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The Keystone XL Pipeline Paridhi R. The Keystone XL Pipeline Paridhi R.

Outline l Background • • Information What is it? Crude Oil Construction Stakeholders l Outline l Background • • Information What is it? Crude Oil Construction Stakeholders l The Big Issue

What is the Keystone? l Transports synthetic crude oil and “dilbit” from the tar What is the Keystone? l Transports synthetic crude oil and “dilbit” from the tar oil sands (Keystone pipeline, 2012)

Crude Oil (What is crude oil and what is it used for? , 2004) Crude Oil (What is crude oil and what is it used for? , 2004)

Tar Sands l Composed of Carbon-rich materials l Used for gasoline, etc. l Canada Tar Sands l Composed of Carbon-rich materials l Used for gasoline, etc. l Canada is the world’s largest bitumen depositor (Keystone XL is Pipeline is Devastating to the Environment and Will Not Create Jobs, 2012. )

What is the Keystone XL? l Expansion of the Keystone l From Alberta to What is the Keystone XL? l Expansion of the Keystone l From Alberta to Texas l Destroy ecosystems and wildlife l Proposed in 2008

Phases of the Pipelines l Phase 1 l Phase 2 l Phase 3 l Phases of the Pipelines l Phase 1 l Phase 2 l Phase 3 l Phase 4

Phase 1 l The Keystone pipeline l Already been constructed (since 2010) Phase 1 l The Keystone pipeline l Already been constructed (since 2010)

Phase 2 l Expansion from Nebraska to Oklahoma l Constructed in 2011 Phase 2 l Expansion from Nebraska to Oklahoma l Constructed in 2011

Phase 3 l Proposed expansion from Oklahoma to Texas Phase 3 l Proposed expansion from Oklahoma to Texas

Phase 4 l Proposed from Alberta to Montana expansion Phase 4 l Proposed from Alberta to Montana expansion

The Route The Route

Purpose of the XL l Transport crude oil and tar sands oil to the Purpose of the XL l Transport crude oil and tar sands oil to the US

Construction? l Rumors say early 2013 l Rejected on January 18, 2012 l Re-proposal Construction? l Rumors say early 2013 l Rejected on January 18, 2012 l Re-proposal by Trans. Canada (Keystone xl pipeline, 2011) l $7. 0 billion+ (Keystone xl pipeline, 2011)

Why was the project rejected? l Oil spill response plans l Safety l Green Why was the project rejected? l Oil spill response plans l Safety l Green house gas concerns Keystone pipeline, 2012)

Stakeholders l Obama l Canadian Government l Construction workers l US citizens l Canadian Stakeholders l Obama l Canadian Government l Construction workers l US citizens l Canadian citizens l Trans. Canada

Trans. Canada l Providers of gas/oil related storage l Responsible for the North American Trans. Canada l Providers of gas/oil related storage l Responsible for the North American energy infrastructure l Shareholder in, and own TC Pipe. Lines LP (About us, 2009)

Review l 36 -inch, stretching 2000 miles l Through Canada to the US l Review l 36 -inch, stretching 2000 miles l Through Canada to the US l Tar sands heated 150 degrees+ l Carry 900 000 barrels of crude oil (Brecher & Smith, n. d)

THE BIG QUESTION THE BIG QUESTION

What negative environmental impacts will the Keystone XL Pipeline cause? What negative environmental impacts will the Keystone XL Pipeline cause?

Impacts l Pollutes: Pipeline spills • Air • Water l Harms: • Wildlife • Impacts l Pollutes: Pipeline spills • Air • Water l Harms: • Wildlife •

Pipeline Spills l Previous oil spills effect the permit of oil pipelines l Long-term Pipeline Spills l Previous oil spills effect the permit of oil pipelines l Long-term damage to the economy and ecosystem

Air Pollution l Harmful to the air we breathe l Construction of pipeline causes Air Pollution l Harmful to the air we breathe l Construction of pipeline causes general pollution l Higher Carbon emissions

Water Pollution l Ogallala Aquifer l Separating crude oil from sand, silt and clay Water Pollution l Ogallala Aquifer l Separating crude oil from sand, silt and clay l Using 400 million gallons of water per day l Tailing ponds

Harming Wildlife l Toxic sludge gets into waterways l CO 2 emissions melting ice Harming Wildlife l Toxic sludge gets into waterways l CO 2 emissions melting ice caps l Spills coat animals in oil (Animals | oil sands truth, n. d. )

Canadian Government l Approve of the Keystone XL l “Better for the economy. ” Canadian Government l Approve of the Keystone XL l “Better for the economy. ” (Savage, 2012)

US Government l Feel that it should be constructed US Government l Feel that it should be constructed

Solutions l Recovering alternative oil sources l Keep protesting (Worthington, 2012) Solutions l Recovering alternative oil sources l Keep protesting (Worthington, 2012)

Conclusion Produce 1 barrel of crude oil: • • Extracting 4 tons of Earth Conclusion Produce 1 barrel of crude oil: • • Extracting 4 tons of Earth Contaminating millions of barrels of fresh water Burning natural gas Creating tailing ponds

Is it worth it? Is it worth it?