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The Gilded Age Chapter 6 Section 3 The Gilded Age Chapter 6 Section 3

The Gilded Age 1870 -1900 • Phrase coined by Mark Twain The Gilded Age 1870 -1900 • Phrase coined by Mark Twain

Individualism • Belief that anyone could be a great success if they worked hard Individualism • Belief that anyone could be a great success if they worked hard enough • Horatio Alger

Darwinism • Theory of evolution • The strong survive and reproduce, the weak do Darwinism • Theory of evolution • The strong survive and reproduce, the weak do not • Natural Selection

Opponents • Christians opposed Darwinism • Why? Opponents • Christians opposed Darwinism • Why?

Social Darwinism • Survival of the fittest • Herbert Spencer Combined Darwin’s theories and Social Darwinism • Survival of the fittest • Herbert Spencer Combined Darwin’s theories and the Protestant Ethic

Gospel of Wealth • Carnegie’s philosophy of giving back • Philanthropy to help the Gospel of Wealth • Carnegie’s philosophy of giving back • Philanthropy to help the poor better themselves

Realism • Artists and Writers tried to portray the world realistically Realism • Artists and Writers tried to portray the world realistically

 • “The Gross Clinic” • By Thomas Eakins • Why do you think • “The Gross Clinic” • By Thomas Eakins • Why do you think this painting was controversial? • (Collins writing: Type 1 -three lines)

Mark Twain • Realist author Mark Twain • Realist author

From The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn • “’Say, who is you? Whar is you? From The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn • “’Say, who is you? Whar is you? Dog my cats ef I didn’ hear sumf’n. Well, I know what I’s gwyne to do: I’s gwyne to set down here and listen tell I hears it agin. ’” • So he set down on the ground betwixt me and Tom. He leaned his back up against a tree, and stretched his legs out till one of the most touched one of mine. My nose begun to itch. It itched till the tears come into my eyes. But I dasn’t scratch. Then it begun to itch on the inside. Next I got to itching underneath. I didn’t know how I was going to set still. This miserableness went on as much as six or seven minutes; but it seemed a sight longer than that. ”

Do Now • Answer the following in complete sentences. • Why do you think Do Now • Answer the following in complete sentences. • Why do you think some people are opposed to tariffs (taxes on imports)? • Why do some people support tariffs? – Collins Writing Type 2

Popular Culture • People had more disposable income • Began to spend it on Popular Culture • People had more disposable income • Began to spend it on recreation and entertainment

The Saloon • Free toilets, newspapers, water for horses • Drinks, free lunch • The Saloon • Free toilets, newspapers, water for horses • Drinks, free lunch • Served as political centers

Sports • Baseball • Football Sports • Baseball • Football

Most Popular Spectator Sports Most Popular Spectator Sports

Vaudeville • Entertainment with animal shows, skits and dancers • Vaudeville act Vaudeville • Entertainment with animal shows, skits and dancers • Vaudeville act

Ragtime • Music that started in cities’ red light districts • Scott Joplin – Ragtime • Music that started in cities’ red light districts • Scott Joplin – Maple Leaf Rag

Patronage • giving government jobs to people who help a candidate get elected • Patronage • giving government jobs to people who help a candidate get elected • Spoils System-winning candidates deserved the spoils of victory

Civil Service • system to replace the Spoils System • jobs would be given Civil Service • system to replace the Spoils System • jobs would be given to people based on merit

Rutherford B. Hayes • Republican who Became President 1876 • Wanted to do away Rutherford B. Hayes • Republican who Became President 1876 • Wanted to do away with Spoils System • Received no support from Congress

Republican Party Splits • Stalwarts: want to keep Spoils System • Halfbreeds: want reform, Republican Party Splits • Stalwarts: want to keep Spoils System • Halfbreeds: want reform, stay loyal to party • Mugwumps: Republicans who leave to support reformers

James A. Garfield • Republican elected in 1880 • Wanted reform, gave patronage jobs James A. Garfield • Republican elected in 1880 • Wanted reform, gave patronage jobs to reformers • Chester A. Arthur V. P. (Stalwart)

Garfield Assassinated • July 2, 1881 -Garfield shot in D. C. train station • Garfield Assassinated • July 2, 1881 -Garfield shot in D. C. train station • Charles Guiteau-assassin, Garfield turned him down for a job

Pendleton Act • Arthur turned reformer, passed Pendleton Act in 1883 Pendleton Act • Arthur turned reformer, passed Pendleton Act in 1883

Grover Cleveland • Democrat elected President in 1884 • Pushed by Mugwumps to protect Grover Cleveland • Democrat elected President in 1884 • Pushed by Mugwumps to protect more jobs with civil service

Interstate Commerce Act • Cleveland signed in 1887 • Regulated Railroads and set up Interstate Commerce Act • Cleveland signed in 1887 • Regulated Railroads and set up the Interstate Commerce Commission • Rebates • Long haul vs. short haul

Tariffs • People wanted to lower tariffs to lower prices • Cleveland lowered them Tariffs • People wanted to lower tariffs to lower prices • Cleveland lowered them some, but Republicans blocked most change

Benjamin Harrison • Republican elected in 1888 • Received money from industrialists who liked Benjamin Harrison • Republican elected in 1888 • Received money from industrialists who liked tariffs

Mc. Kinley Tariff • Raised tariffs to their highest level ever • Angered Americans Mc. Kinley Tariff • Raised tariffs to their highest level ever • Angered Americans • Harrison lost in 1892

Sherman Anti-trust Act • Passed in 1890 • Tried to break up trusts, but Sherman Anti-trust Act • Passed in 1890 • Tried to break up trusts, but was too weak and vaguely worded • Mostly used against unions

Challenging Social Darwinism • Henry George author – Said Laissez faire was making society Challenging Social Darwinism • Henry George author – Said Laissez faire was making society worse

Lester Frank Ward • Wrote Dynamic Sociology 1883 • Reform Darwinism: people had become Lester Frank Ward • Wrote Dynamic Sociology 1883 • Reform Darwinism: people had become successful because of cooperation not competition

Edward Bellamy • Wrote Looking Backward • A book about socialism Edward Bellamy • Wrote Looking Backward • A book about socialism

Naturalism • A new form of literature that challenged Social Darwinism • Some people Naturalism • A new form of literature that challenged Social Darwinism • Some people failed because of the circumstances in their lives

The Social Gospel • People can be saved through service to the poor • The Social Gospel • People can be saved through service to the poor • Led to churches providing many community services

The Salvation Army • Gave practical aid and religious counseling to the poor The Salvation Army • Gave practical aid and religious counseling to the poor

YMCA • Young Men’s Christian Association • Bible studies, citizenship training, and group activities YMCA • Young Men’s Christian Association • Bible studies, citizenship training, and group activities • Also gave men a place to live

The Settlement House Movement • Community centers in poor neighborhoods – Medical care, kindergartens, The Settlement House Movement • Community centers in poor neighborhoods – Medical care, kindergartens, English classes • Hull House – Opened in Chicago by Jane Addams in 1889

Public Education • More educated workers were needed • Schools Americanized children Public Education • More educated workers were needed • Schools Americanized children