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The Hundred Years’ War (1337 - 1453) The Rise of National Sentiments
Causes of the War B B B Charles IV (France) died without an heir to the throne. (end of Capetians) Edward III (England) claims the throne as the grandson of Philip II (Fr. ) and as a landholder in France. French barons chose Charles’ cousin, Philip VI as Fr. King. (house of Valois)
More Causes of War B B B France supported the Bruces of Scotland who were attempting to free Scotland from English rule. France and England were fighting over ownership of Flanders. Traditional hatred between France and England over trade and control of the seas.
French Advantages Population = 3 X larger B Much wealthier B Fighting on own soil B
French Disadvantages Until after 1415, the English won most of the battles. B Great internal social conflict B No central system of taxation to fund the war B Estates-General was formed but fueled regional conflict B
English Advantages Military Superiority B English longbow (6 arrows per minute-could pierce an inch of wood or a knight’s armor from 200 yards) B Barons supported the war--no internal conflicts. B
The War: Stage One - 1377) (1337 English allies = Dutch & Bavaria B 1340: Edward forces Flanders to recognize him as king (wool embargo) B After an unsuccessful invasion through Flanders, Edward invaded Normandy in 1346 and seized Calais. B
Stage One, continued Both sides used scorched-earth policies to stop the other, and so the French lands were devastated. B The plague struck late in 1347, and a truce was observed until 1355. B
Disaster for France 1356: England won a huge victory at Poitiers. B King John the Good of France was captured and sent to an English prison. B Soldiers looted and ransacked France at will. B
Political B B Policies King Edward relied heavily upon the advice of the “parleyings” of the Common Council. ” It became a permanent feature of English politics. Under Edward, its “parleyings” eventually gave it the name of “Parliament. ”
French Social Conflicts The Estates-General DID NOT in any way represent the interests of the peasantry. B It increased the taxes on the peasants B Plagued by high taxes, abuse of feudal privileges, and the black death, the peasants revolted in the “Jacquerie. ” B
The 1360 Peace of Bretigny England “permanently” acquired French territories of Gascony, Guyenne, Poitou, and Calais. B France paid 3 million golden crowns to ransom King John B Edward renounced his claim to the French throne. B
Peace is Shattered B B 1369: New Fr. king Charles V’s brother (duke of Burgandy) married the Count of Flanders’ daughter. France retakes Flanders and many of the surrounding cities held by the English.
The War: Stage Two (1377 - 1420) King Edward died in 1377, and the new king, Richard II, faced a peasant rebellion and another outbreak of the plague. B To pay for the war, parliament had cut the wages of peasants and journeymen and raised their taxes. B
English Domestic Problems June 1381: a huge revolt occurred, led by John Ball and Wat Tyler. B The revolt was brutally crushed, but left England socially divided for many years. B
Temporary Peace B B 1396 Truce: The peace was backed by the marriage of Richard II to the daughter of Charles VI. Peace lasted through the reign of Richard’s successor, Henry IV.
Civil War in France Charles VI goes mad during the second half of his reign (approx. 1400), and his brother, the duke of Orleans, ran France. He was assassinated (1407) by John the Fearless (duke of Burgandy). B Civil war broke out. B
England Attacks!! B B B Henry V attacked a divided France. Burgandy watched the defeat of the French at Agincourt, but then realized it was the next English target. John the Fearless was stabbed to death by the French, and his son made an alliance to help England defeat France.
Treaty of Troyes (1420) 1420: France is defeated by England Burgandy. B The treaty made Henry V the legitimate heir to France upon the death of Charles VI. B When Charles and Henry both died, Henry VI of England (an infant) was crowned king of both England France. B
Two French Child Kings B B The Duke of Bedford ruled both countries as the regent for Henry VI. Charles VII (the rightful Fr. Heir) was raised in hiding in Bourges, but was recognized as king by most of the French people.
The War: Stage Three (1429 - 1453) B B March 1429: Joan of Arc presented herself to Charles VII and said that God had told her to deliver Orleans (a city in S. France) from the English. Charles and his advisors were desperate, so they gave her control of an army and sent her to Orleans.
The Liberation of Orleans B B B Fresh French troops led by Joan of Arc repulsed the English, exhausted by 6 months of fighting in Orleans. Many more victories led to the defeat of the English and the crowning of King Charles VII. Joan was captured by Burgudians and burned at the stake as a heretic.
New Alliances B 1435: France and Burgandy make peace and together attempt to kick the English off of the continent.
The War Ends 1453: The English surrendered after being forced out of every continental town except Calais. B The English kept Calais, but recognized the House of Valois as the rightful rulers of France. B
Results of the War: B In your groups, determine what you believe were the most important results of the war for each of the following: • France • England • the rest of Europe