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THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH Keerti Bhusan Pradhan keerti@aravind. org
What is LFA? • LFA is a systematic planning procedure for complete project cycle management • It is a problem solving approach which takes into account the views of all stakeholders • It also agrees on the criteria for project success and lists the major assumptions
History of LFA • Developed in response to poor planning and monitoring of Development projects • The first logical framework developed for USAID at the end of 1960’s • GTZ was responsible for the development of ZOPP or Zielorientierte Projekt Planung • NORAD made a significant contribution in 1990 with their handbook
LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX
KEY FEATURES OF LOGFRAME MATRIX The LOGFRAME MATRIX is a participatory Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation tool whose power depends on the degree to which it incorporates the full range of views of intended beneficiaries and others who have a stake in the programme design. It is a tool for summarizing the key features of a programme and is best used to help programme designers and stakeholders
Summary of the logical framework Intervention Logic • Goal – The higher level objective towards which the project is expected to contribute (mention target groups) • Purpose – The effect which is expected to be achieved as the result of the project. • Outputs – The results that the project management should be able to guarantee (mention target groups) • Activities – The activities that have to be undertaken by the project in order to produce outputs.
Cause-effect relationship among objectives at several levels Goal Purpose Outputs Activities Inputs under full control of project management beyond control of project management
Summary of the logical framework Assumptions and Preconditions • Assumptions – Important events, conditions or decisions outside the control of the project which must prevail the goal. – Important events, conditions or decisions outside control of the project management necessary for the achievement of the purpose. – Important events, conditions or decisions outside control of the project management necessary for the production of outputs. – Important events, conditions, decisions outside control of the project management necessary for the start of the project.
Summary of the logical framework Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVI) • Goal – Measures (direct or indirect) to verify to what extent the goal is fulfilled. • Purpose – Measures (direct or indirect) to verify to what extent the purpose is fulfilled. • Outputs – Measures (direct or indirect) to verify to what extent the outputs are produced. • Activities (Inputs) – Goods, people and services necessary to undertake the activities
Summary of the logical framework Means of verification (MOV) • Goal – The sources of data necessary to verify status of goal level indicators. • Purpose – The sources of data necessary to verify status of purpose level indicators. • Outputs – The sources of data necessary to verify status of output level indicators. • Activities – The sources of data necessary to verify status of activity level indicators.
Objectively Verifiable Indicators • Indicators must be valid, reliable, precise, cost-effective and stated independently from other levels. • Indicators should make clear how the target group will benefit from the realisation of outputs. • Indicators should be specific in terms of: – Quality (what? ) Q – Quantity (how much? ) Q – Time (when, how long? ) - T – Target Group (who? ) - T – Place (where? ) P
Objectively Verifiable Indicators • The process of defining indicators forces us to clarify our objectives. A good indicator at this level is, a. Plausible measuring what is important in the project b. Attributable measuring changes caused by the project c. Cost-effective involving data that may be collected analyzed inexpensively d. Independent e. Targeted when not inherent to the project how much. . , what kind of. . , by f. Verifiable to reach agreement
Key Features of Logframe Matrix (cont’d) • Develop a common understanding of the expectations of a programme by delineating a hierarchy of aims; • Define indicators of success and establish criteria for monitoring and evaluation; • Define critical assumptions on which the programme is based; and • Identify means of verifying programme accomplishments
CORE CONCEPT OF LOGFRAME MATRIX: MEANS AND END LOGIC The main concept underlying the Logical Framework is means and end. The better the means and end linkages between each level of aims, the better the programme design. By definition, each programme has a “if-then” or “means-and-end” logic embedded in it. If we produce certain results under certain conditions, then we can expect to achieve certain other outcomes.
Log. Frame-Horizontal logic Aims measured by indicators through information collected and presented in specified means of verification
THE LOGIC OF A PROGRAMME: A SET OF LINKED HYPOTHESES then if GOAL PURPOSE OUTPUTS ACTIVITIES then if
PLAN DOWNWARDS Goal Assumptions Purpose Assumptions Outputs Assumptions Activities Assumptions Inputs AND THEN THINK UPWARDS
THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX Clear statement of: ¨ What we can accomplish (outputs) and ¨ The important results we expect in the short to medium-term (purpose) and in the long term (goal)
Means of verification The specific sources from which the status of each of the indicators can be ascertained
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS Assumptions and risks are external conditions that are outside the control of the programme. The achievement of aims depends on whether or not assumptions hold true and the risks do not materialize. If cause and effect is the core concept of good programme design, necessary and sufficient conditions are the corollary. The sufficient conditions between the levels in the hierarchy of aims are the Assumptions. This is the external logic of the programme.
Assumptions and Risks (cont’d) When working on a programme, we make assumptions about the degree of uncertainty between different levels of aims. The lower the uncertainty that certain assumptions will hold true, the stronger the programme design. Any experienced manager will agree that the assumptions - the failing assumptions - can derail a programme as often as poorly executed outputs.
Assumptions and Risks (cont’d) Logframe demands that all hypotheses, assumptions and risks relevant to a programme are made explicit. By implication, this then further demands that the appropriate action is considered (and if necessary taken) before problems materialise. – How important are the assumptions – How big are the risks – Should the programme be redesigned? – Should elements of the proposed programme be abandoned?
ALGORITHM TO ASSESS EXTERNAL FACTORS Is the external factor important? No Yes Will it be realised? Do not include in logical framework (e. g. as the result of another project by external donor) Almost certainly Do not include in logical framework Likely Include in logical framework as Assumption (fourth column) Unlikely Is it possible to redesign the country Programme to influence the external factor? yes Redesign the programme : • add activities and/or results • change programme purpose No The assumption is a “killer” assumption. From a technical point of view the programme is not feasible, unless the political authority finds a solution to get around the assumption or transform it into an acceptable assumption.
LOGFRAME MATRIX SERVES THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS • A tool for planning a logical set of interventions • A tool for appraising a Programme document • A concise summary of the Programme • A tool for monitoring progress made with regard to delivery of outputs and activities • A tool for evaluating impact of Programme outputs, e. e. progress in achieving purpose and goal.