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The Middle Ages
The Normans and how they took over Normans were descendants of the Vikings they adopted many French ways like Christianity and Feudalism: political organization from medieval Europe in which a vassal renders service to a lord and receives protection and land in return William, Duke of Normandy, claimed Edward, the English king had promised him the throne after his death—he met with King Harold (who took the throne) at the Battle of Hastings King Harold died On Christmas Day William took throne of England as King William I Norman rule ended in 1154 when Henry II came to the throne— he was a committed ruler and had an understanding of law
The Folks King: AKA, the lord, ruled the land-had vassals Vassals: pledged loyalty to king. Could give away parts of their land (fiefs). Paid dues Knights: also vassals, only the sons of lords, fought for the king in return for land Noblewomen: daughters and wives of noblemen (could own land if it was inherited or received as a gift; Eleanor of Aquitaine) Bishop: leaders of the church under the Pope, most were noble men and would lead their own knights into battle
More Folks Priest: responsible for instruction, ceremonies and the goings on in the church at a local level Monks & Nuns: lived a poor life devoted to God and serving the poor. Engaged in studies, prayer and could serve as doctors. Never got married Friars: traveling preachers, lived by begging Serfs: peasants, lived on the manor (land of a lord) worked outside building and farming, could save and buy their freedom Servants: worked in the manor house Merchants: businessmen. Two guilds: Merchant and Craft Minstrels: traveling entertainers
Feudalism: system of loyalties and protections during the Middle Ages. As the Roman Empire crumbled, emperors granted land to nobles in exchange for their loyalty. These lands eventually developed into manors. A manor is the land owned by a noble and everything on it. A typical manor consisted of a castle, small village, and farmland. During the Middle Ages, peasants could no longer count on the Roman army to protect them. German, Viking and Magyar tribes overran homes and farms throughout Europe. Serfs would often have to work three or four days a week for the lord as rent. They would spend the rest of their week growing crops to feed their families. Other serfs worked as sharecroppers. A sharecropper would be required to turn over most of what he grew in order to be able to live on the land. Key facts about feudal society: The absence of a strong central authority of government Economy based on agriculture, with limited money exchange The strength of the Church: Church had the right to a share (tithe) of society's output as well as substantial landholdings. In return, the church was obligated with specific authority and responsibility for moral and material welfare.
The Church Christianity became the universal faith of almost all of the people of Europe. The Church was often the only way to get an education. It also allowed poor people to escape a dreary life and possibly rise to power. Religious workers are called clergy. In the Middle Ages, the Pope ruled the Christian Church. Other clergy included bishops, priests, nuns, and monks. The church was very powerful Henry wanted to “curb”this power • Had Thomas Becket help but he defied him • Henry was upset and had four of his knights go to Canterbury to “scare”Becket, but ended up murdering him –This is the Canterbury Tales
The Grub The Lords and Nobles: They were allowed to hunt (it was their land ) and ate deer, boar, hares and rabbits. Thought that veggies were unfit because they came from the ground but, would eat onions, garlic and leeks. Foods were highly spiced The Serfs: bread, cheese, beef, ox, pork. No spices. Ate rye and wheat bread. Often cooked foods in communal ovens. If you were caught poaching (stealing) you could have your hands cut off or even be killed. Like biscuits? They were invented by the Crusaders as a convenience food. Water was unsanitary to drink so the noble classes drank wine and the lower classes drank ale or meade.
Disease…EWWW Living conditions were very cramped, and hygiene was less than sufficient (these folks rarely bathed, including the nobility) Disease would often run rampant. Great Plague=Black Death 1348 -1349; a disease that was brought by ships carrying flea infested rats * Killed 1/3 of the population in England
Language part I Next five years he suppressed Anglo-Saxon nobility and took their land Made sure Normans controlled everything Business was in Norman French or Latin
Language Part deux Moveable type— 1454 by Johann Gutenberg—printing spread rapidly from Germany to parts of England 1476 William Caxton set up 1 stmoveable type in England—no longer hand-copied by church scribes Small rebirth of leaning in the 12 thcentury scholars flocked to religious communities like Oxford to hear lectures. Then, built houses for scholars and became first English university The second is Cambridge French poets wrote songs of gallant knights—written in Romance meaning Roman influenced—not Latin
Chivalry The Medieval code of Chivalry went something like this: To fear God and maintain His Church To serve the lord in valour and faith To protect the weak and defenseless To give succour to widows and orphans To refrain from the wanton giving of offence To live by honour and for glory To despise pecuniary reward To fight for the welfare of all To obey those placed in authority To guard the honour of fellow knights To eschew unfairness, meanness and deceit To keep faith At all times to speak the truth To persevere to the end in any enterprise begun To respect the honour of women Never to refuse a challenge from an equal Never to turn the back upon a foe
Courtly Love Marriage is no real excuse for not loving He who is not jealous, cannot love No one can be bound by a double love It is well known that love is always increasing or decreasing That which a lover takes against the will of his beloved has no relish Boys do not love until they arrive at the age of maturity When one lover dies, a widowhood of two years is required of the survivor No one should be deprived of love without the very best of reasons No one can love unless he is impelled by the persuasion of love Love is always a stranger in the home of avarice It is not proper to love any woman whom one would be ashamed to seek to marry A true lover does not desire to embrace in love anyone except his beloved When made public love rarely endures The easy attainment of love makes it of little value; difficulty of attainment makes it prized Every lover regularly turns pale in the presence of his beloved When a lover suddenly catches sight of his beloved, his heart palpitates A new love puts to flight an old one Good character alone makes any man worthy of love If love diminishes, it quickly fails and rarely revives A man in love is always apprehensive Real jealousy always increases the feeling of love Jealousy, and therefore love, are increased when one suspects his beloved He whom the thought of love vexes eats and sleeps very little Every act of a lover ends in the thought of his beloved A true lover considers nothing good except what he thinks will please his beloved Love can deny nothing to love A lover can never have enough of the solaces of his beloved A slight presumption causes a lover to suspect his beloved A man who is vexed by too much passion usually does not love A true lover is constantly and without intermission possessed by the thought of his beloved Nothing forbids one woman being loved by two men or one man by two women
Good Reads & Famous Peeps Canterbury Tales The Divine Comedy Sir Gawain and the Green Knight La Morte d’Arthur Song of Roland Everyman Second Shepherd’s Play Chaucer Dante Alighieri Eleanor of Aquitaine Thomas Becket Joan of Arc Marie de France Margery Kempe Thomas Aquinas
Around the World England: 1 st record of all land ownership (Doomsday Book) Crusades & Knights Templar Hundred Years War Black Death Joan of Arc Burned Construction of Notre Dame (France) Genghis Khan invades China Aztecs in Mexico Ming Dynasty begin 300 years rule in China
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