- Количество слайдов: 93
The Gareth Jones Diaries -Witnessing the Holodomor Firsthand © 2006. All Rights Reserved. www. garethjones. org
Overview 1. 2. Early Life / Education Diary / Letter Observations of a Famine: 1. 2. 3. Randolph Hearst 1. 2. 4. 5. 6. 1930 – Lloyd George & First Unescorted Visit 1931 – With Jack Heinz II 1933 – Foray into Ukrainian Villages & Kharkiv 1935 Repeating Famine Allegations Thomas Walker Affair 1935 Murdered by Chinese bandits or Soviet Retribution? Orwell’s Mr Jones… Memorial Plaque - Aberystwyth, Wales, 2006
Early Life • Mother, Former Governess to John Hughes’ family between 1889 -92, founder of Hughesovka (now Donetsk). • Father, Headmaster Barry County Grammar School. • Gareth, Born 1905 in Barry, South Wales.
Academic Career • 1922 -26 – 1 st Class Honours Degree in French & German from Aberystwyth University, Wales. • 1923 -25 - Université de Strasbourg: Diplôme Supérieur des Etudes Françaises. • 1926 – Exhibiton Scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge. • 1927, 1928 & 1929 - College Prizeman – Plus Senior Scholar in 1928. • 1929 – 1 st Class Honours in German and Russian, with distinction in Oral Examinations.
1930 -31 – With Lloyd George • One month unsuccessful trial with The Times and through family acquaintance Tom Jones, the longstanding British Government Cabinet Secretary is introduced to Former World War One British Prime Minister David Lloyd George. • Appointed Foreign Affairs Advisor to Lloyd George.
1930 -31 – With Lloyd George • Visits USSR in 1930, for 1 st time, on behalf of Lloyd George; soon after British Diplomatic Relations are restored having being broken in 1927 due to the Arcos Spying Affair. • On Leaving USSR, Gareth writes candidly to his parents:
Hurray! It is wonderful to be in Germany again, absolutely wonderful. Russia is in a very bad state; rotten, no food, only bread; oppression, injustice, misery among the workers and 90% discontented. I saw some very bad things, which made me mad to think that people like [the Webbs] go there and come back, after having been led round by the nose and had enough to eat, and say that Russia is a paradise. In the South there is talk of a new revolution, but it will never come off,
because the Army and the G. P. U. (Secret Police) are too strong. The winter is going to be one of great suffering there and there is starvation. The government is the most brutal in the world. The peasants hate the Communists. This year thousands and thousands of the best men in Russia have been sent to Siberia and the prison island of Solovki. People are now speaking openly against the Government.
In the Donetz Basin conditions are unbearable Thousands are leaving. I shall never forget the night I spent in a railway station on the way to Hughesovka. One reason why I left Hughesovka so quickly was that all I could [get to eat was a roll of bread. ]
1930 – October -The London Times: “Two Russias” Through Lord Lothian, Gareth Introduced to Editor of The Times & Invited to write 3 articles, in which he stated: Click HERE for link to articles
1930 - The London Times: “Two Russias” • “…foreign delegations [are] blissfully ignorant of the hunger, discontent, opposition, and hatred. ” • “…Donetz Basin, where there has been a serious breakdown in food supplies. ” • A miner expressed …“Everybody is going away from the Donetz Basin, because there is no food here. There is nothing in Russia. The situation is terrible. ” • “The present food shortage was attributed by most Russians to two causes – the agricultural revolution begun last year and the absence of a free market. . . “It is all the fault of this collectivisation, which the peasants hate. There is no meat, nothing at all. ”
1931 – Ivy Lee (PR), New York • Head-hunted from Lloyd George’s Secretariat to work for world’s leading PR agency on Wall Street as their Soviet expert. • Chaperoned 21 year old Jack Heinz’s visit to USSR in August 1931.
1931 – Ivy Lee (PR), New York • Afterwards, compiled a privately published ‘Anonymously written’ book in spring 1932, entitled: “Experiences of Russia – 1931 – A Diary” – namely from Gareth’s Diaries. • Arguably, the first Western book to ‘honestly’ report the onset of famine conditions within the Soviet Union, again citing variations of the word ‘starve’ on half a dozen occasions… Click HERE for link to full transcription of book
1931 Experiences of Russia – A Diary Gareth wrote the Foreword: “With knowledge of Russia and the Russian language, it was possible to get off the beaten path, to talk with grimy workers and rough peasants, as well as such leaders as Lenin’s widow and Karl Radek. We visited vast engineering projects and factories, slept on the bug-infested floors of peasants’ huts, shared black bread and cabbage soup with the villagers - in short, got into direct touch with the Russian people in their struggle for existence and were thus able to test their reactions to the Soviet Government’s dramatic moves. ”
Sept 5 Woke, Keen supporter came; later whispered to Vice President, then he came & there was a complete change in his attitude. “Its terrible. We can’t speak worse than before the Rev. But 1926 -27, those were fine years”. Absolute change in [his] attitude & gestures. “We’ve got to keep quiet or they will send us to Siberia.
Then went to the Village Soviet, an old man came, whispered “It’s terrible in Kolhoz. They took away my cows & my horse. We are starving. Look what they give us. Nothing! How can we live with nothing in our dvor. But we can’t say anything or they’ll send us away as they did the others. All are weeping in villages.
Extract from Gareth’s 1931 Diary
1931 As published in ‘Experiences of Russia – A Diary’ • A doctor’s wife on the boat said to Jones: “Exiles? The peasants have been sent away in thousands to starve. They were exiled just because they worked hard all their lives. It’s terrible how they have treated them; they have not given them anything; no bread cards even. They sent a lot to Tashkent, where I was, and just left them on the square. The exiles did not know what to do and many starved to death. ”
1931 – Oct 14 th The London Times THE REAL RUSSIA - 3 Articles […In which he first used the Doctor’s wife’s anecdote. ] Click HERE for link to articles
1932 - Oct 14 th Letter to Parents London Circles Knew of Raging Famine… “On Friday, I had exceptionally interesting talks … with Prof. Jules Menken (LSE) a very well known economist. He was appalled with the prospects: what he had seen was the complete failure of Marxism. He dreaded this winter, when he thought millions would die of hunger. He had never seen such bungling & such breakdowns. What struck him was the unfairness & the inequality. He had seen hungry people one moment & the next moment he had lunched with Soviet Commissars in the Kremlin with the best caviar, fish, game & the most luxurious wines. ”
Planning a Trip to Expose the Soviet Famine • The next day (on October 15 th & 17 th) Gareth writes two articles for the Cardiff Western Mail to highlight the tragic situation entitled; “Will there be Soup? ” • Incensed by the lack of other news from the USSR, & in line with his Welsh Non-Conformist beliefs & virtues; Gareth decided to make a trip at his earliest opportunity to make amends. • After a busy schedule; ghosting Lloyd George’s War Memoirs – & just ten days after being the first foreign journalist to fly with the newly appointed German Chancellor, Adolph Hitler, he arrived in Moscow on the 5 th March 1933: Click HERE for link to German articles
Malcolm Muggeridge Gareth’s 1933 Diary appointment with Muggeridge in Moscow on 6 th March at 9 pm.
Muggeridge Collapse of Bolshevism. Returned from villages – terrible – dying. No seed for sowing. Practically no winter sowing. Outlook for next year disastrous – End of Party absolutely inevitable, Stalin hated by Party, but Party cannot do anything. 95% of Party opposed to Stalin’s policy, but there s no discussion. Any opposition and man is removed.
1933 – March 10 th – Conversations on Train to Ukraine.
Boy on train asking for bread. I dropped a small piece on floor and put it in spittoon. Peasant came and picked it up - ate it.
Peasant woman: “Many are dying. We’re starving. There is little cattle left. They take all grain away. Ukrainian peasant: “They took away my grain. Cattle (maлo) a little. But there were a lot.
Member Politdel “I’ve been a member of the party for 12 years. They are now sending 2, 700 from Moscow Politdel. They are the best, the strongest. It is semimilitary. We’ll smash kulaks and smash opposition. We’re promoting all men who served in the civil war. The elite, chosen ones. 60% of us have been in higher educational schools. He clenched his fist & hit down
…with every word: resolute, ruthless, cruel: “We are all workers mainly from the factories. ” “We are going to organise. They’ll be about 4 of us in each MTC. The MTC where I shall be will look after 15 kolkhozes. We’ll give them strict control. ” “The weather for the harvest is good, i. e. Lot of snow. ” “The methods of the kulaks have changed. They used to murder. Now they are subtle. Now they say “yes we’re for the Kolkhoz”,
they’ll steal & wont work & they’ll make difficulties. They try to wreck by mean tricks, but they are not dangerous any longer. “I was in Pretop [? ] in cavalry served Budyonny’s 1 st cavalry. ” The conductor said that there were fewer travelling now, because it was difficult to leave factory. But soon there will be a lot of people leaving Moscow for south on account of passportisation. Also there were a lot about 2 months ago. I asked a man (Jew or Armenian) where he was going.
He had a lot of gold teeth and said: “I’ve left Leningrad and am going to Kharkov to look for a job. I have no vote. They have deprived me of my rights, because I was a private trader. ” Boy Komsomolets: “Very strict now. They are dying in villages. In Belgorad there is bread, but that’s a town. “One woman stole 5 beets & got 10 years imprisonment. ” “If you steel coal from station, 10 yrs. Very bad & we don’t know if it’ll be better. ”
Talked to a group of women peasants; “We’re starving. Two months we’ve hardly had bread. We’re from the Ukraine and we’re trying to go north. They’re dying quietly in the villages. Kolkhozes are terrible. They won’t give us any tickets and we don’t know what to do. Can’t buy bread for money. A chicken was 20 rubles. Milk - 3 rubles a litre. I dropped orange peel in spittoon. Peasant picked it up, ate it. Later apple core. Man speaking German same story “Tell them in England, Starving, bellies extended. Hunger
“Be careful in the villages because the Ukrainians are desperate. They will grab any bread they can see. ” Conductor gets 67 rubles a month, & a pound of black bread for journey (day); “I must work night and day”. Komsomolets: “When I left my mother and her sisters a couple of days ago, they had 2 glasses of flour left. ”
1933 - March 10 th/11 th Walking along the Railway Track through Black-Earth District & into Ukraine
First day March 11 From train, I walked about an hour, chatted to all. The same story. There was a kolkhoz. Asked children outside hut: God? “Of course not. There is no God. ” Talked to men on track. It was getting [to] sunset. One of them said: - “you’d better not go
…further, for hooligans will rob you of your coat & your food & all. ” The other – handsome, determined young Communist, said “ Yes its dangerous. Come and stay with us in our village. ” Communist took me along to a Selsoviet; full of young people, children. One of them belly swollen. All people say same ”XЛEБА HETУ BCE nyxnoie” (Bread Not Available) – One woman said: - “We are looking forward to death. ” In one village, all bread had gone two months ago, & potatoes had run out, there was only bypяk (beetroot)
… for one month. How can they live till next harvest? The questions in the Selsoviet were most intelligent: about workers life, Japan, China, America, why the crisis? Good Listeners. Keen Discussions. Then to the cottage of the young Pres. of village soviet, decent fellow with smile, ruddy face, 27 yrs of age. His wife was there, with closely cropped hair with gold round earrings. Very kind. Discussions for hours: “there is only one communist in the village”.
March 11 The President of the Kolkhoz said they had enough seed, but move towards the South there was a lack of seed. He said that two families had been sent away from the village of 120 dvor. Probably he was kind-hearted. The discussion was very open, the peasants saying that it have never been so bad, the Pres. saying faint-heartedly that great sacrifices had to be made. One peasant: “If only Lenin had lived, we’d be living fine. He knew what was going to happen. Here they’ve been chopping and changing policy & we don’t know what’s going to happen next. Lenin would not have done something violently and then said that it was an oшибka (mistake). ”
Two soldiers came and they asked heaps of questions. “The bourgeoisie were crushing the working class in England. They shot down demonstrators. Communists sat in prison & England was going to declare war on Russia. ” They had come to arrest a peasant thief who had killed another. The thief had gone to steal potatoes from the hut of another. The owner of the hut had come out & the peasant had stabbed him with a knife. There were many cases of that happening. The Red Army soldier who came the next morning also said, “Don’t travel by night. There are too many wild…
uncultured men want food and to steal. ” Went to bed late, slept on floor. In one bed; Pres. , his wife & her sister & small bed the child. Woke up next morning before 8. The Communist leader of next village was there – Keen Revolutionary; “We have difficulties, but they have been overcome. ” “There’s seed in this village. ” Cattle decrease disastrous. There used to be 200 oxen, now 6 horses & cattle here down by tremendous amount. The new tax, the Communists
… think will increase the desire of the workers to work. But there have been too many wreckers, too many kulaks, who have been trying to influence the other peasants. Breakfasted, then sister of wife did algebra lesson. The Communists realised & admitted that there was no grain. That was ‘Bockrenchenka’ [? ] in the Black Earth region. Lower down it is much worse. Talked to all the people as I tramped along the railway track. Ravens or crows (with…
… grey cap). White expanse of snow. Moscow – Sebastopol train rattled past with sleeping wagon. Politdel party members, etc. Went into village. There is no bread. “We’ve had no bread for 2 months”. “Each dvor had one or 2 cows. Now none. There almost no oxen left & the horses have been dying off. ” There was a young worker in the village “the unemployed are growing and they’re treated
…like cattle. They’re told to get away & they get no bread card. They’re cutting down men everywhere. I worked in Kharkov. There they’ve dismissed thousands. “ “How can I live? I got a lb of bread for all my family & we came here for a short time, there is no food here. My family is in Kharkoff & I don’t know how they’ll live. ” “We’re all getting (swollen) nyxлbin. ” “In this village 5 or 6 kulak families were sent away to Siberia & to cut wood in the Northern forests,
…also to build a railway in Murmansk. ” But some of the kulaks live better than those who remain in the villages because there is now more bread in the towns. “In the south 20% of the population have died of hunger” said the young worker “and in some parts 50%. They’re murdering us. ” “A lot of factories cannot pay their wages. ” Lunched with teacher: “potato soup, potatoes with a little meat (very little) & kasha. ”
“I have my own cow” said teacher. He was a Marxist. His wife said that hardly any of the children believed in God. Walked out. The peasant; “No food. You [teacher] don’t work & get plenty of food. You’re the first kulak in the village and tried to throw me out of my hut. ” Then, onto the railway and on to Ukraine. Wagons, oil, timber towards the South. Most important railway in Russia. Now in Ukraine. / Go back pages… [Gareth’s diary entries now fill space in previous diary].
In the Ukraine. A little later I crossed the border from Greater Russia into the Ukraine. Everywhere I talked to peasants who walked past – they all had the same story; “There is no bread – we haven’t had bread for 2 months – a lot are dying. ” The first village had no more potatoes left and the store of БҮРЯК (beetroot) was running out.
They all said ‘the cattle is dying. (Nothing to feed. ) НЕЧЕВО КОРМНБ. ” We used to feed the world now we are hungry. How can we sow when we have few horses left? How will we be able to work in the fields when we are weak from want of food? Then I caught up…
…with a bearded peasant who was walking along. His feet were covered with sacking. We started talking. He spoke in Ukrainian Russian. I gave him a lump of bread and of cheese. “You could not buy that anywhere for 20 rubles. There just is no food. ” We walked along and talked; “Before the war this was all gold. We had horses and cows and pigs and chickens. Now we are ruined. We are (doomed) ПОLUБЛИ. . “You see that field. It was all gold, but now look at the weeds. The weeds were peeping up over the snow. ” “Before the war we could have boots and meat and butter. We were the richest
…country in the world for grain. We fed the world. Now they have taken all away from us. “Now people steal much more. Four days ago. They stole my horse. Hooligans came. There that’s where I saw the tract of the horse. ” “A horse is better than a tractor. A tractor goes and stops. , but a horse goes all the time. A tractor cannot give manure, but a horse can. How can the spring sowing be good? There is little…
…seed and the people are too weak. We are all weak and hungry. “The winter sowing was bad, and the winter ploughing was also bad. ” He took me along to his cottage. His daughter and three young children. Two of the smaller children were swollen. “If you had come before the Revolution we would have given you chicken and eggs and milk and fine bread. Now we have no bread in the house. They are killing us. ” “People are dying of hunger. ” There was in the
…hut – a spindle the daughter showed me how to make thread. The peasant showed me his shirt, which was home -made and some of his sacking which had been home-made. “But the Bolsheviks are crushing that. They want the factory to make everything. ” The peasant then ate some very thin soup with a scrap of potato. No bread in house. The white bread [bought in Moscow Torgsin by GJ] they thought was wonderful. The hut had eight ikons, path tawdry & cheap. [Diary continues with several more conversations along the railway track…]
Everybody on the track said the same: “Lots of people dying. Only beetroot. Too weak for spring sowing. One group: “There are thousands of unemployed. Their bread card is taken away and they have nothing. On April 1 st there’ll be another (оқращєнue) cut. Go down to the Poltava district and there you’ll see hundreds of cottages empty. In a village of 300 huts only about 100 will have people living in them & others have died or gone away, but most have died. ”
One worker in Kharkov: “I only get 100 gm of bread per day for wife and myself. ” -------G. J. : “ What kind of crop will you have? ” Peasant: “A splendid crop, - of weeds. ” Group of workers: “Terrible! Dying. !”
Railway Post “Down South it’s ten times worse. They’re dying off. Empty villages. ” “We are too weak for sowing. “In this village they’ve sent some seed but we’ve few horses. Resigned to fate. One village – practically no seed.
Escorted to ‘Kharkoff’ After two days ‘tramping’ along the track, according to an American article for Hearst by Gareth in 1935, his trek came to an abrupt end: “It happened in a small station, where I was talking with a group of peasants: “We are dying, ” they wailed and poured out the old story of their woes. A red-faced, well-fed OGPU policeman in uniform approached us and stood listening for a few moments. Then came the outburst, and from his lips poured a series of Russian curses. “Clear away, you! Stop telling him about hunger! Can’t you see he’s a foreigner? ” He turned to me and roared: “Come along. What are you doing here? Show me your documents. ” Visions of a secret police prison darted before my mind. The OGPU man looked at my passport and beckoned to one of the crowd, whom I had taken to be an ordinary passenger, but who was obviously in the secret police.
Escorted to ‘Kharkoff’ He came to me and in the most polite and respectful terms bade me follow him. “I shall have to take you to the nearest city, Kharkov. ” Throughout the journey I impressed him with the fact that I had interviewed Lenin’s widow, and a number of commissars and great panjandrums of the Soviet régime, and by the time we reached Kharkov I believed he was thoroughly convinced that any real arrest of myself would plunge Russia and Europe and the United States into a world war. For he decided to accompany me to a foreign consulate in Kharkov and he left me at the doorstep, while I, rejoicing at my freedom bade him a polite farewell – an anti-climax but a welcome one.
[Kharkiv] Queues for bread. Erika and I walked along about a hundred ragged pale people. Militiaman came out of shop whose windows had been battered in and were covered with wood and said: “There is no bread today. ” Shouts angry peasants also there. “But citizens, there is no bread. ” “How long here? ” I asked a man. “Two days. ”
They would not go away, but remained. Sometimes a cart might come up with bread. Waiting with forlorn hope. Streets in terrible. Condition, houses rotten, ice thawing, wet dirty. Saw homeless boys. They are increasing. The influence of the film “Introduction to Life” has been bad & many boys from good family have run away. We examined houses, the stones were terrible, crumbled away when I touched.
Churches taken down to make place for building. In one church place workers said that it was haunted & ran away. One church was exploded and the tower remained standing. Population said it was a sign of God. Still Religious but young people not. Bewilderment among the Village Communists. When they drove too hard, lots of peasants got into trouble. When they were too kind, accused of being pro -kulak. Many arrested 35 shot – in paper last Sunday. Policy has chopped & changed.
Queues of 7000 stand. They begin queuing up at 3 -4 o’clock afternoon to get bread next morning at 7. It is freezing. – many degrees of frost.
Terror much worse. In 1931 it was lightened. Now bad again for bourgeoisie. Stricter. When [German] Consul telephoned the Foreign Office, said; ‘Yes Jones. He arrived on foot. ’
Outside Torgsin. 80 paper rubles offered for one Torgsin ruble. 1921. German: Now much worse than was years ago. Then there was no food in the towns, but the peasants had food. Now neither the peasants nor the town have food.
Gareth Holds Berlin Press Conference Immediately on Leaving USSR where he Exposes the Famine. First USA Newspaper reports published on 29 th March 1933. Click HERE for link to articles
Articles In Europe 31 st March 1933 – London Evening Standard. 1 st April 1933 – Berliner Tageblatt by Paul Scheffer. Plus Series of (20) Articles by Gareth in London Daily Express, Financial News & Cardiff Western Mail in Early April 1933.
Duranty – 31 March 1933, New York Times Gareth was then immediately & personally denigrated as a liar by then Pulitzer Prize winner, Walter Duranty, who wrote: “Mr. Jones is a man of a keen and active mind, and he has taken the trouble to learn Russian, which he speaks with considerable fluency, but the writer thought Mr. Jones's judgment was somewhat hasty and asked him on what it was based. It appeared that he had made a forty-mile walk through villages in the neighborhood of Kharkov and had found conditions sad. ” …“There is a serious shortage food shortage throughout the country, with occasional cases of well-managed State or collective farms. The big cities and the army are adequately supplied with food. There is no actual starvation or deaths from starvation, but there is widespread mortality from diseases due to malnutrition. ” Click HERE for link to article
[On reading Gareth’s diary note of when he met Duranty in Moscow (on the same day as he met Foreign Commissar Litvinoff), then he was perhaps not surprised to have been denigrated by Duranty in the New York Times: ] March 19. Met Litvinoff. Duranty said: “Save Face – Third International down & out – quiet. ” “I don’t trust Duranty. He still believes in Collectivisation. “
Gareth Jones’ Rebuttal Letter to the Editor of the New York Times – 13 May 1933 • …Journalists, on the other hand, are allowed to write, but the censorship has turned them into masters of euphemism and understatement. Hence they give “famine” the polite name of “food shortage” and “starving to death” is softened down to read as widespread mortality from diseases due to malnutrition. ” • …May I in conclusion congratulate the Soviet Foreign Office on its skill in concealing the true situation in the U. S. S. R. ? Moscow is not Russia, and the sight of well fed people there tends to hide the real Russia. Click HERE for link to letter
1933 – ‘Joneski’ Litvinov Ban – Correspondence from Gareth to a Friend… "Alas! You will be very amused to hear that the inoffensive little 'Joneski' has achieved the dignity of being a marked man on the black list of the OGPU and is barred from entering the Soviet Union. I hear that there is a long list of crimes which I have committed under my name in the secret police file in Moscow and funnily enough espionage is said to be among them. As a matter of fact Litvinoff sent a special cable from Moscow to the Soviet Embassy in London to tell them to make the strongest of complaints to Mr. Lloyd George about me. "
1933 -34, The ‘Wilderness’ Year • Snubbed by Lloyd George and London Intelligentsia. • 1933 -34 - Worked as local reporter for Cardiff Western Mail primarily on domestic stories.
1933 -34, The ‘Wilderness’ Year • June 1934 – Meets Randolph Hearst at his Welsh Castle, St. Donats, Cardiff – invited to meet again in St. Simeon, California. • January 1 st 1935 – Personally commissioned to repeat famine observations for Hearst; given carte blanche to write some of the most vitriolic attacks on the Stalinist regime whilst being equally heartrending.
12, 13, 14 th January 1935, New York American, Los Angles Examiner & Other Hearst Papers Click HERE for link to articles
1935 – February – The Thomas Walker Affair • 5 articles published in Hearst Press commencing 18 February 1935 relating Walker’s observations of a continuing 1934 Ukrainian famine & illustrated with secretly taken photographs from his own camera.
1935 – February – The Thomas Walker Affair • show pic of articles
1935 – 13 th March – Louis Fischer & The Thomas Walker Affair • Louis Fischer in a published letter The Nation, which showed that: – Walker’s photos were from different seasons – Some photos from 1921 famine – Thomas Walker according to unverified Sovietsupplied records to Fischer, was only in Moscow for five days in Autumn 1934 and therefore could never have visited Ukraine.
1935 – 13 th March – Louis Fischer & The Thomas Walker Affair • And by this letter Fischer effectively… – Destroyed the credibility of the American ‘Conservative’ press’ allegations of any Soviet famine in the 1930 s. – Without ever mentioning Gareth’s name or even attacking his articles directly – Gareth’s truthful observations were tarnished by the same brush. – [Gareth was ‘conveniently’ incommunicado when Fischer’s letter was published & therefore unable to contribute to the controversy. Unbeknowingly, he had just departed Japan & coincidentally from Gunther Stein’s freely-given accommodation; who later allowed his Tokyo rooms to be used by Soviet ‘Super’ spy, Richard Sorge, for covert radio transmissions to Moscow…]
Gareth Investigates the Far East • Gareth embarks on fact-finding mission of Japanese Expansionism of their puppet state of Manchukuo, in Northern China after interviewing political leaders in Tokyo. Click HERE for link to Manchukuo Incident Book. Click HERE for link to Gareth’s Far East Articles
1935 – 28 th July – Gareth Kidnapped in Northern China by Bandits • German Company, Wostwag kindly supplied vehicle for an extended trip into Inner Mongolia to witness the Japanese presence in the area. • Invite from German Journalist Dr Herbert Mueller. • Gareth assured “Absolutely safe, no bandits”. • After kidnapping, Mueller released after two days as captive – unusual… • Ransom obdurately rejected by bandits – unusual… • Gareth eventually, tragically murdered after two weeks on eve of 30 th birthday -12 Aug 1935.
1935 – Sept / Oct - Immediate Aftermath • London publication by Marxist, Claud Cockburn, in The Week claimed that Dr. Mueller was released because of secret Japanese-German Entente Cordiale Pact. • The British Foreign Office then instigated 500 page investigation into this specific allegation and concluded; no foundation whatsoever • No mention of Gareth’s Soviet ban or famine reporting in whole report. • The Soviet Union were never considered as possibly being culpable despite…
British Public Records Office releases intelligence on Wostwag in 2004 • Wostwag were major organ of Soviet NKVD: – The General Manager in China, Adam Purpiss according to Chase Manhattan records was: “considered one of the shrewdest and cleverest men in Far East, ” and “at one time associated with the Cheka. ” – Purpiss travelled under a invalid Honduran Passport. – Wostwag were allegedly ‘de facto’ bankers and arms dealers to Chinese Communist Party. – Banked $900, 000 into Chase Manhattan Bank, NYC, in 1938 for purchase of aeroplanes. – Sole monopoly for trade in Outer Mongolia – 50% profits went to Moscow State bank. Click HERE for link to PRO Evidence on Wostwag.
British Public Records Office releases intelligence on Dr. Herbert Mueller in 2004/05 • 34 -year dossier from 1917 to 1951 relating his Soviet sympathies: – Lived at one time in Soviet consol at Hankow. – Alleged to have had assumed several aliases. – Known member of the Comitern. – Ran a Soviet courier business in China. Click HERE for link to PRO Evidence on Mueller.
MI 5 Cover-up or Cock-up? • MI 5 never passed on relevant intelligence to F. O. for their enquiry, even though: – Sir Vernon Kell, founder and Director General of MI 5, told US intelligence he knew of Wostwag’s financial tie-up with the Soviet Security Services back in 1929. – Mueller’s 34 year dossier from 1917 was active at the time in 1935. If they had, then their conclusions may well have been different… As it was, the F. O armed only with Marxist Cockburn’s allegations of a Japanese-German pact, weren’t even on the ‘scent’ of any Soviet complicity…
Who benefited from Gareth’s Murder? • The embarrassment to the Japanese by being publicly implicated with Gareth’s murder in Mueller’s German articles resulted in effectively no further territorial expansion of their Chinese ‘empire’ until the ‘Rape of Nanking’ in 1937 – allowing Wostwag to continue to ‘operate covertly’ & trade profitably without hindrance. • As a likely ‘marked’ enemy of the Soviet State for his Holodomor reporting, liquidation of Gareth by NKVD operatives in Inner Mongolia would certainly not have displeased the Moscow hierarchy. And not least of all, by former Chekist, Foreign Commissar Litvinov, who clearly was incensed by Gareth’s affront to embarrassingly expose the Holodomor ten days after affording him the privilege of a personal interview in Moscow…
Orwell’s Mr Jones – The Farmer One person who may not have been fooled by the explanation of Gareth’s death simply at the hands of miscreant bandits, would have been Orwell… Though, the English ‘Farmer Jones’ character in Animal Farm obviously alludes to Tsar Nicholas, who was murdered by the Soviets, there is now reason to believe that Gareth may perhaps have been behind the actual choice of naming Mr Jones, the Farmer: Click HERE for link to full hypothesis as to ‘Mr (Gareth) Jones; the Farmer Click HERE for link to a personal appraisal of the symbolism in Animal Farm in relation to the Holodomor.
Orwell’s Mr Jones – The Farmer • Chapter 6 of Animal Farm relates to the Holodomor and clear reference to Duranty’s “death’s due to malnutrition” article is alluded to with; “Nine hens had died in the meantime. Their bodies were buried in the orchard, and it was given out that they had died of coccidiosis. “ • In fact, Duranty’s infamous article referred to “Mr. Jones” on four separate occasions, and likewise Orwell never once refers to ‘Farmer Jones’, but always “Mr Jones – the farmer”. • Duranty was not trusted by Orwell as he was cited in his controversial crypto-Communist list.
Orwell’s Mr Jones – The Farmer • In his 1945 ‘Prevention of Literature’ essay, Orwell suggested placing the word ‘don’t’ before each stanza of the below heretical poem to bring it up to date: Dare to be a Daniel Dare to stand alone Dare to have a purpose firm Dare to make it known
Orwell’s Mr Jones – The Farmer • In June 1938, Orwell reviewed Eugene Lyons’ “Assignment in Utopia” for The New English Weekly, [in which he would later take the Soviet 5 year plan Slogan 2+2=5 for use in 1984] and therefore would have been aware that: – Moscow American Journalists, at the wishes of the Soviet Press Censor, colluded to damn Jones as a liar. – That Gareth’s “conscientious streak” led him to murdered by Chinese bandits two years after exposing the Holodomor.
Orwell’s Mr Jones – The Farmer • In his 1945 Proposed Preface to Animal Farm Orwell wrote: “…it was considered equally proper to publicise famines when they happened in India and to conceal them when they happened in the Ukraine. And if this was true before the war, the intellectual atmosphere is certainly no better now. ” Though readers of Orwell, including biographer David Taylor, believe this hypothesis relating to Gareth to be ‘plausible enough’, and that Orwell could not have written on the Holodomor with out knowledge of Gareth, it is almost ‘Orwellian’ in itself, that Orwell archives & papers contain no mention whatsoever of Gareth Jones!
Gareth Jones – A Man Who Knew Too Much On Friday 16 th August, upon hearing of Gareth’s murder, Lloyd George commented in The London Evening Standard: “I was struck with horror when the news of poor Mr Gareth Jones was conveyed to me. I was uneasy about his fate from the moment I ascertained that when his companion, Dr Herbert Müller, was released he was detained. ” “That part of the world is a cauldron of conflicting intrigue and one or other interests concerned probably knew that Mr Gareth Jones knew too much of what was going on…
Gareth Jones – A Man Who Knew Too Much He had a passion for finding out what was happening in foreign lands wherever there was trouble, and in pursuit of his investigations he shrank from no risk. ” “…I had always been afraid that he would take one risk too many. Nothing escaped his observation, and he allowed no obstacle to turn from his course when he thought that there was some fact, which he could obtain. He had the almost unfailing knack of getting at things that mattered. ”
2006 – May 2 nd Gareth ‘Recognised’ in Aberystwyth, Wales • Historical tri-lingual plaque Gareth was unveiled at The University of Wales, inscribed: , “In Memory of Gareth Richard Vaughn Jones, born 1905, who graduated from the University of Aberystwyth and the University of Cambridge. One of the first journalists to report on the Holodomor, the Great Famine of 1932 -33 in the Soviet Ukraine. ” • With thanks to the UCCLA, the Ukrainian Orthodox Churches of Great Britain and of Canada, the Association of Ukrainians in Great Britain, the Ukrainian American Civil Liberties Association, and other donors, the bronze plaque is adorned with a bas relief of Gareth Jones, prepared by Toronto sculptor, Oleh Lesiuk.
2006 – May 2 nd Gareth ‘Recognised’ in Aberystwyth, Wales Click HERE for link to Press Coverage, Photos and Speeches Ihor Kharchenko, London Ukrainian Ambassador at the unveiling & blessing with Gareth's niece, Siriol, myself, the University Vice Chancellor, Lord Morgan and Principal Organiser, Prof. Lubomyr Luciuk.
25 th 2006 – 23 rd June Annual Conference on Ukrainian Subjects at the University of Illinois Thank you for the kind invitation & opportunity to speak to you today, about Gareth Jones… Nigel Colley