- Количество слайдов: 78
The Modern Temper and Great Depression Chapters 9, 10, and 11
Red Scare n Why? n n n n Communism/Socialism Industrialization/Labor Unions Alien Act Sedition Act Espionage Act Scheck vs. United States Palmer Raids
Source: Excerpt from an essay written by A. Mitchell Palmer called "The Case Against the ‘Reds, '” 1920. In 1917, Russia became a communist country. Also, right after WWI, the country experienced high inflation, high unemployment, and a number of labor strikes. Against this backdrop, the United States began arresting and deporting anyone suspected of “radical” thinking (e. g. , communism, socialism, anarchism, prolabor). These arrests became known as the “Palmer Raids” after the Attorney General of the United States, A. Mitchell Palmer. “Like a prairie-fire, the blaze of revolution was sweeping over every American institution a year ago. It was eating its way into the homes of the American workmen, its sharp tongues of revolutionary heat were licking the altars of the churches, leaping into schools, crawling into the sacred corners of American homes, burning up the foundations of society. My information showed that thousands of aliens supported communism in this country. The whole purpose of communism appears to be a mass organization of the criminals of the world to overthrow the decencies of private life, to usurp property that they have not earned, to disrupt the present order of life. Communism distorts our social law. The Department of Justice will pursue the attack of these "Reds" upon the Government of the United States with vigilance, and no alien, advocating the overthrow of existing law and order in this country, shall escape arrest and prompt deportation. ”
Discussion Questions, Palmer 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. According to Palmer, what is spreading like a fire? How does Palmer describe communism? Why does he think it’s dangerous? What is he promising to do? Think about what’s happening at the time. According to this document, who is
Source: Excerpt from the statement Emma Goldman gave at her deportation hearings. Goldman was an anarchist and socialist who sympathized with the working poor. She was deported during the Palmer Raids. I wish to register my protest against these proceedings, whose very spirit is nothing less than a revival of the ancient days of the Spanish Inquisition or Czarist Russia (when anyone who disagreed with the government was deported or killed). Today so-called aliens are deported. Tomorrow American citizens will be banished. Already some “patriots” are suggesting that some native-born American citizens should be exiled. The free expression of the hopes of a people is the greatest and only safety in a sane society. The object of the deportations and of the anti-anarchist law is to stifle the voice of the people, to muzzle every aspiration of labor. That is the real and terrible menace of these proceedings. Their goal is to exile and banish every one who does not agree with the lies that our leaders of industry continue to spread.
Discussion Questions, Goldman 1. According to Goldman, what is wrong with the Palmer Raids? 2. According to Goldman, what is the goal of the Palmer Raids? 3. Think about what’s happening at the time. 4. According to this document, who did Palmer arrest? 5. Why did Palmer arrest thousands of people and deport hundreds between 1919 -1920?
In with the old, out with the new! n Nativism n n Sacco and Vanzetti Immigration Restrictions n n n National Origins Act Racist studies Quota law, 1924 n
Ku Klux Klan n Birth of a Nation 100% Americanism Anti Who?
Immigration 1924 n n n The 1917 Quota Act, implemented an $8 head tax, an exhaustive list of undesirables, and set temporary national origin quotas. The 1924 Immigration Act codified the national origins quotas and gave more complete power to the Immigration Bureau to regulate the national standards. During congressional debate over the 1924 Act, Senator Ellison Du. Rant Smith of South Carolina drew on the racist theories of Eugenics to argue that immigration restriction was the only way to preserve existing American resources.
What does all this mean for society and people after WWI? n n n The “Red Scare” technically ended in 1920, but in many ways the 1920 s continued to be a time of intolerance. Sacco and Vanzetti—two Italian anarchists were arrested in 1920 from robbery and murder. The evidence was very sketchy and many have argued that their trial was extremely unfair but they were executed in 1927. KKK membership exploded—at its peak in 1924 it had 4 million members. National Origins Act of 1924 severely restricted immigration by setting quotas and limited the number of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe (favoring immigrants from Northwest Europe).
Fundamentalism n n Fundamentalism Scopes Trial n n n Dayton, TN William Jennings Bryan Clarence Darrow ACLU Result of Trial
Excerpt from widely-used biology textbook, A Civic Biology, written in 1914 by George W. Hunter, a biology teacher from New York City. The Doctrine of Evolution. n We have now learned that animals may begin with very simple one-celled forms and end with a group which contains man himself. The great English scientist Charles Darwin explained theory of evolution. This is the belief that simple forms of life on the earth slowly gave rise to more complex forms. Man’s Place in Nature. n We see that man must be placed with the vertebrate animals because of his vertebral column. We place man with the apelike mammals because of structural likeness. The group of mammals which includes the monkeys, apes, and man we call the primates. Evolution of Man. n There once lived races of men who were much lower in their mental organization than present people. If we follow the early history of man, we find that at first he must have been little better than one of the lower animals. Gradually he must have learned to use weapons and kill his prey, first using rough stones for this purpose. Man then began to farm the fields, and to have permanent houses. Civilization began long ago, but even today the earth is not entirely civilized.
18 th Amendment Context: The US Senate passed the 18 th Amendment on December 18, 1917. It was ratified on January 16, 1919, after 36 states approved it. The 18 th Amendment, and the enforcement laws accompanying it, established Prohibition of alcohol in the United States. Several states already had Prohibition laws before this amendment. It was eventually repealed by the 21 st Amendment on December 5, 1933. It is the only amendment that has ever been completely repealed. Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation or exportation of intoxicating liquors in the United States and all its territory is hereby prohibited. Section 2. The Congress and the States shall both have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Section 3. This article shall have no power unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission to the States by the Congress. 1. What is your first reaction to the 18 th amendment? 2. Do you think this amendment could be passed today? Why or why not? 3. Why do you think some Americans in 1918 might have wanted this amendment?
Prohibition and Health Source: Statement read at the Eighth Annual Meeting of the National Temperance Council, Washington D. C. , September 20, 1920. The National Temperance Council was created in 1913 to work for Prohibition. n n Alcohol poisons and kills; Abstinence and Prohibition save lives and safeguard health. Dr. S. S. Goldwater, formerly Health Commissioner of New York City, stated the decision of science, the final opinion of our nation after a hundred years of education upon the subject of alcohol. “It is believed that less consumption of alcohol by the community would mean less tuberculosis, less poverty, less dependency, less pressure on our hospitals, asylums and jails. ” “Alcohol hurts the tone of the muscles and lessens the product of laborers; it worsens the skill and endurance of artists; it hurts memory, increases industrial accidents, causes diseases of the heart, liver, stomach and kidney, increases the death rate from pneumonia and lessens the body’s natural immunity to disease. ” Justice Harlan speaking for the United States Supreme Court, said: “We cannot shut of view the fact that public health and public safety may be harmed by the general use of alcohol. ” What does the National Temperance Council claim is caused by alcohol? Do you find these claims convincing? Do you think people at the time found these claims convincing? Explain.
“Hooch Murder Bill Drafted by Anderson, ” The New York Times, November 14, 1922. William H. Anderson, State Superintendent of the Anti-Saloon League, announced in a statement yesterday that the organization would sponsor a measure at the upcoming State Legislature. The measure would be known as the “Hooch Murder” bill. It says a person can be tried for murder, and punished accordingly, if they are suspected of selling alcohol that resulted in the death of the person drinking it. Commenting on the measure, Mr. Anderson said: “This bill is intended for whoever it may hit, but it is especially directed at the immoral foreigner, usually an alien, who had largely stopped killing with a knife from hate or with a gun for hire, and has gone into the preparation and thoughtless selling of poison for profit. ” What is the “Hooch Murder Bill”? Based on this document, who is the Anti-Saloon League blaming for the sale of alcohol during Prohibition? Why do you think they singled this group? n
Boston, MA and Westerville, Ohio: Scientific Temperance and American Issue Publishing Company, 1913. According to these posters, what are two reasons why Prohibition is a good idea? What does that tell you about science at this time?
Prohibition n n 18 th Amendment Volstead Act Illegal Stills and Rum Running Organized Crime
Why Prohibition Discussion Questions n n n n What problems did people see in society at the turn of the century? Why did they think Prohibition would solve these problems? What strategies/evidence did temperance advocates use to convince people to support Prohibition? Do you find their arguments convincing? Do you think people at the time found their arguments convincing? Why or why not? Why does the author of Document B single out immigrants? Historians disagree about the motivation behind n Some say Prohibition was an attempt on the part of middle-class Protestants to control immigrants and the urban poor n Some say Prohibition was an attempt to help children and families. n What do you think?
Culture of the 1920 s n n Jazz Music Movies Fads Advertising Babe Ruth Margaret Gorman
Dancing n n Charleston Dance Marathons
Jazz Music n n Origins Louis Armstrong Bessie Smith Duke Ellington
Movies n n n Talkies 1927, “Jazz Singer” Rudolph Valentino Charlie Chaplin Walt Disney
Revolution in Manners/ Morals Changing sexual expectations n F. Scott Fitzgerald and Sigmund Freud n Flapper Image n Views of Marriage n n n Family roles Divorce rate Freud
Flapper Girl n n n n Rebellious Image Bobbed Hair Short Skirts Make-Up Smoke Drank Drove
Women demand the Vote! n Alice Paul n n n Militant Carrie Chapman Catt Equal Rights Amendment n n Alice Paul Woman’s Party Working Women I don't wish to sit down and let any man take care of me without my having at least a voice in it; and if he doesn't listen to my advice, I am going to make it as unpleasant for him as I can.
Science…. its all Relative… n n Isaac Newton’s universe of Order Albert Einstein and Relativity Werner Heisenberg and the Uncertainty Principle Edwin Hubble n Discover galaxies
Penicillin n n Sir Alexander Fleming, 1928 Discovered by accident n n Had a cold and a drip from his nose fell into the dish! 6 years later, mold grew over bacteria culture
Revolutions in Transportation n Henry Ford n n n Assembly Line Model T Everyone owned a car, even before they had plumbing in their house!
Charles Lindbergh n n n Flew Mail, Rides, Tricks $25, 000 Reward Previous Attempts Spirit of St. Louis 33 Hours, flew solo and made no stops American Hero
Lindbergh Law n “Eaglet” removed from his crib n n n Found 3 months later Kidnapper Bruno Richard Hauptmann n n March 1, 1932 German immigrant Law made kidnapping a federal offense
Ransom Note Dear Sir! Have 50000$ redy with 2500$ in 20$ bills 1500$ in 10$ bills and 1000$ in 5$ bills. After 2 -4 days we will inform you were to deliver the Mony. We warn you for making anyding public or for notify the polise the child is in gute care.
Amelia Earhart n n n 1928 flew across the Atlantic with two men “rugged feminism” 1937 – plan to fly around the world n n Lost over the South Pacific Theories
“New Negro” n n Jazz Age Harlem Renaissance n n Zora Neale Hurston Langston Hughes
Jeunesse by Palmer Hayden
Street Life, Harlem by William H. Johnson, 1939
The Negro Speaks of Rivers by Langston Hughes I've known rivers: I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. I I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep. looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy bosom turn all golden in the sunset. I've known rivers: Ancient, dusky rivers. My soul has grown deep like the rivers
I Too by Langston Hughes I, too, sing America I am the darker brother, They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I’ll sit at the table When company comes. Nobody’ll dare Say to me “Eat in the kitchen, ” Then. Besides, They’ll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed, — I, too, am America.
Incident by Countee Cullen Once riding in old Baltimore, Heart-filled, head-filled with glee; I saw a Baltimorean Keep looking straight at me. Now I was eight and very small, And he was no whit bigger, And so I smiled, but he poked out His tongue, and called me, "Nigger. " I saw the whole of Baltimore From May until December; Of all the things that happened there That's all that I remember.
Negro Nationalism n Marcus Garvey n n “Universal Negro Improvement Association” Self-help • Break all ties with whites n n Race pride Return to Africa
NAACP n n n Mary Church Terrell Ida B. Wells Organized 1910 Legal Action Attack on Lynching
The Flowers by Alice Walker It seemed to Myop as she skipped lightly from hen house to pigpen to smokehouse that the days had never been as beautiful as these. The air held a keenness that made her nose twitch. The harvesting of the corn and cotton, peanuts and squash, made each day a golden surprise that caused excited little tremors to run up her jaws. Myop carried a short, knobby stick. She struck out at random at chickens she liked, and worked out the beat of a song on the fence around the pigpen. She felt light and good in the warm sun. She was ten, and nothing existed for her but her song, the stick clutched in her dark brown hand, and the tat-de-ta-ta-ta of accompaniment,
The Flowers by Alice Walker n Turning her back on the rusty boards of her family's sharecropper cabin, Myop walked along the fence till it ran into the stream made by the spring. Around the spring, where the family got drinking water, silver ferns and wildflowers grew. Along the shallow banks pigs rooted. Myop watched the tiny white bubbles disrupt the thin black scale of soil and the water that silently rose and slid away down the stream.
The Flowers by Alice Walker She had explored the woods behind the house many times. Often, in late autumn, her mother took her to gather nuts among the fallen leaves. Today she made her own path, bouncing this way and that way, vaguely keeping an eye out for snakes. She found, in addition to various common but pretty ferns and leaves, an armful of strange blue flowers with velvety ridges and a sweet suds bush full of the brown, fragrant buds. By twelve o'clock, her arms laden with sprigs of her findings, she was a mile or more from home. She had often been as far before, but the strangeness of the land made it not as pleasant as her usual haunts. It seemed gloomy in the little cove in which she found herself. The air was damp, the silence close and deep.
The Flowers by Alice Walker Myop began to circle back to the house, back to the peacefulness of the morning. It was then she stepped smack into his eyes. Her heel became lodged in the broken ridge between brow and nose, and she reached down quickly, unafraid, to free herself. It was only when she saw his naked grin that she gave a little yelp of surprise. He had been a tall man. From feet to neck covered a long space. His head lay beside him. When she pushed back the leaves and layers of earth and debris Myop saw that he'd had large white teeth, all of them cracked or broken, long fingers, and very big bones. All his clothes had rotted away except some threads of blue denim from his overalls. The buckles of the overall had turned green.
The Flowers by Alice Walker Myop gazed around the spot with interest. Very near where she'd stepped into the head was a wild pink rose. As she picked it to add to her bundle she noticed a raised mound, a ring, around the rose's root. It was the rotted remains of a noose, a bit of shredding plowline, now blending benignly into the soil. Around an overhanging limb of a great spreading oak clung another piece. Frayed, rotted, bleached, and frazzled--barely there--but spinning restlessly in the breeze. Myop laid down her flowers. And the summer was over.
LYNCHING STATISTICS FROM THE CRISIS (1920) n n n n n According to States Georgia. . . 22 Missouri. . . 2 Mississippi. . 12 Colorado. . . 2 Alabama. . . 8 West Virginia. . . . 2 Louisiana. . 8 Nebraska. . . 1 Arkansas. . . 7 Washington. . 1 Texas. . . 5 Tennessee. . . 1 Florida. . . 5 Kansas. . . 1 North Carolina. . . 4 Sonora (Mexico). . . 1 South Carolina. . . 2 n Alleged Crimes Murder 28 Shooting and assault to murder 7 Rape and attempted rape 9 Insulting women 7 Trivial causes. 9 Labor trouble 1 Intimacy with women 4 Quarrel. 1 Bandits 3 Insurrection. 1 Unknown 2 Burglary 2 Methods of Torture Hanging 43 Drowning 2 Shooting 23 Beating 1 Burning 14 n Cutting 1 n n n n By Race Negro. . . 77 White. . . 4 Mexican. . . 3 n n
Race Riots n n Segregation as strict in North as it was in South n Most took place in Northern cities n Competed for scarce housing, jobs, “turf” n Blacks were not allowed in unions, so factory owners hired them knowing they could not go on strike Blacks killed, black owned businesses/ houses destroyed Wilmington, Atlanta, Springfield, East St. Louis, Chicago, Tulsa, Detroit Tulsa, Oklahoma Summer 1921
Document A: Textbook In the summer of 1919, over 20 race riots broke out across the nation. The worst violence occurred in Chicago. On a hot July day, African Americans went to a whites-only beach. Both sides began throwing stones at each other. Whites also threw stones at an African American teenager swimming near the beach to prevent him from coming ashore, and he drowned. A full-scale riot then erupted in the city. Angry African Americans attacked white neighborhoods while whites attacked African American neighborhoods. The riots lasted for several days. In the end, 38 people died— 15 white and 23 black—and over 500 were injured. n Source: The American Vision, 2006, p. 393.
Document B: A History Book The most serious racial outbreak occurred in Chicago late in July of the so-called Red Summer…. The riot that began on July 27 had its immediate origin in a fight at Lake Michigan beach. A young Negro swimming offshore had drifted into water that was customarily used by whites. White swimmers commanded him to return to his part of the beach, and some threw stones at him. When the young man drowned, the Negroes declared that he had been murdered. . Rumors spread among blacks and whites. Mobs sprang up in various parts of the city. In the next afternoon, white bystanders bothered some blacks who were returning from work. Some were pulled off streetcars and whipped. . On the Negro South Side a group of young Negroes stabbed an old Italian peddler to death, and a white laundry operator was also stabbed to death. . When authorities counted the casualties, 38 people had been killed, including 15 whites and 23 blacks. Of the 537 people injured, 342 were black. More than 1, 000 families, mostly Negroes, were homeless due to the burnings and destruction of property. John Hope Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans, 1987 (Sixth Edition; first published in 1947). Franklin was a United States historian and past president of the Organization of American Historians and the American Historical Association. More than three million copies of From Freedom to Slavery have been sold. In 1995, Franklin was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor.
Relativity and Anthropology n n “Culture” has no absolutes Diversity of world Ruth Benedict Margaret Mead in Samoa
Modernism- Art of the 1920 s n n n Elements of Modernism Impacts on Art Impacts on Literature Willem de Kooning T. S. Eliot Gertrude Stein John Dos Passos
Post War Foreign Policy n Washington Naval Conference n n Reduce international military rivalry Limit to ship construction on a ratio • US: 5; Great Britain: 5; Japan: 3; France: 1. 67; Italy: 1. 67 • Ignored by Japan n Kellogg Briand Pact n n n Renounce war as a form of national policy How do you enforce? Billy Mitchell n Father of US Air Force
Business Bust after WWI n n Unemployment after WWI US was in a recession n n Period of economic decline Lasted 1920 -1922
Warren G. Harding n n Elected President in 1920 Lead the nation on a return to “normalcy” n n Quieter times before the war Teapot Dome Scandal Laissez-Faire business model Did not take into account fast changing times!
Calvin Coolidge n n n Warren G. Harding dies in office, VP takes over President (19231928) “The business of America is business”
Calvin Coolidge True Capitalist n n n “The business of America is business” Support unregulated big business High protective tariffs Less government spending Lower taxes
Farmers and Workers in Trouble n n Prosperity of 1920 s not include farmers or workers Farmers n n New machinery replace workers Mortgages Low crop prices Workers n Government not fight for common man
Business Boom n n n End of trust busting Assembly Line = increase in productivity Encourage investment n Bull market • Public confidence in stocks causes stock prices to soar
Effects of Mass Consumption n Automobile n n n Installment Buying n n n Model T Growth of other industries Credit Barely pay monthly balance Real Estate Boom n Suburbs
Causes of the Great Depression (1929 -1939) n Stock Market Crash n n Lack of Bank Loans n n n October 29, 1929 Buying on Margin Banks Close Farm Foreclosures n n n Low prices Bad weather Surplus
On “Black Tuesday, ” October 29, 1929, the market lost $14 billion, making the loss for that week an astounding $30 billion. This was ten times more than the annual federal budget and far more than the U. S. had spent in WWI. Thirty billion dollars would be equivalent to $377, 587, 032, 770. 41 today
Cause of the Great Depression (cont. ) n Factories Shutdown WWI over = less buyers n Overproduction of goods n Layoffs as Production needs decline n Unequal distribution of wealth n Wages too low to purchase products n World War I n n European Nations not repay loans
Stock Market Crash n n n Black Tuesday October 29, 1929 There was nothing left Everyone went bankrupt Speculation Failed
Hoover’s Reaction n n Believed the economy would fix itself Way to recover is through individual effort- no bold government aid, no handouts- private charities and local government should give direct aid
Conditions During the Great Depression n n Millions Unemployed Homelessness Closed Factories Closed Banks High Suicide Rates
Unemployment n n Paralyzed Business Drained Cities of Resources Millions Unemployed Families were living below poverty
Farmers n n n Lost their land to bank foreclosures Lost their equipment and property at auction Overproduction = Decrease in Price Dust Bowl Drought Okie
Hoover’s Attempts n n Hoover Dam Voluntary Cooperation n n Cooperatives for farmers Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act n n n Raise the cost of imported goods Intent was to have people buy American goods Trade plummeted
Reconstruction Finance Corporation Attempt at direct action after other failures n RFC (1932) n Goal: loan money to banks to save them from bankruptcy n Worst year of the depression n Too little too late n
Life During the Great Depression n n Evictions were Prevalent Sell apples or pencils on the street Soup Kitchens Bread Lines High Risk of disease
Social Problems n n n Break Down of Families Soaring High School Drop Out Rate National Income fall from $87 Billion to $75 Billion
Bonus Army n n WWI veterans wanted bonus early Hoover refused to give in- veterans protested
Election of 1932 n Roosevelt beat Hoover