- Количество слайдов: 70
The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah Iron II Period
Traditional Chronology: Iron I (1200 -1000 BC): The Period of the Conquest and the Judges; Iron IIA (1000 -925 BC): The Period of the United Monarchy, that is, the time of David and Solomon; Iron IIB (925 -720 BC): The Divided Monarchy: Israel in the north with its capital at Samaria; Judah in the south with its capital at Jerusalem; Iron IIC (720 -586 BC): The Northern Kingdom of Israel is no more; the Southern Kingdom of Judah continues until the Babylonians destroy it in 586 BC.
Biblical Data: 1 Kings 11. 26 - -1 Kings 11. 26 -40: The revolt of Jeroboam (against Solomon’s son Rehoboam); - 1 Kings 11. 41 -43: The end of the reign of Solomon; - 1 Kings 12: Political and Religious Schism: Jeroboam king of Israel and the setting up of the two golden calves at Bethel, just to the north of Jerusalem. - Now two kingdoms: Judah in the south with its capital at Jerusalem; - Rehoboam, a son of Solomon, is King of Judah (1 Kings 14. 21).
1 Kings: - Jeroboam, a former servant of Solomon, is King of Israel (1 Kings 12. 20 [“There was no one who followed the house of David, except the tribe of Judah alone”]). - Israel in the north with its capital at Shechem – Israel separated from the House of David; - under the Omrides, the capital will later be transferred to Penuel, Tirzah, and finally Samaria; - Thus, two kingdoms, Israel in the north and Judah in the south.
1 Kings: -1 Kings 14. 25: “in the fifth year of King Rehoboam, King Shishak of Egypt came up against Jerusalem…. ”; - 1 Kings 14. 19 -20: reign of Jeroboam. His death, and the “Book of the Annals of the Kings of Israel”; - 1 Kings 14. 30: “There was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam continually”; - 1 Kings 14. 29: “the rest of the acts of Rehoboam, and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Annals of the Kings of Judah? ” - 1 Kings 14. 31 ff: Rehoboam’s death and his successors;
1 Kings: -1 Kings 16. 23: Omri began to reign over Israel; - 1 Kings 16. 24: Omri and the city of Samaria; - 1 Kings 16. 29: Ahab, son of Omri, began to reign over Israel in Samaria; - 1 Kings 19. 15 -16: Hazael king over Aram; and Jehu will be anointed king over Israel; - 1 Kings 20. 1 -2: King Ben-hadad of Aram …. Marched against Samaria (see also 20. 26); - 1 Kings 22. 39 -40: death of Ahab and his acts written in the “Book of the Annals of the Kings of Israel”, etc. ;
2 Kings: - 2 Kings: opens during the short reign of Ahaziah king of Israel (mid-9 th century BC); - 2 Kings 1. 1: “After the death of Ahab, Moab rebelled against Israel” (see also 2 Kings 3: Israel, Judah, and Edom go to war against Moab); - 2 Kings 6: wars continue between Israel and Aram; - 2 Kings 10: Jehu king over Israel; - 2 Kings 14. 23 -29: The reign of Jeroboam;
2 Kings: - 2 Kings 17. 5: the King of Assyria invaded all the land of Samaria, captured Samaria, and carried the Israelites away to Assyria; - 2 Kings 24: king of Assyria brought people and placed them in the cities of Samaria; .
2 Kings: - 2 Kings 18. 1: King Hezekiah (727/715 -698/687 BC) king of Judah; - 2 Kings 18. 9 -10: King Shalmaneser 705 -681 BC) of Assyria besieged Samaria and took it; - 2 Kings 18. 13: Shalmaneser came up against all the cities of Judah and captured them (during the reign of Hezekiah); - 2 Kings 18. 15: Hezekiah pays tribute to Shalmaneser; the Assyrians did not take Jerusalem (19. 32 -34);
2 Kings: - 2 Kings 22. 1 -30: Josiah (640 -609 BC): a righteous king; a second Moses or Joshua to match the second David (Hezekiah); - 2 Kings 22. 3 -13: the Book of the Law (some form of Deuteronomy) found during repairs to the Temple; - 2 Kings 23. 1 -3: Josiah’s reform of religion; - 2 Kings 23. 31 -25. 30: The end of Judah. - 2 Kings 24: King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon came up against Jerusalem, captured and destroyed it.
2 Chronicles 10 -36: -The emergence, continuation, and fall of the kingdom of Judah. - the Chronicler concentrates his attention upon the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and Levi, who make up the Southern Kingdom of Judah.
Finkelstein: What was the first Israelite territorial entity? No direct proof in the archaeological record for the existence of an elaborate polity (political organization) in the highlands in the late-Iron I period (the late-11 th and much of the 10 th centuries BC); Iron I sites, ca. 90% of them, continued to be inhabited in the Iron II period; Exception for area north of Jerusalem, that is, around Gibeon and Bethel; He attributes this to Pharaoh Sheshonq’s (Shishak) campaign (late-10 th century BC).
Finkelstein: The rise of an Israelites entity farther north; The Northern Kingdom in the time of the Omrides (early 9 th century BC); Extra-biblical Textual Evidence: Shalmaneser III (859 -824 BC), king of Assyria, mentions “Ahab the Israelite” as one of his opponents in the battle of Qarqar in western Syria in 853 BC; The Mesha Inscription (ca. 850 BC) mentions how the Omrides had conquered territories in Moab (mid-9 th century); Tel Dan Inscription (9 th or 8 th century; excavator date it to the mid-9 th century) states that Israel took land from Aram (mid-9 th century);
Tell Qarqur in the Orontes River Valley in Syria.
Tell Qarqur – An ASOR Sponsored Excavation.
Stele of Shalmaneser III that reports on Battle of Qarqar.
Tel Dan Inscription with phrase “House of David”.
Finkelstein: Archaeology: -Building operations on the part of the Omrides: - Megiddo: two or three ashlar palaces; - Samaria, Jezreel, and Hazor: monumental architecture with large-scale filling and leveling operations; -The palace at Samaria is the largest and most elaborate Iron Age structure known in the Levant.
Megiddo – artistic reconstruc tion.
Palaces: Nos. 1723, 6000, 338.
Mason Marks on Ashlar Blocks from Palace 1723 at Megiddo.
Hazor – Upper City.
Finkelstein: Northern Kingdom: -A territorial state comprised of both highland lowland areas; - the hills of Samaria inhabited by 2 nd millennium sedentary and pastoralist population; - Cultural continuity of Canaanite traits: at Taanach, Megiddo (Textbook, p. 150); - Ethnic and cultural diversity: see in the Omride architecture; - Fortified compounds at Megiddo and Jezreel, and at Hazor on the border with Aram-Damascus, and on the border with Philistia at Gezer.
Finkelstein: Northern Kingdom: - A short period of time; - political circumstances changes dramatically; - a break in Assyrian pressure in the west led to the rise of Aram-Damascus; - result: the collapse of the Omride dynasty; - This in turn led to the rise of the first “national state” farther to the south, first and foremost in Judah (Textbook, p. 151).
Finkelstein: Judah: - In 10 th and early-9 th century (Textbook, p. 151): - Jerusalem: a relatively poor village; - ruled over a sparsely inhabited southern highland; - 9 th century: - first signs of statehood in Judah: - in the Shephelah in the west and the Beer-sheba Valley in the south;
Finkelstein: Judah: - In the Shephelah: Lachish and Beth-shemesh; - Lachish: the “second city” of Judah; - Beth-shemesh: massive fortifications and an elaborate water system; - in the Beer-sheba Valley: Arad and Beer-sheba; - both fortified for the first time in the 9 th century;
Lachish – Aerial View
Lachish – Ground Plan.
Finkelstein: Judah: - In Jerusalem: - first signs of significant building activity appear to date to the 9 th century: the “terraces” and the “Stepped Stone Structure”: both built on the eastern slope of the City of David, near the Gihon spring;
Gihon Spring and Hezekiah’s Tunnel
Finkelstein: Judah: -In early 9 th century: Judah under the northern Israelite, that is, Omride domination (see 2 Kings and the Tel Dan Inscription); - in first half of the 9 th century: a United Monarchy that stretched from Dan in the north to Beer-sheba in the south; - Change: the fall of the Omride dynasty under the pressure of Aram-Damascus in the 840 s (Textbook, p. 152); - Israel’s grip over Judah ceased; - window of opportunity opened for Judah.
Finkelstein: Judah: - End of 9 th century and the beginning of the 8 th century BC; -In late 8 th century: Jerusalem grew to be the largest city in the entire country: massive fortifications; water from the Siloam pool; elaborate rock-cut tombs; evidence of an affluent elite; - monumental inscriptions: in the Siloam tunnel; on Siloam tombs; seal impressions (bullae); ostraca; lmlk storage jars; - large-scale, state-controlled olive-oil production in the Shephelah.
Jerusalem in the 8 th Century BC
The Jebusite City that David Conquered – Artistic
Finkelstein: Judah: - Reasons for Judah’s development: - the incorporation of Judah in the Assyrian global economy (begun in the 730 s under Tiglath-pileser III); Judah participated in the Assyrian-dominated Arabian trade; -Sudden growth in population (Jerusalem in particular); - Jerusalem grew from ca. 5 ha to ca. 60 ha; and in population from 1, 000 to 10, 000 inhabitants; - increase in settlements in the hill country south of Jerusalem (Textbook, p. 154); - a doubling of Judah’s population.
Finkelstein: Judah: - due to: a flow of refugees from the north following the conquest of Israel by Assyria in 722 BC; - A second wave of refugees in Jerusalem after the destruction of the Shephelah and the Beer-sheba Valley by Sennacherib in 701 BC; -Judah and Jerusalem: a mixed population of Judahite and ex -Israelites; - Archaeologically: a decline in settlements in the area between Shechem and Jerusalem;
Finkelstein: Judah: -Hezekiah (715 -687 BC): abolishing of shrines at Arad, Beersheba, and Lachish at the end of the 8 th century; - setting down the early history of Israel (1 Sam 16 -1 Kings 2): the History of David’s Rise to Power and the Court or Succession History; - written as an apologia: to vindicate David of any wrongdoing and to explain “what really happened”; - the late 8 th century BC: a deuteronomistic writer or school; - Served to reconcile southerners and northerners within Judah.
Finkelstein: Judah: - Served to reconcile southerners and northerners within Judah; - served for the rise of a pan-Israelite ideology; - the desire to unite “all Israel” within the borders of Judah; - point of departure for 3 centuries of scribal activity resulting in the biblical history of Israel as we know it (Textbook, p. 157).
Mazar: - Extensive archaeological research in Israel and Jordan; - on settlement patterns, demography, town planning, etc. ; - information on religious beliefs; - burial customs; - inscriptions, including seals and seal impressions (bullae), ostraca; - many of the finds can be related to biblical texts.
Mazar: - Controversy between the maximalists and the minimalists over the size of Jerusalem; - A debate about the chronology of Judean sites in the 8 th 7 th centuries BC, e. g. , Lachish;
Mazar: - Israel and Judah in the 9 th century BC (Textbook, pp. 160 -61);
Mazar: - The Northern Kingdom of Israel (Textbook, pp. 162 -63);
Mazar: - Judah (Textbook, pp. 163 -66); - The Status of Judah during the 8 th and 7 th centuries BC;
Mazar: -The Status of Judah during the 8 th and 7 th centuries BC (Textbook, pp. 166 -69); - the destruction of the northern kingdom of Israel and its meaning for Judah; - Hezekiah’s (ca. 715 -687 BC) rebellion against Sennacherib (704 -681 BC); -The Assyrian invasion of 701 BC; - Golden age of Judah under Hezekiah and his son Manasseh; - Judah, a vassal state under Assyria; - prosperity under Josiah; destruction of Judah and Jerusalem in 586 BC;
Mazar: The Status of Judah during the 8 th and 7 th centuries BC (Textbook, pp. 166 -69); - Development of Judah and Jerusalem; - expansion of Jerusalem towards the Western Hill; - Hezekiah’s building activities on the Western Hill; - refugees settled in Jerusalem after 722 BC; - new towns and farmsteads established in the Judean hills around Jerusalem, in the northern Negev, and in the Judean desert (not before the 7 th century);
Expansion of Jerusalem to the West under Hezekiah.
HEZEKIAH’S (BROAD) WALL - JERUSALEM.
Mazar: The Status of Judah during the 8 th and 7 th centuries BC (Textbook, pp. 166 -69); -Fortresses and stations along the Negev roads leading to the Red Sea and Edom; - related to the incense trade? - the fortress at Hazevah; - two cult places: at the entrance to Hazevah and at Horvat Qitmit; - the use of camels to cross desert routes;
Mazar: The Status of Judah during the 8 th and 7 th centuries BC (Textbook, pp. 166 -69); - The knowledge of writing spread; -The Siloam Inscription; - literary texts and prayers written on plastered walls (at Kuntillet `Ajrud and Tell Deir `Alla – both outside Judah); - blessings incised on silver amulets; - ostraca from Lachish; - seals and seal impressions (bullae); - several papyrus documents from the Judean desert;
Gihon Spring and Hezekiah’s Tunnel to the Pool of Siloam.
The Siloam Inscription Enhanced.
Mazar: The Status of Judah during the 8 th and 7 th centuries BC (Textbook, pp. 166 -69); -Short Term Events: Archaeology of Warfare (Textbook, pp. 169 -74) – these can be detected by archaeological work; . - attacks by Hazael, king of Damascus, in the 9 th century; - response to Assyrian treats in the form of defensive systems; - sophisticated water systems throughout the country; - huge stable compounds at Megiddo;
Water System at Hazor.
Gihon Spring and Hezekiah’s Tunnel to the Pool of Siloam.
Mazar: Short Term Events: Archaeology of Warfare (Textbook, pp. 169 -74) – these can be detected by archaeological work; - Assyrian military attacks during the last third of the 8 th century; - Heavy destruction layers at many 8 th century sites; - Sennacherib’s invasion of Judah in 701 BC; - The water projects of Hezekiah in Jerusalem; - jars stamped with a royal seal – lmlk “belonging to the king”;
LMLK Stamped Jar handle.
Mazar: Short Term Events: Archaeology of Warfare (Textbook, pp. 169 -74) – these can be detected by archaeological work; - Jerusalem spared from the Assyrian conquest; -Babylonian conquests of Philistia and Judah between 605 and 586 BC; -- afterward: population in Judah detected only in the land of Benjamin, north of Jerusalem.
Mazar: Long-Term Processes: The Case of Israelite Religion (Textbook, pp. 174 -79) – this can be detected by archaeological work;