- Количество слайдов: 25
THE JIM CROW ERA Plessy v. Ferguson, Jim Crow Laws, the KKK and Lynching
Reconstruction Ends • Compromise of 1877 – Rutherford B. Hayes over Samuel Tilden (Dem) – Hayes removes federal troops from Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina • Democratic Party returns to power in the “Solid South” – Doesn’t change until 1950 s, when Dems support Civil Rights legislation
Jim Crow both culturally and legally imposed racial inferiority • Jim Crow a minstrel character from 1820 s • Came to mean any black kept in inferior social status • Also refers to laws imposed after Reconstruction to segregate whites & blacks
Jim Crow Laws • Case of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – Famous Supreme Court case upheld Jim Crow laws, racial segregation – Ruled that Louisiana law mandating “separate but equal accommodations” on trains was constitutional – What are the main arguments of the majority opinion? – What are the main arguments in Harlan’s dissent?
Jim Crow Laws After Plessy • Decision opened door to segregation across South and beyond • Jim Crow laws common until ruled unconstitutional by Supreme Court in Brown v. Board (1954) • Note some examples of Jim Crow laws…
Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan • Secret terrorist organization founded in Tennessee in 1865 by Confederate veterans – Started after Civil War to fight Reconstruction in the South • Believed in the innate inferiority of blacks – mistrusted and resented the rise of former slaves to an equal status • Attacked, murdered, and lynched both freedmen and white Republicans
• Intimidated African Americans and their allies – If intimidation didn’t work, they would torture and/or murder these individuals • Local chapters (klaverns) became so uncontrollable and violent that the Grand Wizard, former Confederate general Nathan B. Forrest, officially disbanded the Klan in 1869 • In 1871, President Grant issued a proclamation calling on members of illegal organizations to disarm and disband (Force Acts)
• Second Klan founded in 1915 – expanded rapidly in 1920 s – 1924 - 3 million members (height of membership) – Focused its attack on what it considered to be alien outsiders (Roman Catholic church and all non-Protestants, aliens, liberals, trade unionists, and striking workers threatening traditional American ways and values) • Masked Klansmen burned crosses on hillsides, marched through the streets of many communities, threatening various persons with punishment and warning others to leave town.
• 1944 KKK disbanded formally when unable to pay back taxes to federal government • Civil Rights Movement caused increased interest and membership in Klan – Brown v. Board (1954) – Civil Rights Act of 1964
Lynchings in the U. S. • 1890 -1960, 4, 742 Americans were documented as having been lynched; actual numbers are believed to be much higher. – Over 70 percent of the victims were African-Americans. • By late 1920 s, 95% of lynchings took place in South. • Few lynch mob participants ever went to jail. – Police and other eye-witnesses refused to identify lynch mob members, and Southern all-white juries rarely convicted them.
• The white mobs who lynched African. American men often justified their actions as a defense of "white womanhood" – the usual reason given for lynching black men was that they had raped white women – lynch mobs' real motive was the determination to keep African-American men economically depressed and politically disenfranchised.
Claimed Causes • • 41% 19. 2% 6. 1% 4. 9% 1. 8% 22. 7% 11. 5% Felonious Assault Rape Attempted Rape Robbery and Theft Insult to White persons Misc. or no offense at all Trivial Offenses-"disputing with a white man”, “attempting to register to vote", "unpopularity", "testifying against a white man", "asking a white woman in marriage", "peeping in a window"
Rubin Stacey, 1935: Knocked on door of white woman, asked for food (NYT)
Anti-Lynching Crusade • Constitution leaves law enforcement up to the states, a movement spearheaded by Ida B. Wells and the NAACP sought to pass anti-lynching laws at the federal level – Southern states unwilling • From 1890 to 1960, nearly 200 antilynching bills were introduced to the U. S. Congress. • The U. S. House of Reps. passed three anti -lynching bills, but all failed in the Senate • Left the federal government powerless to • Ida B. Wells intervene and protect Americans from (1862 – 1931) these heinous acts of mob violence.
Booker T. Washington (1856 -1915) • Leader in black education (Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute) • Believed the way to achieve economic equality was through education • Promoted idea of working with whites to achieve progress – criticized for this
“Put down your bucket where you are” and work for immediate self-improvement rather than long-range social change. - Booker T. Washington He urged blacks to postpone efforts to achieve political equality and concentrate on selfimprovement.
W. E. B. Du. Bois (1868 -1963) • Demanded racial equality immediately and criticized Booker T. Washington • Started a newspaper called The Crisis to report on racial equality issues • Founded the NAACP in 1905 – “talented tenth”, exceptional blacks would gain positions of full equality • 1963 gave up U. S. citizenship and became a citizen of Ghana
Marcus Garvey (1887 -1940) • Believed in black nationalism • Founded Universal Negro Improvement Association (1914) – Audience: lowest class of blacks, most disenfranchised – Goals: 1) foster worldwide unity among blacks 2) encourage pride in African heritage 3) rejected integration 4) “back to Africa” movement
• Moved to New York (1916) • Charismatic speaker and published newspaper called “Negro World” – Had millions of followers • Misused funds in 1925, jailed, deported and died in obscurity