Скачать презентацию The House of Representatives population-based representation Article I Скачать презентацию The House of Representatives population-based representation Article I

9536872eddbc886b42e79e8b88420543.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 17

The House of Representatives population-based representation Article I, Section 2 The House of Representatives population-based representation Article I, Section 2

Size and Terms 435 members – determined by Congress l Representation apportioned (distributed) based Size and Terms 435 members – determined by Congress l Representation apportioned (distributed) based on population l Representatives serve 2 year terms l No limit on the number of terms l Every state is guaranteed at least one seat in the House of Representatives, no matter how small their population is. l

Small States with 1 Representative Alaska l Delaware l Montana l North Dakota l Small States with 1 Representative Alaska l Delaware l Montana l North Dakota l South Dakota l Vermont l Wyoming l

How does the government know how many people live in each state? l Census: How does the government know how many people live in each state? l Census: Constitution requires the government to count all of the people in the country every 10 years l After the census, Congress decides the number of representatives each state will have.

Reapportionment After every census, the representation is reapportioned or redistributed l Number set at Reapportionment After every census, the representation is reapportioned or redistributed l Number set at 435 - The Reapportionment Act of 1929 l 2010 Census last one -309, 183, 463 l The number of people counted is divided by 435 ~ 710, 767 people per representative l 2013 – 316, 094, 000 ~ 726, 653 l The US grows – number of people each representative speaks for grows. l

l 2013 Congress l PA – 12, 763, 536 l CA – 38, 041, l 2013 Congress l PA – 12, 763, 536 l CA – 38, 041, 430 l WY 576, 412 l / / / 20 = 738, 176 55 = 691, 662 3 = 192, 137 2013 House of Representatives l PA – 12, 763, 536 l CA – 38, 041, 430 l WY 576, 412 / 18 = 709, 085 / 53 = 717, 763 / 1 = 576, 412

Gerrymandering Districts with unusual shapes l Gerrymandering draws districts to favor one political party Gerrymandering Districts with unusual shapes l Gerrymandering draws districts to favor one political party - governor’s responsibility l The original gerrymander was created in 1812 by Massachusetts governor Elbridge Gerry, who crafted a district for political purposes that looked like a salamander. l

How has Congress regulated redistricting? Voting Rights Act 1965 – Fed reg of elections How has Congress regulated redistricting? Voting Rights Act 1965 – Fed reg of elections l In 1967, Congress requiring all U. S. reps. to be elected from single member l Congress in 1982 amended Voting Rights Actprotect voting rights of racial minorities in redistricting. l states have great leeway to draw districts, l Cracking – diluting voting base l Packing – keeping voting base in one district l

How Has the Supreme Court regulated redistricting? Baker v Carr 1962 l Wesbury v How Has the Supreme Court regulated redistricting? Baker v Carr 1962 l Wesbury v Sanders 1964 l l One man, one vote: each voting district must be of similar size – within 10% l Bush v Vera 1996 l Struck down race based districts as unconstitutional - race can not be the controlling factor in drawing district lines l Hunt v Cromartie 2001 l Race can be one of the mix of factors that shape the process

Texas having difficulty complying with the Voting Rights Act 1965 & amendments l Not Texas having difficulty complying with the Voting Rights Act 1965 & amendments l Not legal to dilute power of minority groups l Preclearance – districts with history of voter discrimination must get permission before approving any changes related to voting. Section 5 VRA l Section 5 - Constitutional? l http: //www. nytimes. com/2013/06/26/us/su preme-court-ruling. html? _r=0 l

Try your hand at Redistricting http: //wxxi. org/curriculum/redistrict/interactive/s imulation/index. html# http: //www. annenbergclassroom. org/page/oneperson-one-vote Try your hand at Redistricting http: //wxxi. org/curriculum/redistrict/interactive/s imulation/index. html# http: //www. annenbergclassroom. org/page/oneperson-one-vote

Congressional Elections Held the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November of an Congressional Elections Held the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November of an even numbered year l Senate - continuous body l House - up for election every even numbered year l

Districts l Single-member districts l People l in a district vote for their representative Districts l Single-member districts l People l in a district vote for their representative At-large? l People in a state vote for all representatives in that state