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The Linguistic Cycle in the History of English Elly van Gelderen ellyvangelderen@asu. edu Berlin, The Linguistic Cycle in the History of English Elly van Gelderen [email protected] edu Berlin, 7 December 2006

Aims • To present a description of some recurring changes in the history of Aims • To present a description of some recurring changes in the history of English • To understand some of these cycles • Examine internal and external factors of linguistic change and their interaction

Outline • Background on the Cycle/Spiral • Examples of the Cycle in brief: – Outline • Background on the Cycle/Spiral • Examples of the Cycle in brief: – Negatives – Demonstratives – Aspect • Study of recycling in clause markers – Prepositions – Adverbs

Background on the Cycle/Spiral • de Condillac, Tooke, A. W. von Schlegel, von Humboldt, Background on the Cycle/Spiral • de Condillac, Tooke, A. W. von Schlegel, von Humboldt, Bopp • more recently: Tauli 1958 and Hodge 1970 • Grammaticalization literature: word > clitic > affix > (from Hopper & Traugott 2003) 0

Internal and External Change • Jespersen: Internal and External Change • Jespersen: "the correct inference can only be that the tendency towards ease may be at work in some cases, though not in all, because there are other forces which may at times neutralize it or prove stronger than it". • Von der Gabelentz (1891/1901: 251/256): "Deutlichkeit" ('clarity') and "Bequemlichkeit" ('comfort').

Data • Old English Dictionary Texts (all of OE) • Helsinki Corpus (OE through Data • Old English Dictionary Texts (all of OE) • Helsinki Corpus (OE through e. Mod. E) • Oxford English Dictionary – http: //dictionary. oed. com. ezproxy 1. lib. asu. edu/entrance. dtl • Oxford Text Archive electronic-texts etc – http: //www. georgetown. edu/labyrinth/ • Modern corpora: British National Corpus, International Corpus of English – http: //sara. natcorp. ox. ac. uk/lookup. html

Negative Cycle (1)a. b. c. d. no/ne ne (na wiht/not) (ne) not -not/-n’t e. Negative Cycle (1)a. b. c. d. no/ne ne (na wiht/not) (ne) not -not/-n’t e. OE OE, especially Southern ME, especially Southern LME Old English – South: (2)Næron 3 e noht æmetti 3 e, ðeah ge wel ne dyden not-were you not unoccupied. though you well not did `You were not unoccupied, though you did not do well'. (Pastoral Care, Cotton, Sweet, 206).

Matthew White’s map www. georgetown. edu/ faculty/ballc/oe/oe map. html Matthew White’s map www. georgetown. edu/ faculty/ballc/oe/oe map. html

Negative Concord Cycle (1) ænig monn ne mæg tuæm hlaferdum hera any man not Negative Concord Cycle (1) ænig monn ne mæg tuæm hlaferdum hera any man not may two lords serve (Northumbrian c 950) (2) ne mæg ænig twæm godum ðeowigan not may any two gods serve (Mercian C 10) (3) Ne mæg nan man twam hlafordum þeowian not may no man two lords serve (Corpus c 1000) (4) Ne mayg nam man twam hlaferden þeowian not may no man two lords serve (Hatton c 1150) Matthew 6. 24

Demonstratives (1) demonstrative/adverb > definite article > Case/non-generic > class marker > 0 (2) Demonstratives (1) demonstrative/adverb > definite article > Case/non-generic > class marker > 0 (2) a. min þæt ungesælige mod =OE my that unhappy spirit b. min ungesælige mod (Gregory's Dialogues, 4. 9, from Wood, to appear: 15) (3) gife to … þa munecas of þe mynstre =LOE give to … the monks of the abbey (Peterborough Chron. 656) (4) To frowne vpon th'enrag'd Northumberland =EMod. E (2 Henry 4, Shakespeare) (5) Oh they used to be ever so funny houses you know and in them days … They used to have big windows, but they used to a all be them there little tiny ones like that. (BNC - FYD 72)

Perfective aspect Cycle: (1) adverb > affix > 0 One stage: (2)a. Elizabeth's accession Perfective aspect Cycle: (1) adverb > affix > 0 One stage: (2)a. Elizabeth's accession allowed him to receive back his wife (BNC-GTB 938) b. a husband who changed his mind to receive his wife back without ceremony (BNC-HTX 2122). - Pattern (a) has become more frequent in the recent period (Davies 2005), even with definite nominals: In the 100 -million British National Corpus, receive occurs nine times in constructions such as (2 a) and four times in constructions such as (2 b) (twice with a pronoun and twice with a DP) - The use of pronominal objects, typical for the first order, with these verbs has gone down too.

Other such adverbs • evaporate out • dissipate away • spend down • receive Other such adverbs • evaporate out • dissipate away • spend down • receive in boost up issue out order up (from the library) offer up

Clause markers 1. WH > Yes/No marker 2. Relative > Conjunction 3. Preposition > Clause markers 1. WH > Yes/No marker 2. Relative > Conjunction 3. Preposition > Complementizer/Conjunction 4. VP adverb > Clausal adverb

Creation of new Clause boundaries Creation of new Clause boundaries

Whether from WH-pronoun to Yes/No and C (1) Hwæðer þara twe 3 ra dyde Whether from WH-pronoun to Yes/No and C (1) Hwæðer þara twe 3 ra dyde þæs fæder willan? Who of-the two did the father’s will Ags. Gosp. Matt. xxi. 31 (2) þær se snotera bad hwæþer him alwalda æfre wille. . . wyrpe gefremman. there the wise waited whether him almighty ever would. . . change accomplish `There the wise one waited whether the almighty would ever grant him change' (Beowulf 1313 -5). (3) Whether hadst thou rather be a Faulconbridge, . . . `Would you rather be a Faulconbridge' (Shakespeare, I, i, 134). John

Relative > Conjunction (1) api rama vanam gacchati Sanskrit Q Rama wood-ACC go-3 S Relative > Conjunction (1) api rama vanam gacchati Sanskrit Q Rama wood-ACC go-3 S `Is Rama going to the forest'? (2) ratham ko nir avart aya chariot-ACC who down rolled Sanskrit `who rolled out the chariot' (from Kiparsky 1995: 154). (3) kya ram jata he Q Ram `Is Ram going'? go-3 S is Hindi/Urdu

English relatives in OE and ME OE se þe > þe or þæt: (1) English relatives in OE and ME OE se þe > þe or þæt: (1) scyldwiga … se þe wel þenceþ shield-fighter … the that well thinks/judges `(Every sharp) shield fighter, who judges well' (Beowulf 287 -9). (2) as theo the duden with Godd al thet ha walden. `as those who did with God all that they wanted’. (Ancr. R. III 492)

New relatives (1) a laide de Dieu notre Seigneur, Qui vous douit bonne vie New relatives (1) a laide de Dieu notre Seigneur, Qui vous douit bonne vie et longue. `With the help of God, our Lord, who gives us a good and long life' (Bekynton, from Rydén, p. 131). (2) be the grace of God, who haue yow in kepyng `by the grace of God, who keeps you' (Paston Letters 410).

Preposition > Complementizer/Conjunction After from P > C (1) Ercenberht rixode æfter his fæder Preposition > Complementizer/Conjunction After from P > C (1) Ercenberht rixode æfter his fæder `E. ruled after/following his father' (Chron A, 640) (2) a. [æfter him] Stephanus feng to rice. `after him (i. e. Pope Leo), Stephanus became pope'. (Chronicle A, anno 814 [816]) [æfter þissum gefeohte] cuom micel sumorlida. `after this fight, there came a large summer-force' (Chronicle A, anno 871) b. (3) a. b. [Æfter þysan] com Thomas to Cantwarebyri `After this, Thomas came to Canterbury'. (Chronicle A, anno 1070) [æfter ðon] uutedlice ic eftariso ic forlioro vel iowih in galileam `after that, surely I arise-again I come before you in Galilee' (Lindisfarne Gospel, Matthew 26. 32).

Percentages of demonstrative objects (Dem) with after and fronting 800 VPs Dem 4/52 = Percentages of demonstrative objects (Dem) with after and fronting 800 VPs Dem 4/52 = 8% Fronting 11/52= 21% <892 Chron 950 Northern Lindisfarne >893 Chron 2/26= 8% 7/26= 27% 8/29= 28% 11/29= 38% 17/22= 77% 12/22= 55%

(1)After that the king hadde brent the volum (Wyclyf 1382, taken over in Coverdale (1)After that the king hadde brent the volum (Wyclyf 1382, taken over in Coverdale 1535 and KJV 1611, from the OED). (2)After that Raleigh had Intelligence that Cobham had accused him, he endeavour'd to have Intelligence from Cobham (HC, EMod. E 2) (3) Aftir he hadde take þe hooli Goost (c 1360 Wyclif De Dot. Eccl. 22). (4) After thei han slayn them (1366 Mandeville 174). Four stages: PP PP PP (that) P that C 900 (Chronicle A) – present 950 (Lindisfarne) - 1600 (OED 1587) 1220 (Lambeth) - 1600 (OED 1611) 1360 (Wycliff) - present

For : P to C (1) ouþer for untrumnisse ouþer for lauerdes neode ouþer For : P to C (1) ouþer for untrumnisse ouþer for lauerdes neode ouþer for haueleste ouþer for hwilces cinnes oþer neod he ne muge þær cumon `either from infirmity or from his lord's need or from lack of means or from need of any other kind he cannot go there' (Peterborough Chronicle, anno 675). (2) forþam Trumbriht wæs adon of þam biscopdome `because T had been deprived of his biscopric' (Peterborough Chronicle, anno 685).

From lexical to grammatical category From lexical to grammatical category

VP adverb > Clausal adverb (1) (2) (3) (4) and he shulde goo frank VP adverb > Clausal adverb (1) (2) (3) (4) and he shulde goo frank and quite. (OED 1475) All other lawfull thinges. . to do as liberally, frankelie, lawfully. . as if they. . had been naturally borne within this realme (OED, 1541) Therefore [with franke and with vncurbed plainnesse], Tell vs the {Dolphins} minde. (Henry V) She. . . Can you wonder that I'm disinclined for amusement? He. Frankly, I do (OED 1888)

(1) (2) (3) You wrote so probably that hyt put me in a feare (1) (2) (3) You wrote so probably that hyt put me in a feare of daungerys to come. (OED, 1535) A source, from whence those waters of bitterness. . have. . probably flowed (OED, 1647) for, tho very probably I shall not have occasion for them, yet it wou'd be very vexatious to want them shou'd ther be occasion. (1690, Letter by Charles Hatton, HC)

Conclusions • description of some changes – Negative, Demonstrative, (Agreement), and Perfective Cycles – Conclusions • description of some changes – Negative, Demonstrative, (Agreement), and Perfective Cycles – Clause marking through • wh • P • VP adverb • Reason: semantic features are reanalyzed as grammatical • internal (grammaticalization) vs external (renewal)