South America
Agriculture Slowly Spreads: What do you notice about the core areas?
Independent Development vs. Cultural Diffusion • Areas of Independent Development: 1. SW Asia (wheat, pea, olive, sheep, goat) 2. China & SE Asia (rice, millet, pig) 3. Americas (corn, beans, potato, llama) • Areas of Agriculture Through Diffusion: 1. Europe 2. West & Sub-Saharan Africa (? ) 3. Indus River Valley (rice cultivation)
Interactions Between Nomadic Peoples and Sedentary Agricultural Peoples • Some nomadic peoples engaged in pastoralism. • Some practiced slash & burn agriculture. • The violent and peaceful interaction between nomads and agriculturalists endures throughout history. (Trade & raids)
Sedentary Agriculturalists Dominate • High starch diets slowly allow Sedentary populations to grow. • First plow invented c. 6000 BCE; crop yields grow exponentially by 4000 BCE. Pop. grows from 5 -8 million to 60 -70 million. • Eventually agricultural populations begin to spread out, displacing or assimilating nomadic groups; farming groups grow large enough for advanced social organization.
First Towns Develop Catal Huyuk Modern Turkey Jericho Modern Israel First settled: c. 7000 BCE
First Towns Develop • Towns require social differentiation: metal workers, pottery workers, farmers, soldiers, religious and political leaders. (POSSIBLE B/C FOOD SURPLUSES!) • Served as trade centers for the area; specialized in the production of certain unique crafts • Beginnings of social stratification (class)
Towns Present Evidence of: • Religious structures (burial rites, art) • Political & Religious leaders were the same • Still relied on limited hunting & gathering for food
Roles of Women • Women generally lost status under maledominated, patriarchal systems. • Women were limited in vocation, worked in food production, etc. • Women may have lacked the same social rights as men.
Agricultural and Pastoralism began to transfer human Societies Reliable and more abundant food supplies resulting in an increase in population Surplus food and other goods led to specialization of labor and new social classes (artisans, warriors, elites) Technical innovations led to improvements in agricultural production, trade, and transportation Pottery Plows Woven Textiles Metallurgy Wheels and wheeled vehicles
Metal Working: From Copper to Bronze • The working of metals became very important to early human settlements for tools & weapons. • Early settlements gradually shifted from copper to the stronger alloy bronze by 3, 000 BCE—ushers in the Bronze Age! • Metal working spread throughout human communities slowly as agriculture had.
Further Technological Advancements Wheeled Vehicles • Saves labor, allows transport of large loads and enhances trade Potters Wheel (c. 6000 BCE) • Allows the construction of more durable clay vessels and artwork Irrigation & Driven Plows • Allows further increase of food production, encourages pop. growth
Early Human Impact on the Environment • Deforestation in places where copper, bronze, and salt were produced. • Erosion and flooding where agriculture disturbed soil and natural vegetation. • Selective extinction of large land animals and weed plants due to hunting & agriculture.
Advanced Civilization: The Next Step? • By 3500 BCE, relatively large, advanced preliterate societies had developed along the Indus, Huang He, Nile, and Tigris & Euphrates Rivers. • As societies grew in size and need, sedentary human beings were once again faced with pressures to adapt to changing natural and human environments.