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The Growing U. S. in the late 1800’s/early 1900’s Industrial Revolution & the Gilded The Growing U. S. in the late 1800’s/early 1900’s Industrial Revolution & the Gilded Age

Industrial Advantages of the U. S. Growing labor supply (immigrants & children) 2. An Industrial Advantages of the U. S. Growing labor supply (immigrants & children) 2. An abundance of natural resources (iron, oil, electricity) 3. Free enterprise – business that is free from govt. involvement 1.

Technology and Inventions Corporate business organization Laissez. Faire attitude of Abundant resources Second Industrial Technology and Inventions Corporate business organization Laissez. Faire attitude of Abundant resources Second Industrial Revolution National market government Capital for investment Large labor supply 3

2 nd Industrial Revolution l Laissez-faire capitalism – little govt. regulation of the economy 2 nd Industrial Revolution l Laissez-faire capitalism – little govt. regulation of the economy l Entrepreneurs – people who organize their own business l Labor was mostly immigrants (paid cheap) or poor children l Because of this, the U. S. became the industrial leader in the world during the 1890’s l http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=_t. Y 1 g k 6 J 6 zc

Government Regulations? Government Regulations?

Monopolies l Total control of a business or product (just like the game) l Monopolies l Total control of a business or product (just like the game) l l l consolidating corporations to control the market for a product attempting to destroy the competition controlling the majority of the production & distribution of a product robber barons – polarization of wealth; businessman who dominated their respective industries l Andrew Carnegie – STEEL l John D. Rockefeller – OIL l Sherman Antitrust Act – outlawed monopolies. But it was difficult to enforce l

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Andrew Carnegie John D. Rockefeller Andrew Carnegie John D. Rockefeller

How rich were the “robber barons” compared to Microsoft founder Bill Gates? 9 How rich were the “robber barons” compared to Microsoft founder Bill Gates? 9

Robber Barons Robber Baron is an insult term used to describe a class of Robber Barons Robber Baron is an insult term used to describe a class of enormously rich businessmen that emerged in the post civil war era. Today they would be known as billionaires. They were both admired and hated at the time. They used ruthless, unscrupulous, and often illegal methods to create monopolies and develop overwhelming economic power and control over their industries. In the late 1800’s a handful of these businessmen controlled over 90 percent of total U. S. wealth. Some of the more commonly known industrial leaders and bankers who were called Robber Barons include: v Andrew Carnegie 279 v John D. Rockefeller v Cornelius and William Vanderbilt v Jay Gould v J. Pierpont Morgan v Jim Fisk v Daniel Drew 3 22 Chart shows the comparison in the number of billionaires 10 from 1865 through 2004

Economic Ideologies *Capitalism – private business own & operate most industries; competition determines cost Economic Ideologies *Capitalism – private business own & operate most industries; competition determines cost of goods as well as workers’ pay l Government favored business in most disputes with its labor force l Social Darwinism – societies evolve over time by adapting to their environment; govt. regulation threatened the natural economic order (survival of the fittest) l

Growth of Cities Increase in immigrants l Port of entry = Ellis Island, NY Growth of Cities Increase in immigrants l Port of entry = Ellis Island, NY & Angel Island, CA l Most were Roman Catholic l Led to racial & ethnic problems (ex. Wops, Pollocks) l Movement from rural to urban life (more people living in the city) l Jobs available in the cities l Led to overcrowding & lack of city services – sanitation problems l

Immigrants at Ellis Island Immigrants at Ellis Island

Settlement Houses Neighborhood centers in poor areas staffed by professionals and volunteers who offered Settlement Houses Neighborhood centers in poor areas staffed by professionals and volunteers who offered education, recreation, and social activities l Jane Addams – founded the most famous settlement house, called Hull House in Chicago. l Hull House focused on the needs of families and immigrants. Teaching citizenship and English. l

Hull House Jane Addams - activist Hull House Jane Addams - activist

Discrimination & Civil Rights l Chinese Exclusion Act l l U. S. fed. law Discrimination & Civil Rights l Chinese Exclusion Act l l U. S. fed. law restricting Chinese for 10 years & any Chinese American could not obtain U. S. citizenship; reaction to open immigration Plessy vs. Ferguson l l l Plessy (1/18 th black) was thrown off railway car & arrested for violating Separate Car Act of Louisiana U. S. Supreme Court case upholding racial segregation; “separate but equal” practiced until 1954

Fighting for Civil Rights Booker T. Washington l 1 st Civil Rights leader (original Fighting for Civil Rights Booker T. Washington l 1 st Civil Rights leader (original MLK); author l believed in cooperation w/ whites instead of confrontation l his work greatly helped lay the foundation for the 1960’s Civil Rights Movement l W. E. B. Du. Bois l publisher & author of equality writings; encouraged Harlem Renaissance; director of NAACP l “blacks should challenge and question whites, seek higher education, & assimilate into American culture”; they should know when to act “white” and/or “black” l Marcus Garvey l founder of Universal Negro Improvement Association (uniting all of Africa) l Africans redeem Africa from European foreigners & return home l

The New Workplace Machines replaced skilled workers l mass production – large amounts of The New Workplace Machines replaced skilled workers l mass production – large amounts of products being made l Immigrants taking jobs l Labor Unions grew l l They increase workers’ power (power in numbers) Used as a bargaining tool against employer to get what workers want (collective bargaining) Taft-Hartley Act – fed. law passed that monitors activities & powers of labor unions

Labor Unions l Knights of Labor - Open to everyone – men, women, skilled Labor Unions l Knights of Labor - Open to everyone – men, women, skilled & unskilled workers; one big union • American Federation of Labor –they Individualized Unions (ex. Mineworkers, Steelworkers); open to only skilled workers

Labor Union Rallies & Strikes The Bisbee Deportation – in AZ; the Industrial Workers Labor Union Rallies & Strikes The Bisbee Deportation – in AZ; the Industrial Workers of the World demanded change in the copper mines, the Bisbee mining corp. refused; violence erupted – 2 men were killed, others beaten - the IWW members were deported to NM; the Bisbee company was never found guilty for their injustice l The Haymarket Riot – 1000 s of union members in Chicago went on strike; 2 strikers were killed by police; workers protested; turned violent – 8 officers killed; officers killed several people; another example of unfair labor laws l

Labor Dispute & Strikes Homestead Strike l Pennsylvania (1892); between Amalgamated Assoc. of Iron Labor Dispute & Strikes Homestead Strike l Pennsylvania (1892); between Amalgamated Assoc. of Iron & Steel Workers (AA) – the whole town & Carnegie Steel Co. l AA wanted to prevent management from forcing workers to agree not to become a member of a union… got violent l Union VICTORY!!! l Pullman Strike l nationwide conflict between unions & RRs (1894); violence erupted in Illinois with Pullman Palace Car Company & American Railway Union l President Cleveland ordered fed. troops to Chicago to end strike (he was not reelected); RRs won! l

Populist Party (The People’s Party) Supported free coinage of silver, labor reform, immigration restrictions, Populist Party (The People’s Party) Supported free coinage of silver, labor reform, immigration restrictions, & govt. ownership of RR & the telegraph/telephone system l Most populists were farmers and industrial workers (the common people) that were losing jobs and $$$ to immigrants & big business l William Jennings Bryan – a democrat & populist presidential candidate in 1896. He lost. This election marked the end of the populist movement. l

Progressive Reforms all laws were designed to give the people greater control over their Progressive Reforms all laws were designed to give the people greater control over their state legislatures & state officials l Amendments: l l l 16 th – income tax 17 th – direct election of senators 18 th – prohibition 19 th – women’s right to vote Election reforms: l l l Recall – if enough voters sign a petition, the people can remove the official Initiative – voters’ ability to propose new laws by petition Referendum – voters approve or disapprove laws already being practiced

Corruption l Machine Bosses bought voter support with jobs & favors l l Tammany Corruption l Machine Bosses bought voter support with jobs & favors l l Tammany Hall, a. k. a Tweed Ring l l l reached out to immigrants by finding jobs attaining citizenship, housing, etc. in return, expected their vote used illegal tactics to maintain control (bought votes) demanded bribes & pay offs for jobs most notorious political machine stole millions of tax dollars Spoils System

muckrakers l l l l Progressivism – reformers who wanted to address city life muckrakers l l l l Progressivism – reformers who wanted to address city life & corruption in order to achieve order & stability Journalists who practiced progressivism named, “muckrakers” – bc they raked up the muck of society & exposed corrution & illegal business practices Ida Tarbell – wrote about unfair business practices of the Standard Oil Co. ; book: History of Standard Oil Company Jacob Riis – wrote about slum life & business corruption; book: How the Other Half Lives Upton Sinclair – wrote about unsanitary working conditions; book: The Jungle Frank Norris – discussed how railroads were a monopoly Lincoln Steffens – exposed corruption in city govt.

Theodore Roosevelt – Progressive President l “Trustbuster” – broke up trusts (a group of Theodore Roosevelt – Progressive President l “Trustbuster” – broke up trusts (a group of companies under a single board of director that make a lot of $$$, there’s no competition) l Land conservation – doubled the number of national and state parks

Taft (cont. ) Passed Sherman Anti-Trust Act: l Supported 16 th (income tax) & Taft (cont. ) Passed Sherman Anti-Trust Act: l Supported 16 th (income tax) & 17 th (direct elector of Senators) amendments; created Federal Children’s Bureau l Republics split (Progressive vs. Conservative ideas re: conservation & environment) l Election of 1912: Roosevelt (P) vs. Wilson (D) l Wilson wins! l