Скачать презентацию The Humanitarian System Objectives To understand Скачать презентацию The Humanitarian System Objectives To understand

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The “Humanitarian System” The “Humanitarian System”

Objectives • To understand the complexity of the ‘humanitarian community’ • To understand the Objectives • To understand the complexity of the ‘humanitarian community’ • To understand the principles and characteristics of humanitarian actors • Identify UN humanitarian coordination mechanisms

Components of a Response • International Organizations (IOs) • UN humanitarian agencies/funds/ programmes • Components of a Response • International Organizations (IOs) • UN humanitarian agencies/funds/ programmes • Regional Organizations • International Organization for Migration (IOM) • • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) The Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement Donor Governments/Agencies (USAID/Df. ID, etc) Affected Population Host Nation Organizations/Agencies International/Regional Financial Institutions Business Community General Public (public opinion/direct donations) And when requested/needed… • UN/Coalition Military Forces

Guiding Humanitarian Principles • Voluntary • IMPARTIALITY: Aid is given regardless of race, creed, Guiding Humanitarian Principles • Voluntary • IMPARTIALITY: Aid is given regardless of race, creed, or nationality. • NEUTRALITY: Aid will not be used to further a particular political or religious standpoint. • • Independence Humanity Universality

United Nations: Coordination • Integrated Mission Task Force (IMTF) • HQ level: UN Agencies/Funds/Programs, United Nations: Coordination • Integrated Mission Task Force (IMTF) • HQ level: UN Agencies/Funds/Programs, Secretariat Departments • • • Emergency Relief Coordinator (ERC) Relief web: http: //www. reliefweb. int Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) • UN Agencies, Funds, Programs in country • Shepherds coordination process • Responsible for UN Staff Security in the field • WFP led (Mozambique, AFG) • Who’s Doing What Where? (Kosovo, AFG) • Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) • UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) • UN Country Teams • UN Lead Agency • UN Humanitarian Coordinator • UN Security Coordinator (UNSECOORD) • Joint Logistics Centers (JLC) • Humanitarian Information Centers

Humanitarian Logistics Ad hoc and horizontal; situation/personality/funding dependent Military assets will be LAST RESORT Humanitarian Logistics Ad hoc and horizontal; situation/personality/funding dependent Military assets will be LAST RESORT Able to take bigger risks Rely on commercial contracting Material Handling Equipment Transport Storage Delivery through distribution; chain of custody origin UN warehouse NGO beneficiary

The “NGO Community” • Broad Definition: • Every organization in society which is not The “NGO Community” • Broad Definition: • Every organization in society which is not part of government, and which operates in civil society 1 • Who they are… • Skilled professionals to volunteers (local and expatriate) • Why they respond… • Humanitarian Principles and Geneva Conventions • Host nation agreement and/or CNN Effect • Some claim the “right” of intervention • Diverse sizes/programmatic focus • International, regional, national or community (local) interests • Implementing partners of UN/Donor agencies • UN Agencies/Red Cross are not NGOs! 1 Source: The Commonwealth Foundation, February, 1996

NGO Types no strict categories – often based on programmatic/regional focus • Advocacy • NGO Types no strict categories – often based on programmatic/regional focus • Advocacy • Press international community for action on particular issues • Development • knowledge of pre-existing disaster levels of basic service • Disaster Relief • Attempt for programs/actions to be “Apolitical” • food/relief are “above the battle” • Human Rights Organizations • - Speak out policy: Monitor actions of politicians, military, police, other organizations, etc. • Indigenous • Many are implementing partners for int’l NGOs • community level knowledge of actors and customs

NGO Strengths Critical beneficiary-level work Less bureaucratic/more cost-effective Access to local knowledge Neutrality essential NGO Strengths Critical beneficiary-level work Less bureaucratic/more cost-effective Access to local knowledge Neutrality essential to security • • NGOs Weaknesses • • • Not homogenous system Lack of collaboration Failure to see the ‘big picture’ Government $$ erodes independence Can be perceived as threat to host nation Source: Paula Hoy, Players and Issues in International Aid, 1998

NGO funding sources • Government Donors: Give with humanitarian objectives in mind but may NGO funding sources • Government Donors: Give with humanitarian objectives in mind but may be constrained by other political/policy issues • USAID, Aus. AID, ECHO, Bi-lateral, etc • View NGOs as critical partners in aid delivery • Identify gaps in humanitarian response and target aid to fill gaps • Will have some form of accountability mechanism • • Implementing partners of UN Agencies Foundations Individuals/general public Effect of donor fatigue and/or lack of strategic interest on NGO operations? • COMPETITION FOR FUNDING

Major Government Donors to NGOs • ECHO • European Community Humanitarian Office • JICA Major Government Donors to NGOs • ECHO • European Community Humanitarian Office • JICA • Japanese International Cooperation Agency • Aus. AID • Australian Council for International Aid • Df. ID • UK Department for International Development • USAID • United States Agency for International Development • CIDA • Canadian International Development Agency

NGO Coordination • VOLUNTARY • AS NEEDED • CONSENSUS AND PERSONALITY DRIVEN • Strategic NGO Coordination • VOLUNTARY • AS NEEDED • CONSENSUS AND PERSONALITY DRIVEN • Strategic level coordination • IASC, Inter. Action, ACFOA, VOICE, etc. • Tactical level, typically will coordinate around sectoral or functional areas, i. e. • Health, Wat/San, Food/Nutrition, logistics, etc. • Some by policy will not collaborate with uniformed/armed military • NGOs may have own coordination mechanism separate from the UN.

Major Int’l NGOs in Emergencies • • • CARE World Vision Catholic Relief Services Major Int’l NGOs in Emergencies • • • CARE World Vision Catholic Relief Services Save the Children International Medical Corps Médecins sans Frontières Doctors of the World (IRISH) Concern Adventist Dev. & Relief International Rescue Committee • Joint Relief International • Mercy Corps • Action Interational Contre la Faim • Concern • World Relief • OXFAM • Lutheran World Relief • Refugees International • American Friends Service Committee • International Aid • American Refugee Committee

Humanitarian Coordination - AFG REGIONS: • • Eastern Central East Central (Kabul) South West Humanitarian Coordination - AFG REGIONS: • • Eastern Central East Central (Kabul) South West North East SECTORS/FUNCTIONS: • • Food Non-Food Items (NFI) Shelter Health Nutrition Water & Sanitation Education Mine Action December 01

UN MISSION IN TINDORO Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) Deputy SRSG Chief Military UN MISSION IN TINDORO Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) Deputy SRSG Chief Military Observer Compone nt Head Humanitari an Componen t Head UN Administration Component Head Civilian Police Compone nt Head Human Rights Component

UN Humanitarian Coordination in Tindoro Region • UN Humanitarian Coordinator • Reports to SRSG, UN Humanitarian Coordination in Tindoro Region • UN Humanitarian Coordinator • Reports to SRSG, no authority over UN Agencies/NGOs • UN Humanitarian Operations Center (HOC) • Coordination focal point at national level for UN Agencies/participating NGOs - HOBART & • COORDINATION STRICTLY VOLUNTARY • UN Regional Coordination Offices • National Capitals (HOC located at this level) • Northern Border Region (Queensland) • Southern Border Region (Fingal) • UN Joint Logistics Center (JLC) • Focal point for UN requests for civil-military defense assets • Can provide information on MSRs and logistics hubs

THE FOG OF RELIEF: International Relationships During Disasters Affected Country Requirements ES C OR THE FOG OF RELIEF: International Relationships During Disasters Affected Country Requirements ES C OR c) F t Red Cross/ e RY C, NGO Crescent TA MO LI C NGO I M IC, L NGO T’ CIM Donor IN NGO UNHCR UN Coordination: ICRC NGO HOC, OSOCC, etc. NGO DONOR WFP Private Donors UNICEF DONOR

Civil-Military Relations • ‘Cultural’ level • “tree-hugging” NGO with no discipline • “jar-head” soldier Civil-Military Relations • ‘Cultural’ level • “tree-hugging” NGO with no discipline • “jar-head” soldier trying to control everything • Professional level • different operating cultures and systems • different acronyms • different “end-states”

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NGO Training • Red. R • Security Management Workshops • Transport/Access in Emergencies • NGO Training • Red. R • Security Management Workshops • Transport/Access in Emergencies • Site Selection and Planning • People in Aid • World Vision Security Training • Individual organization training/recruitment policies • i. e. OXFAM GB: job applicants require knowledge of Sphere Standards

Guidelines for Military Support • Last resort – which means all civilian / humanitarian Guidelines for Military Support • Last resort – which means all civilian / humanitarian alternatives have been exhausted • Unique capability – which means no appropriate civilian humanitarian resources exist which can do the task • Timeliness – the urgency demands immediate action • Clear humanitarian direction in the use of the assets • See: Oslo Guidelines and UN Secretary. General’s Guidelines for Afghanistan

Coordination Considerations • Establish common AORs • Establish liaison at all levels (strategic to Coordination Considerations • Establish common AORs • Establish liaison at all levels (strategic to tactical) • Compatibility of communications • Understand each other’s mission: Early agreement of roles (capabilities/constraints) • Coordination is consensus driven; personalities important • Civil-Military interface: level of representation often not as important as responsiveness • Consider the “market prices” for translators, rent, etc. • INFORMATION: Timeliness and accuracy…declassify information and push to the tactical level as early as possible

Selected NGO/Red Cross/Donor web sites Agencies (ICVA) International Council of Voluntary www. icva. ch Selected NGO/Red Cross/Donor web sites Agencies (ICVA) International Council of Voluntary www. icva. ch Inter. Action www. interaction. org Voluntary Organizations in Cooperation in Emergencies (VOICE) www. oneworld. org/voice Australian Council for Overseas Aid (ACFOA) www. acfoa. au The Sphere Project www. sphereproject. org International Committee of the Red Cross www. icrc. org _______________________________________________ US Agency for International Development (USAID) www. usaid. gov European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) www. europa. eu. int/comm/echo/en Australian Government’s Overseas Aid Program (AUSAID) www. ausaid. au

Selected UN System web sites Humanitarian Information Center - Afghanistan www. hic. org. pk Selected UN System web sites Humanitarian Information Center - Afghanistan www. hic. org. pk United Nations Joint Logistics Center www. unjlc. org Relief Web and UN Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Online www. reliefweb. int/ocha_ol/ United Nations System Locator www. unsystem. org United Nations www. un. org United Nations Children’s Fund www. unicef. org UN Development Program www. undp. org UN High Commissioner for Human Rights www. unhchr. ch UN High Commissioner for Refugees www. unhcr. ch World Food Program www. wfp. org

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