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“THE INTRODUCTION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING INTO BRAZIL” BRAZILIAN INCOSE CHAPTER CREATION MEETING June 6 th, 2011 Mario C. P. Almeida LABORATÓRIO DE INTEGRAÇÃO E TESTES
SUMMARY n n MOTIVATION SUMMARY OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING HISTORY EARLY SYSTEMS ENGINEERING HISTORY ¨ AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT ¨ EMERGENCE OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ¨ ESTABLISHMENT OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ¨ n INTRODUCTION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING INTO NASA ¨ n SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AT NASA INTRODUCTION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING INTO INPE SPACE ACTIVITIES IN BRAZIL ¨ EARLY SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES AT INPE ¨ DISSEMINATION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING BY INPE ¨ THE INTRODUCTION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING INTO BRAZIL June 6 th, 2011 ¨ n n COMMENTS/CONCLUSIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
MOTIVATION n n June 6 th, 2011 n Systems Engineering is so new that some of its protagonists are still alive. However, many people that use state-of-the-art Systems Engineering technologies today know nothing about how, why and when Systems Engineering emerged and developed. Similarly, INPE uses Systems Engineering methodologies for several decades but most of us know nothing about its introduction into Brazil and INPE. The ignorance on the origins of Systems Engineering may cause difficulties to understanding its necessity and the mechanical application of its processes and methods. This presentation, in a simplified form, intends to clarify some facts and misconceptions about Systems Engineering history and particularly its introduction into Brazil.
EARLY SYSTEMS ENGINEERING HISTORY n n n June 6 th, 2011 n n n The scientific and technological discoveries of the 1800 s led to the development of many new branches of engineering causing a great increase in the complexity of the systems of early 1900 s. Engineers with systems functions naturally appeared within industries due to the necessity to understand integrate systems containing many subsystems. The first documented use of the term “Systems Engineering” occurred in the 1940 s at Bell Telephone Laboratories. During WW II, weapon systems became very complex and employed the most advanced engineering of the time (jet engines, rockets motors, radio, radar, computing, automatic control, navigation, guidance, etc. ) Broad “systemic” or “analytical” approaches start to be used in systems design. Scientists (physicists, mathematicians, economists, etc. ) were brought to help improve the effectiveness and the planning of military operations leading to the creation of Operations Research and Systems Analysis disciplines. In 1946, the Air Force creates a research and development project within Douglas Aircraft Company, later transformed into The RAND Corporation, a nonprofit organizations that gives to the Air Force support in Operations Research and Systems Analysis. In 1957, Harry H. Goode and Robert E. Machol publish the first book on “System Engineering”. Both had worked with Operations Research for the U. S. Navy. This book presents a very primitive and incomplete form of Systems Engineering.
AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT n n n Until 1947 the U. S. Air Force was part of the U. S. Army, as Army Air Corps and Army Air Force. To the U. S. Army, aircraft development was not a priority and its use as a new and effective weapon was somewhat disregarded. Differently from the Army and Navy that had design bureaus and arsenals to develop weapons, the U. S. Air Force had to rely on civilian airplane industry and academia for the development of new airplanes. Contracting method for a new aircraft generally was “fly-before-you-buy”. A prototype (X model) was manufactured and flight-tested several times and modified before a serial production run was commited. “Fly-before-you-buy” had several problems: Unpredictable schedule and cost. So slow development that sometimes the aircraft was obsolete before entering production. The focus of the development was on performance only and later, maintenance and operational costs were found to be unacceptably high. ¨ Only later armament and other subsystems were considered for integration in the new aircraft design. ¨ Aircraft industries were more interested in the lucrative production contracts. June 6 th, 2011 ¨ ¨ ¨ n The Air Force tried many types of contracts, e. g. , cost-plus-fixed-fee, costplus-incentive, fixed-price, total package, etc. , only with occasional success.
EMERGENCE OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING n n n The Soviet Union test nuclear bombs prompted a reaction in the US with the start of the development of large air defense systems and new very-large very-long-range bombers. Air Research and Development Command is created changing the orientation from the “Air-Force of the Present”, based on bombers, to the “Air-Force of the Future” based on new weapons. Studies demonstrating that the mass of nuclear bombs would be reduced led to the development of long-range missile armed with nuclear bombs – the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). The Air-Force is committed to the development of the ICBM. A pilotless missile is much more complex than an aircraft: ¨ ¨ June 6 th, 2011 ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ n n Requires navigation, attitude control, computing, and other subsystems. Has new technical difficulties, e. g. , extremely powerful rocket motors, exotic propellants, ultra-highspeed aerodynamics, atmospheric reentry, extreme launch environment, etc. Difficult design due to strong performance interactions between subsystems and narrow design margins. Different suppliers for subsystems required rigorous control of interfaces. A slight error may cause the destruction of the rocket without producing any test result. A rocket is flown only once requiring a production line of rocket prototypes. Fly-before-you-buy approach can not be used with rockets. Frequent prototype design modifications required control of configuration. Lifetime support to assure readiness for launch required a long range perspective. Very high costs and short development time require rigorous management methods. Slowly, new processes and methods developed within aircraft industry are introduced in missile development projects, e. g. , centralized systems engineering, baselines freezing, design reviews, change control, interface control, parts traceability, etc. Successful development of missile systems in terms of performance, schedule and cost required very rigorous technical management processes.
ESTABLISHMENT OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING n n n n June 6 th, 2011 n n n On July 29, 1955, the United States announces their intention to launch an artificial Earth satellite in the International Geophysical Year of 1957 -1958. On October 4 th, 1957 the Soviet Union surprises the world with the launch of Sputnik. The rocket that launched Sputnik was so large that could launch nuclear bombs; USAF’s Titan and Atlas ICBMs were not operational in 1957. Despite immense military expenses during more than a decade, the possible soviet lead in missile technology causes much political and military unrest in the U. S. . The rigorous technical management processes developed during Atlas and Titan ICBMs development is used to achieve performance, schedule and cost targets during the development of Minuteman ICBM. Many American companies have been involved but prominently TRW because their responsibility in Systems Engineering and Management. TRW’s Space Technologies Laboratory privileged position is questioned by the aircraft industry causing its transformation into The Aerospace Corporation, another non-profit organization. Starting in 1960 the Air Force issues the AFSCM-375 series documents formalizing the Air Force weapons acquisition processes developed during ICBMs development. AFSCM-375 series enforces a very detailed, bureaucratic and rigorous processes and, according to references, was very unpopular with industry that had to conform to it to bid for USAF weapon projects. Unfortunately, information about the AFSCM-375 series is scarce today. In 1969 the Department of Defense issues the Mil-Std-499 standardizing the weapons acquisition processes for all military services.
INTRODUCTION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING INTO NASA n n Mercury and Gemini missions are successful in performance and schedule but their cost were about ten times the estimated. The new mission, Apollo, would involve tens of thousands of contractors, hundreds of thousands of workers, in a very short schedule; an enormous task that NASA was not used to: Parts of Apollo hardware were delayed in 1963. Kennedy’s “before the decade is out” would not be accomplished. Holmes, NASA’s responsible for manned missions, wants more funds to attain schedule. James Webb, NASA administrator, refuses to request more funds. Holmes goes directly to Kennedy, but Kennedy backs James Webb. Holmes resigns and is replaced by Mueller, from TRW’s Space Technology Laboratories. Mueller asks help from Gen. Schriever, Air Force’s responsible for ICBMs projects. Gen. Samuel Phillips, leader of Minuteman, is assigned Apollo director in December 1963. At least fifty other military men, from the ICBM projects and already trained in AFSCM-375, occupy key positions at NASA. ¨ Introduction of Phillips methodology faces resistance from von Braun and others that question centralization of decisions, change control, etc. ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ June 6 th, 2011 n n Systems Engineering management is implemented, one way or the other, during Apollo. The success of Apollo led some people to wonder that Systems Engineering could be used in areas that resisted other methodologies, e. g. , education, illiteracy, city planning, reduction of unemployment and poverty, etc.
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AT NASA “During Apollo, Systems Engineering processes were in place in NASA Headquarters and at all field centers. At some locations the process was formalized; at other it was a back-of-the-envelope application, but it was in place”. n “It should be noted that during the Apollo era, Systems Engineering was conducted without Agency-wide guidance, standards or lexicon”. n “After Apollo, the various NASA centers continued to implement Systems Engineering on complex projects but perhaps with less vigor and enthusiasm than that displayed during Apollo”. n “The discipline again became a priority in NASA when the study team of the National Academy of Public Administration, led by Lt. General Sam C. Phillips, recommended the strengthening of Systems Engineering in NASA. ” n June 6 th, 2011 n “Today most large engineering organizations, including NASA, have a Systems Engineering process containing elements both common and unique to those practiced by other organizations. To document these processes NASA is now involved in the preparation of the first Agency-wide Systems Engineering manual” Francis T. Hoban and William M. Lawbaugh Readings in Systems Engineering NASA SP-6102 (1993)
SPACE ACTIVITIES IN BRAZIL n n n n June 6 th, 2011 n n Space activities in Brazil started before Sputnik and NASA foundation. Fernando de Mendonça, future INPE’s first director, still a student at ITA, was approved by the Naval Research Laboratory, the responsible for Vanguard, the prospective U. S. first satellite, to install a Minitracking station in São José dos Campos. Minitrack station was used to track Sputnik and Explorer satellites. Fernando de Mendonça gets a Ph. D degree in Ionospheric Sciences at Stanford, is CNPq representative at NASA and is introduced into Systems Analysis and becomes an enthusiast for it. Fernando de Mendonça as director of CNAE/INPE starts research in Space Sciences and Systems Analysis at INPE. Space Sciences researches, involving data from sensors on ground, balloon and sounding rockets, has tight collaboration with NASA. Sounding rocket launches is primarily from CLBI in Natal – RN, coordinated by Brazilian Air Force personnel trained in the U. S. . INPE sends students to get Ph. D degrees in sciences and engineering at American and European universities. In 1967, INPE students at Stanford are involved in a comparative study of communication systems based in a geostationary satellite and a ground network to countries Brazil, India and Indonesia - Advanced System for Communication and Education in National Development (ASCEND).
INTRODUCTION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING INTO INPE n n n June 6 th, 2011 n n n NASA plans to launch ATS-F satellite (Advanced Technology Satellite) with about two dozen technical innovations, including a 3 m deployable antenna, a high power transmitter, ion thrusters, etc. ATS-F would permit direct television broadcast to receivers with small (~3 m) fixed antennas. India is involved in the tests of ATS-F satellite to transmit adult instruction TV programs. INPE demonstrates its capability and is approved by NASA to be involved in the tests of ATS-F satellite. INPE is convinced that a satellite could help solve Brazilian education and communication problems and starts SACI project (Satélite Avançado de Comunicações Interdisciplinares). SACI project will use the ATS-F satellite to transmit educational programs to children in isolated schools in Rio Grande do Norte state and demonstrate the advantages of a Brazilian owned satellite. INPE intends to use Systems Analysis and Systems Engineering to the planning of the SACI educational project and the future SACI satellite. INPE gets consultancy on System Engineering with General Electric Space Division, a contractor for USAF ballistic missiles and NASA. INPE is introduced into state-of-the-art Systems Engineering technology by General Electric Space Division.
EARLY SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AT INPE n n n INPE understands that Systems Analysis and Systems Engineering can be used in the planning and execution of projects other areas besides engineering, e. g. , education, illiteracy, urbanization, etc. INPE creates the NAS (Núcleo de Análise de Sistemas), a group of scientists (mathematician, physicists, educators, economists, architects, etc. ) trained in Systems Analysis and Systems Engineering; INPE uses Systems Engineering in any large and small projects: ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ June 6 th, 2011 n Projeto MESIS – the preparation of Systems Engineering Manual, later published as a book. The planning of engineering part of SACI project. The planning of the educational part of SACI project. The planning of training of teacher for the SACI project. The planning of a large Remote Sensing Project (Projeto Sensores Remotos); The planning of post-graduation course in Systems Analysis; The organization of its computer database; INPE also used state-of-the-art tools: ¨ ¨ PERT – Project Evaluation and Review Technique using its computer; Computer simulators; Development of 3 D and Bar Chart plotting software. Automation of library searches using Key-Word in Context (KWIC) systems.
DISSEMINATION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING BY INPE n n June 6 th, 2011 n n Publication of the book “Engenharia de Sistemas: Planejamento e Controle de Projeto”, in 1972. Publication of the book “Manual de Engenharia de Sistemas e Projetos: Uma Abordagem Prática”, in 1980. During several years INPE prepared more than 30 seminaries to government organization that could profit from use of Systems Engineering techniques (Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Agriculture, etc. ). INPE also prepared seminaries on Systems Engineering to Brazilian industries; INE has supported the installation of SIDEPE (Sistemas, Desenvolvimento e Pesquisas) in the city of Natal (RN). INPE has strived for the foundation of the Centro Nacional de Análise de Sistemas (National Center for Systems Analysis) in the town of Cachoeira Paulista (SP).
n n INTRODUCTION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING INTO BRAZIL It is assumed that the introduction of a new knowledge must occurs together with the publication of books. Books on Systems Engineering published in Brazil are searched in the internet sites. ¨ ¨ ¨ n n June 6 th, 2011 n A preliminary search for the period from 1940 to 1980 has found about two dozen books with the word “sistemas” on its title. There are books with the word “sistemas” related to engineering or management and books related to other subjects (psichology, medicine, etc). Two books were found published by INPE in 1972 and 1980. Five books on engineering or management were published in 1971 –“systems” was a fashionable word in the 1970 s. All five books on engineering or management published before INPE’s book of 1972 were made available for examination of its contents: ¨ ¨ ¨ n Biblioteca Nacional (The Brazilian National Library); Dedalus – the catalog of 43 libraries of Universidade de São Paulo; Estante Virtual – a seller of used books with more than 20 million books on its shelves. “Introdução à Teoria de Sistemas” by C. West Churchman, published in 1971; “Administração da Produção – Sistemas e Síntese” by Martin K. Starr, published in 1971; “Análise de Sistemas Empresariais” by Stanford L. Optner, published in 1971; “Administração por Sistemas” by Charles J. Minnich, published in 1971; “Métodos e Sistemas” by Edward V. Krick, published in 1971; Analysis of the contents of the five books demonstrated that none of them is on Systems Engineering. In some of them the word “sistemas” is unnecessary and irrelevant and does not occur in the original title in English.
INPE’S FIRST BOOK ON SYSTEMS ENGINEERING n INPE’s book “Engenharia de Sistemas: Planejamento e Controle de Projetos” by Fernando de Mendonça, published in 1972 has references to: ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ n June 6 th, 2011 n n Von Bertalanffy, L. , “General System Theory”, 1968; Churchman, C. W. , “The Systems Approach”, 1968; Goode, H. H. and Machol, R. E. “System Engineering”, 1957; Hall, A. D. , “A Methodology for Systems Engineering”, 1962; Wymore, A. W. , “A Notebook of Systems Engineering Methodology”, 1970; Wymore, A. W. , “A Mathematical Theory of Systems Engineering – The Elements”, 1967; Cleland, D. I. , and King, W. R. , “Systems, Organizations, Analysis: A Book of Readings”, 1968; Cleland, D. I. , and King, W. R. , “Systems Analysis and Project Management”, 1968; Kahn, H. and Mann, I. , “Techniques of Systems Analysis”, 1957; Air Force Systems Command, “Systems Engineering Management Procedures”, 1966; Air Force Systems Command, “Work Statement Preparation”, 1968; General Electric, “Handbook of Systems Engineering Management”; General Electric, “Systems Engineering Management Workshop”; Despite NASA is cited in the text and contrary to what would be expected there is not a single reference to NASA documents in the book’s bibliography. The conclusion is that INPE’s book is the first book on Systems Engineering published in Brazil and that the introduction of Systems Engineering in Brazil was through INPE. Only one other book was found published in Brazil with term “ Engenharia de Sistemas” on its title; also by INPE’s authors.
COMMENTS/CONCLUSIONS n n n n June 6 th, 2011 n n n Due to tradition of U. S. Army, the U. S. Air Force was slow to use aircrafts and rockets technology in the development of new weapons. Systems Engineering establishment occurred in 1960 s as a byproduct of ICBMs missile projects of the 1950 s. Successful complex systems development, in terms of performance, schedule and cost, requires very rigorous technical management processes. NASA was introduced into Systems Engineering in 1964, after the start of Apollo program. There was resistance to the introduction of Systems Engineering methodologies into NASA. Systems Engineering was used at NASA, during and after Apollo project, but it was only formalized in 1995 with the publication of a agency-wide manual. INPE had excellent relationship with NASA in Space Sciences but was not introduced into Systems Engineering by NASA, but by NASA suggestion or influence. INPE was introduced to state-of-the-art Systems Engineering technology by General Electric Space Division – a contractor of ICBMs and NASA, and a consultant of INPE in 1970. INPE’s use of Systems Engineering in the 1970 s was focused in social areas as well as in engineering. INPE’s book on Systems Engineering, published in 1972, is the first book on Systems Engineering published in Brazil; besides this book, there is only one other book on Systems Engineering, published in 1980, also by INPE’s employees. INPE’s two books still are the only ones published in Brazil with term “ Engenharia de Sistemas” on its title.
GEN. PHILLIPS ARGUMENT “Engineers always know how to do it better once they’ve done it, and want to make their product better”. “Even engineers will admit that changes first of all must be justified”. June 6 th, 2011 Gen. Samuel Phillips, Apollo Program Manager, arguments for change control in debates with NASA and contractor executives: Apollo executive’s meeting proceedings 18 -19 June 1964
BIBLIOGRAPHY n n n n June 6 th, 2011 n n “The Management of Projects” by Peter W. G. Morris, 1997; “The United States Air Force and the Culture of Innovation” by Stephen B. Johnson, 2002; “The Secret of Apollo – Systems Management in American and European Space Programs” by Stephen B. Johnson, 2002; “Samuel Phillips and the Taming of Apollo”, by Stephen B. Johnson, 2001; “Reflections on Research and Development in the United States Air Force” by Richard H. Kohn, 1993; “Readings in Systems Engineering” by Francis T. Hoban and William M. Lawbaugh, 1993; “Systems Engineering Management Workshop”, General Electric Space Division, 1972; “Systems, Organizations, Analysis: A Book of Readings”, Cleland, D. I. , and King, W. R. , 1968; “Engenharia de Sistemas: Planejamento e Controle de Projetos”, INPE, 1972 “Manual de Engenharia de Sistemas e Projetos: Uma Abordagem Prática”, INPE, 1980 Ascend : Advanced System for Communications and Education in National Development: an Interdisciplinary Engineering Course in Space Systems Engineering at Stanford, 1967; LAFE-75, “Projeto SACI”, 1968. LAFE-100, “Introdução a Análise de Sistemas”, 1970; LAFE-151, “Sugestões para Interação CNAE e INEP no Projeto SACI: Seminário Realizado de 30 de Novembro a 4 de Dezembro de 1970”, 1970; LAFE-154, “Curriculum de Mestrado em Análise de Sistemas: Uma Abordagem de Sistemas”, 1971; LAFE-161, “Resumo dos 10 Primeiros Anos de Atividades da CNAE (1961 -1971)”, 1971 LAFE-165, “Estudo de Viabilidade de um Satélite Educacional Brasileiro”, 1971.