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The French Revolution 1789 - 1815
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Detail From Triumph of Marat, Boilly, 1794 (Musee des Beaux-Arts)
HOW TO TAKE NOTES ON THIS PPT p REVIEW/HISTORICAL CONTEXT n p No need to copy in notes word for word unless unfamiliar IMPORTANT! PLEASE TAKE NOTE!
The Seigneurial System p p p Receiving a seigneurial grant Feudal method of land ownership and organization Peasant labor worked the land of the nobles Nobles taxed the peasants for profit
Louis XIV p p p Ruled from 1643– 1715 Absolute monarch (didn’t share power with a counsel or parliament) Claimed “Divine Right” Reduced the power of the nobility Fought four wars ($) Greatly increased France’s national debt
The Seven Years’ War Louis XV p p French and English troops fight at the battle of Fort St. Philip on the island of Minorca Louis XV War fought in Europe, India, North America France ends up losing some of its colonial possessions Increases French national debt
The Old “Ancien” Regime p The Third Estate This cartoon from the era of the French Revolution depicts the third estate as a person in chains, who supports the clergy and nobility on his back.
The Old “Ancien” Regime What is going on in this image? p What cause of the French Revolution does this image illustrate? p The Third Estate
The Three Estates p Before the revolution, the French people were divided into three groups: n n n p The first estate: the clergy The second estate: the nobility The third estate: the common people (bourgeoisie, urban workers, and peasants). Legally the first two estates enjoyed many privileges, particularly exemption from most taxation.
The First Estate p The first estate, the clergy, consisted of rich and poor. n n There were very wealthy abbots, members of the aristocracy who lived in luxury off of wealthy church lands. There were poor parish priests, who lived much like the peasants.
The Second Estate p The second estate, the nobility, inherited their titles and got their wealth from the land. n n Some members of the nobility had little money, but had all the privileges of noble rank. However, most enjoyed both privileges and wealth.
The Third Estate The third estate, the common people, was by far the largest group in France. p Everyone who was not a member of the first or second estates was a member of the third. It included: p n n n Wealthy merchants, whose wealth rivaled that of the nobility Doctors and lawyers Shopkeepers The urban poor The peasants who worked the land.
The Ancien (Old) Regime 3 rd Estate: p THREE GROUPS 1. Bourgeoisie: a) Wealthy merchants, manufacturers, bankers, landowners (20% land), but frustrated by lack of social & political power 2. Urban workers – Sansculottes: a) Factory workers, artisans, journeymen b) Lived in poverty – wages increased by 22%, cost of living increased by 62% by 1789 3. Peasantry a) Largest group in society (80% France’s population) b) Paid 50% income in taxes (dues to nobles, tithes to church, taxes to king)
The French Royalty p Hall of Mirrors The royal family lived in luxury at the Palace of Versailles.
Louis XVI p Louis XVI was an awkward, clumsy man who had a good heart but was unable to relate to people on a personal level. – He often appeared unfeeling and gruff. – He was insecure and seems to have disliked being King of France. n When one of his ministers resigned, he was heard to remark, "Why can't I resign too? "
Marie Antoinette p Marie Antoinette, in her early years as Queen, was flighty and irresponsible. n n She spent huge amounts on clothes, buying a new dress nearly every other day. Being Austrian, she was terribly unpopular in France and had few friends.
King Louis XVI & Queen Marie-Antoinette
The Financial Crisis The government of France, however, was bankrupt and was facing a serious financial crisis. p The crisis resulted from: p n n n An inefficient and unfair tax structure, which placed the burden of taxation on the third estate Outdated medieval bureaucratic institutions A drained treasury which was the result of: Aiding the Americans during the American Revolution p Long wars with England p Overspending p
The Financial Crisis Bad crops in 1787 -88 led to rise in food prices; high unemployment p Only 3 rd Estate paying taxes p
Four Stages of the Revolution Moderate Stage (1789 -1792) 1. • 1 st Constitution & Declaration of Rights (National Assembly – Legislative Assembly) Reign of Terror (1792 -1794) 2. • Radical & bloody phase under Maximilien Robespierre (National Convention) Backlash against the Terror (1794 -1799) 3. • Attempts at stability & moderation (The Directory) Shifts back toward dictatorship (1799 -1815) 4. • Napoleon becomes consul (dictator), and later, emperor (French Empire)
The Enlightenment “ 18 th century philosophy taught the Frenchman to find his condition wretched, unjust and illogical and made him disinclined to the patient resignation to his troubles that had long characterized his ancestors. . The propaganda of the philosophes perhaps more than any other factor accounted for the fulfillment of the preliminary condition of the French Revolution, namely discontent with the existing state of things. “
American Revolution …in 1783 the Venetian ambassador to Paris wrote that "it is reasonable to expect that, with the favourable effects of time, and of European arts and sciences, [America] will become the most formidable power in the world. " American independence fired the imagination of aristocrats who were unsure of their status while at the same time giving the promise of ever greater equality to the common man. The Enlightenment preached the steady and inevitable progress of man's moral and intellectual nature. The American example served as a great lesson - tyranny could be challenged. Man did have inalienable rights. New governments could be constructed. The American example then, shed a brilliant light. As one French observer remarked in 1789, "This vast continent which the seas surround will soon change Europe and the universe. "
II. Economic Crisis in France p p Louis XVI needs to raise new taxes, but cannot do so w/o approval of the Estates-General, a body of representatives from each of the 3 estates Estates-General had not met since 1614 “Beloved and loyal supporters, we require the assistance of our faithful subjects to overcome the difficulties in which we find ourselves concerning the current state of our finances, and to establish, as we so wish, a constant and invariable order in all branches of government that concern the happiness of our subjects and the prosperity of the realm. These great motives have induced us to summon the Assembly of the Estates of all Provinces obedient to us, as much to counsel and assist us in all things placed before it, as to inform us of the wishes and grievances of our people; so that, by means of the mutual confidence and reciprocal love between the sovereign and his subjects, an effective remedy may be brought as quickly as possible to the ills of the State, and abuses of all sorts may be averted and corrected by good and solid means which insure public happiness and restore to us in particular the calm and tranquility of which we have so long been deprived. ” Louis XVI's letter regarding the convocation of the Estates General at Versailles (January 24, 1789)
III. From Estates-General to National Assembly A. Voting in the Estates-General was by body, not by head: 1. Each estate got 1 vote; traditionally the 1 st & 2 nd estates voted together, thus outvoting the 3 rd estate 2: 1 2. The 3 rd estate demanded that voting be changed to vote by head: 610 (3 rd E. ) vs. 591 (1 st & 2 nd) 3. Nobles refuse to change voting; King supports them
B. Tennis Court Oath 1. 2. 3. 4. 1 st deliberate act of revolution: 3 rd estate meets alone declaring themselves the National Assembly, June 17, 1789 Louis XVI locks them out of the meeting room, they then move to an indoor tennis court & vow to stay until they have a written constitution Proclaim an end to absolute monarchy & beginning of representative gov.
C. Storming of the Bastille 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. King orders 1 st & 2 nd estates to meet w/ N. A. Sends Swiss royal army to defend Paris & Versailles Bourgeoisie fear troops are coming to disband N. A. Citizens in Paris react by storming the Bastille for gunpowder July 14, 1789: Bastille Day becomes National Independence Day Significance: n Politically: saves N. A. & lessens King’s power n Socially: symbol of revolution n Militarily: forced Louis to give up plan to control Paris
D. The Great Fear, Summer 1789 1. 2. 3. Rebellion in Paris spread to countryside Rumors spread that nobles hired outlaws to terrorize peasants Band of peasants instead broke into nobles’ homes to destroy records of obligations
IV. Destruction of the Ancien Regime August 4: N. A. abolished all legal privileges of nobles & clergy B. Aug. 26: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen n Inspired by English Bill of Rts. & American Constitution n Charter of basic liberties & natural rights of man, including: p all men free and equal before law p Public office by talent, not heredity p No group exempt from taxes p Freedom of speech & press p Applied to men only; protested by Olympe de Gouges: Declaration of Rights of Woman and Female Citizen; she was killed during the Reign of Terror, 1793 A.
C. Women’s March on Versailles, October 5, 1789 p p p Louis refused to accept N. A. ’s decrees 60, 000 Parisian women march 12 miles to Palace at Versailles to protest high prices of bread & to require the king to support the N. A. Demanded the King & Queen return to Paris, where they are housed in the Tuileries & kept under watch
D. Church Reforms Revolutionaries wanted to reform Church, also needed money 2. Seized & sold Church lands to pay off debt 3. Took away Church’s political independence ***Effect: loss of support of many French peasants, who were devout Catholics & will become permanent enemies of the revolution & the radicals 1.
E. New Constitution & New Fears 1. 2. 3. Const. of 1791 created the Legislative Assembly: a constitutional monarchy Louis & family attempt to escape France into Austrian Netherlands, but was caught & brought back to Paris a prisoner & enemy of the revolution Led to increased power of the radicals & questions of whether a constitutional monarchy was plausible or necessary
F. Factions arise in L. A. over old problems Radicals “Sans-culottes” Sat on left side of assembly “leftists” Proposed a republic, in which people have power Political Parties include: the Jacobins & the Mountain Moderates Sat in center of assembly “centrists” Wanted limited changes Political Parties: the Girondin Conservatives Emigres / royalists Sat on right side of assembly “right-wing” Wanted to restore king as limited monarch & few changes in gov.
G. War with Austria & Prussia, 1792 1. 2. European monarchs feared spread of rev. into their lands, thus threatened to invade France & restore the monarchy L. A. acted first & declared war on Austria, 1792
H. The First Coalition Invades France, 1792. 1. 2. 3. 4. With the invasion of Austria & Prussia to restore Louis to the throne, French mobs stormed Louis’ Palace in Paris, the Tuileries. He and his family were thrown in prison while his guards were massacred (800+). Rumors spread that while the volunteer soldiers were leaving to fight on the Front, that imprisoned royalists would attempt to take control of Parisian radicals raided the prisons & murdered over 1, 200 prisoners of the 1 st & 2 nd estates: the September Massacres. Under threat of the radicals, the Legislative assembly dissolved & declared the king deposed. They formed France’s 1 st Republic: the National Convention. “I ran from place to place, and finding the apartments & staircases already strewed with dead bodies, I…ran away to the Dauphin’s garden gate where some Marseillais, who had just butchered several of the Swiss, were stripping them. One of them came up to me with a bloody sword in his hand, saying, ‘Hello, citizen! Without arms! Here, take this & help us to kill. ’ But luckily…I managed to make my escape. Some of the Swiss who were pursued took refuge in an adjoining stable. I concealed myself in the same place. They were soon cut to pieces close to me…” –Unnamed Royal Servant
Ch. 3. 2: Radical Revolution & Reaction Stage 2: Reign of Terror 1792 -1794
I. The Move to Radicalism A. 1. 2. Sept. 1792 the National Convention abolished the monarchy and established The French Republic n Made Louis XVI a common citizen, Louis Capet n He was tried and found guilty of treason (for corresponding w/ Austria) and executed by the guillotine Jan. 21, 1793 The king’s execution caused foreign monarchs to unite to end the radical revolution: 1 st Coalition included Britain, Spain, Holland, Austria, Prussia, and Portugal French radicals respond by creating The Committee of Public Safety, who imposed a draft and created the largest citizen army of 800, 000 men (and some women)
II. The Committee of Public Safety A. Factional disputes between Political Parties: the Girondins (Moderates), the Jacobins (Radicals) & the Mountain (extreme radicals) created problems for the N. C. p p p Jean-Paul Marat War abroad, discontent at home over war & economy, and counterrevolutionary activity in countryside June, 1793: N. C. set up CPS to deal w/ problems – had all power in gov CPS made up of Jacobins/Mountain & supported by armed mob of sans-culottes; Girondins out of power
B. The Death of Marat, 1793 -Charlotte Corday assassinated one of key CPS leaders -made Revolutionaries feel threatened
III. The Reign of Terror, 1793 -1794 A. 1. 2. 3. 4. Robespierre wanted to create a “Republic of Virtue” Goal was to wipe out any trace of monarchy and nobility Followed Rousseau’s social contract and that anyone who opposed being governed by the general will should be executed Up to 40, 000 people executed in France, including Marie-Antoinette & Danton Clergy & nobles were about 15% of those executed, the rest were from bourgeoisie and peasant classes – those who the revolution was fought for
B. The Republic of Virtue 1. Desire to create a temporary dictatorship in order to save the republic (Roman idea) & restructure society n n n A democratic-republic of good citizens formed by good education De-Christianization policy b/c Catholic Church encouraged superstition rather than reason; cult of Supreme Being - Deism New calendar dating from Sept. 22, 1792 (1 st day of the republic) w/ new months & no Sundays Playing cards changed Fashions emphasized Roman style or sansculotte The proof necessary to convict the enemies of the people is every kind of evidence, either material or moral or verbal or written. . Every citizen has the right to seize conspirators and counterrevolutionaries and to arraign them before magistrates. He is required to denounce them when he knows of them. ```````Law of 22 Prairial Year II (June 10, 1794)
C. Thermidorian Reaction 1. 2. 3. By mid-1794, as First Coalition was defeated, there was less need for the Terror & Robespierre’s leadership Moderates became fearful he would turn on them, so he was arrested & executed July 28, 1794 (Ninth of Thermidor) Jacobins lose power to moderates as public opinion shifted from the left to the right
IV. The Directory, 1795 -1799 Stage 3: Backlash Against the Terror (1794 -1799) A. 1. 2. 3. 4. Moderates draft a new constitution, the 3 rd since 1789, creating a gov. with a 2 house legislature and an executive of 5 men to bring order & stability Corruption rampant: officials made illegal fortunes Political enemies from both right and left Economic problems due to ongoing war Directory names Napoleon Bonaparte as General of French Army
Ch. 3. 3: The Age of Napoleon Stage 4: Shifts Back To Dictatorship 1799 -1815
I. The Rise of Napoleon p p p 1769: born in Frenchcontrolled Corsica to a middle-class family Sent to military school at age 9 on scholarship, became a lieutenant upon graduation at 16 Joined the army of the new gov. when the Revolution broke out. When he was in school in Brienne in continental France, where he was very much laughed at and bullied for being a barbarous Corsican, he dreamt all the time of…liberating Corsica. But he did something quite exceptional. He conquered his conquerors. He got the better of the French.
Gros, General Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole, 1796, Versailles. **Art as Political Propaganda A. Military Successes 1. 2. 3. Came to national prominence in 1795, when he helped defeat the royalist forces that threatened the National Convention Rewarded by the Directory; given a French Army command to fight in Italy (1796 -97 campaign) He won battles in Austria & Sardinia, but was unsuccessful against the British Admiral Nelson in Egypt (1798 -1801) campaign), though his defeats were kept secret. Gros, Bonaparte Visiting the Plage Victims at Jaffa, 1799, 1804, The Louvre.
David, The 1 st Consul Crossing the Alps at Grand St-Bernard Pass, Malmaison. B. Coup d’etat 1. 2. Napoleon returns to Paris in 1799 a hero French citizens have lost confidence in the Directory & the time is right to seize power p n n 3. 2 of its members (Paul Barras & Abbe Sieyes plot w/ Napoleon to launch a coup) Napoleon’s troops occupy the legislature and drive out 1 st House 2 nd House is scared and “votes” to end the Directory, giving power to The Consulate w/ 3 consuls Napoleon was named First Consul of the French Republic, a move that gave him dictatorial powers. Bouchot, The Brumaire Coup d’Etat, 1799, 1837, Versailles.
C. Emperor Napoleon I 1. David, Napoleon in his Study at the Tulieries, Washington, D. C. Propaganda: He has been up all night working on Civil Code; clock shows 4 a. m. , but he is in military uniform – a general who is ready to meet his troops. In 1804, a plebiscite (vote by the people) allowed Napoleon to crown himself Emperor of France. **used democratic process to destroy the democracy created by the Republic **French Revolution is dead; absolute monarchy is restored “The Revolution is over. I am the Revolution. ”
The Crowning of Empress Josephine Jacques-Louis David, The Coronation of the Emperor Napoleon I, 1804, Musee du Louvre, Paris.
Napoleon & Josephine
Marie-Josephe-Rose Tascher 1763 - 1814 "When she came into the room, you'd probably be really drawn to her. She had great charisma, long eyelashes and big eyes. She wasn't a beauty, but she was really striking …She had a wonderful walk, very elegant, an indolent walk that really was enchanting. And she had a beautiful voice, what we would call a really sexy voice, very low and musical. So there was something about her aura that just enchanted people. " “Josephine is a woman who is very good and who knows how to draw attention on to her. She’s simple. She’s not complicated. She’s not someone who makes up schemes, and she’s very gracious. Has a lot of charm and may not be very beautiful but has a very flexible gait. . . someone that draws attention. She’s a real woman and that’s what Napoleon said always about her, and that she’s someone who doesn’t leave people indifferent. ” (PBS)
Of Napoleon: p “Oh, he's a scruffy guy, you know, that everyone was embarrassed about. He was so serious and he had no sense of humor and he was skinny. He was poorly clothed. His boots smelled. His hair was kind of hanging and he was unkempt. He was a sorry sight. ” (PBS)
Napoleon & Josephine "I awake full of you. Your image and the memory of last night's intoxicating pleasures has left no rest to my senses. Sweet, incomparable Josephine, what a strange effect you have on my heart. Are you angry? Do I see you sad? Are you worried? My soul breaks with grief, and there is no rest for your lover; but how much the more when I yield to this passion that rules me and drink a burning flame from your lips and your heart? Oh! This night has shown me that your portrait is not you! You leave at midday; in three hours I shall see you. Meanwhile, my sweet love, a thousand kisses; but do not give me any, for they set my blood on fire. B. " December, 1795
Of her affairs: November 1796: I don’t love you anymore; on the contrary, I detest you. You are a vile, mean, beastly slut. You don’t write to me at all; you don’t love your husband; you know happy your letters make him, and you don’t write him six lines of nonsense… Soon, I hope, I will be holding you in my arms; then I will cover you with a million hot kisses, burning like the equator.
II. Domestic Policies A. B. C. Peace with the Catholic Church 1. Guaranteed religious toleration & recognition of Catholicism as religion of people 2. Signed a Concordat w/ Pope Pius VII in which he agreed not to ask for return of church lands seized during the revolution Legal Code – Napoleonic Code 1. b/w 1801 -1804, he compiled a comprehensive set of laws – the first national legal system applied equally to everyone, except the Emperor 2. Included rev. ideas: equality before the law, religious tolerance, abolished serfdom 3. Women’s rights gained in the rev. were undone: could not testify in court, harder to divorce, loss of property rights Administration 1. Public officials and military officers promoted on ability rather than birthright 2. Created a national bank, equalized taxation, balanced the budget 3. Created a public school system, the Lycees, admission was merit based 4. Censorship of the press & private mail
III. Napoleon’s Empire 2 goals: 1) extend power in Europe & 2) in the New World A. Europe: 1. 2. 3. 1799: 2 nd Coalition (Russia, Britain, Austria) formed to fight against France 1802, a treaty was signed briefly ending the war 1803: 3 rd Coalition (Britain joined by Austria, Russia, Sweden, Prussia) formed against Napoleon p Napoleon was successful against all, except Britain
1. B. Napoleonic Europe 2. 3. Battles of Ulm, Austerlitz, Jena, and Friedland (1805 – 1807) Napoleon’s Grand Army defeated armies of Austria, Russia & Prussia He created the Grand Empire, lasting from 1807 -1812 n French Empire n Dependent States: (ruled by relatives of Napoleon) Spain, Holland, Italy, Switz. , Rhine, Warsaw n Allied States: (conquered states) Prussia, Austria, Russia, Sweden Throughout the Grand Empire, Napoleon abolished privileges of clergy & nobility and applied his Code & principles of the Revolution
C. The New World 1. 2. 3. 4. In the New World, Napoleon sought to regain control of Saint Domingue (Haiti), which had revolted in 1791. In 1801, his forces were defeated by the former slaves, in part due to yellow fever. US President Thomas Jefferson offered to buy the Port of New Orleans from the French; Napoleon decides to make money by selling the Louisiana Territory in 1803 for $15 million. The Louisiana Purchase allowed him to finance his European expeditions & ensure the power of the U. S. against the British.
IV. European Response A. British Resistance 1. Napoleon was never able to defeat the British b/c of their naval supremacy 2. Battle of Trafalgar, 1805 n n n Napoleon’s Fleet vs. Admiral Horatio Nelson Forced Napoleon to give up idea of invading Britain & ensured British naval supremacy Napoleon dominated the continent, but the Empire was unstable & difficult to rule over
The Battle of Trafalgar, 1805
(Read Only) The Continental System p The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. By 1804, France was the dominant military force in continental Europe, however the British Isles stood outside French control and the United Kingdom was an important force in encouraging and financing resistance to France. Napoleon lacked the resources to attempt an invasion of the United Kingdom or to defeat the Royal Navy at sea. His one attempt to do so ended with defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Napoleon resorted instead to economic warfare. As a result of the Industrial Revolution, Great Britain was emerging as Europe's manufacturing center, and Napoleon believed it would be vulnerable to embargo on trade with the European nations under his control.
V. Napoleon’s 3 Mistakes that Lead to the Collapse of His Empire: 1. The Continental System, 1806 -1812 p p Designed to cripple the British economy Cut off all trade b/w the Grand Alliance & Britain – a “blockade” of British colonial goods into the European continent Backfired when GB began their own blockade of all ships bound for the continent b/c GB controlled seas Actually weakened French economy & angered Napoleon’s allies, who were angered over loss of access to British goods
(Read Only) The Continental System However bad the Continental System was for Britain, it was disastrous for Napoleon because it backfired on him. French customs revenue fell and European nations were starved of British colonial goods: coffee, sugar, tobacco, cocoa, and cotton textiles. Apart from cotton, the imported goods were addictive luxuries and people resented the French depriving them of these commodities. Replacement items such as sugar beet and linen were not tolerated. The British blockade of European ports and the scarcity of goods created a rise in European nationalism.
(Read Only) The Peninsular War, 1808 -1813 p p By the Convention of Fontainbleu in November 1807, the Spanish government agreed to allow a French army to pass through Spain to attack Portugal; in return, most of the conquered Portugal would become Spanish territory. Napoleon decided that it was unlikely that Spain would be able to complete its agreement and sent in French armies to conquer the country. Napoleon summoned the Royal Family to meet him in Bayonne where he persuaded them to hand over their claim to the Spanish crown. Napoleon then installed his brother Joseph as King of Spain. The result of this action was riots in Madrid and uprisings in each of the Spanish provinces that were led by the landed magnates and local clergy. Companies of Spanish volunteers were formed any Frenchmen and/or supporters of the French régime were massacred.
2. Rise of Nationalism A. The Peninsular War, 1808 -1813 n n n Portugal was ignoring the Continental System; Napoleon wanted to send his troops through Spain to invade Portugal Napoleon installed his brother, Joseph, on the Spanish throne Spanish peasant fighters, guerillas, attacked Napoleon’s troops in the spirit of nationalism p Francisco de Goya, the Third of May, 1808 Completed 1814, Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain n Catholics feared undermining of Church in Spain French Army lost 300, 000 soldiers, weakening the Empire
Francisco Goya: Disasters of War Series (Romanticism – reaction against neo-classicism)
3. Invasion of Russia, 1812 p p p Russia refused to implement the Continental System leading directly to the Moscow Campaign of 1812. Napoleon’s Grand Army, consisting of soldiers from throughout the Empire w/ little loyalty, invades Russian Army implements the “scorched earth policy”: retreat eastward burning & killing crops/livestock along the way, leaving no food for invading army GA enters Moscow, city is on fire, rather than retreat, Napoleon waits 5 weeks for surrender By the time the GA retreats, winter has set in n Russian raiders attack Soldiers starve & freeze to death Began w/ 600, 000; only 40, 000 troops survive
VI. The Empire Collapses A. 1. Sensing weakness, GB forms a 4 th Coalition w/ Russia, Prussia, Sweden to invade France & regain lost territory 1813, Battle of Leipzig, Napoleon’s army is defeated n n The largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars – also called the Battle of Nations “One should not believe but they are really attacking me. ” -Napoleon at Leipzig 1814, 4 th Coalition captures Paris 3. Napoleon is exiled to Elba & Louis XVIII is restored as King 2.
The Empire Collapses B. The Hundred Days 1. 2. 3. C. The Battle of Waterloo, June 15, 1815 1. D. March 1, 1815: Napoleon escapes & returns to Paris French enthusiastically join his army & restore him as Emperor Napoleon I Grand Alliance gets armies together Under the command of the Duke of Wellington, British & Prussian armies finally defeat Napoleon Exile to St. Helena 1. Dies in 1821
Ch. 4. 2: Reaction & Revolution The Congress of Vienna & the Concert of Europe, 1815 -1848
Ch. 4. 2: The Congress of Vienna, pp. 265 -267 HW Who are the “Great Powers” of Europe that were present at the Congress of Vienna? (5 countries) Define: 2. Metternich’s “Principle of Legitimacy”: 3. Balance of Power: 1. a) 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. How did Metternich plan to achieve a balance of power: ? Conservativism: Concert of Europe: Principle of Intervention: Liberalism: Nationalism:
I. Metternich Restores Stability A. 1. 2. Congress of Vienna, 181415 The 5 “Great Powers” met to set up policies to achieve a lasting peace in post-Napoleonic Europe Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria was the most influential & was very distrustful King Frederick of democratic ideals of the William III of French Rev. Prussia Emperor Francis I of Austria Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, Britain Czar Alexander I of Russia Talleyrand of France Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria
B. Metternich’s 3 Goals: 1. 2. 3. Containment of France: prevent future aggression by surrounding France w/ strong countries Restore a Balance of Power: no country would be a threat to others p C. of V. was easy on France: p Forced to give up territories Napoleon took, but kept 1790 boundaries & overseas possessions, army & gov Legitimacy: Restore Europe’s families to thrones that had been driven out by Napoleon p France: Louis XVIII ruled as a Constitutional Monarch p Spain, Italy, Germany: rulers restored
C. (READ ONLY) Success of C. of V. 1. 2. Did not leave countries dissatisfied, thus able to prevent future wars From June 1815 – 1853 none of the Great Powers engaged in war w/ each other (and some until 1914 – WWI)
II. Political Changes A. p 1. Conservative Europe As monarchs were restored to power, concern for ideals of Rev. Holy Alliance, 1815 n 2. Concert of Europe / Principle of Intervention n 3. League b/w Austria, Russia, & Prussia to help each other in case of revolution based on Christian values A series of alliances created by Metternich to assure aid if revolution broke out Gov. still divided over ideas of revolution n Liberals wanted more power Middle classes wanted right to vote Conservatives tried to suppress revolutionary goals Areas of Rev. 18201831
B. Long Term Legacy 1. 2. 3. Growth of nationalism in Italy, Germany, and Greece Independence of Spanish colonies in Latin America Growth of democratic ideas
Important Decisions: p p p p p France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoleon The Dutch Republic was united with the Austrian Netherlands to form a single kingdom of the Netherlands under the House of Orange. Norway and Sweden were joined under a single ruler Switzerland was declared neutral Russia got Finland effective control over the new kingdom of Poland Prussia was given much of Saxony and important parts of Westphalia and the Rhine Province. Austria was given back most of the territory it had lost and was also given land in Germany and Italy (Lombardia and Venice) Britain got several strategic colonial territories, and they also gained control of the seas. France was restored under the rule of Louis XVIII. Spain was restored under Ferdinand VII
Accomplishments of the Revolution p With all this now behind us, what did the Revolution accomplish? First, the Revolution weakened the political influence and leadership of the aristocracy. The aristocrats lost their privileges based on birth because from this point on, privilege would now be based on property and wealth. As the sans-culottes quickly realized, one evil simply replaced another. Second, because careers were open to talent, the bourgeoisie had access to the highest positions in the state. In fact, throughout the 19 th century, the French state was a bourgeois state which echoed middle-class needs and values. Third, the Revolution transformed the dynastic state of the ancien regime into the modern state (natural, liberal, secular and rational). The state was no longer just a federation of provinces, it was not the private property of the king. Instead, the state now belonged to the people. The individual, formerly a subject in the old order, was now a citizen, with specific rights as well as duties. Lastly, the Revolution managed to give practical application to the ideas of the philosophes -- equality before the law, trial by jury, the freedom of religion, speech and the press. In the 19 th century, all these ideas led to the quickening pace of reform. And in that century, the voices of the sans-culottes would be heard once more. All these developments were accelerated by the Industrial Revolution itself (see Lecture 17). While the French Revolution politicized the sans-culottes, the Industrial Revolution industrialized them. Both events had the ultimate effect of making the European working classes. www. historyguide. org
Marie-Josephe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie p p p Born in 1763 on the island of Martinique, part of the French West Indies 1779 married into nobility (the Vicomte Alexandre de Beauharnais), had 2 children, but divorced in 1783 While in Paris she becomes a socialite and mistress to several politicians Ex-husband died at the guillotine in 1794 days before Robespierre and end of the Reign of Terror She is arrested and held for 4 months in prison during this time; she is released in August, 1794 1795, she meets Napoleon & he falls madly & passionately in love with her – introduced by Paul Barras 1796 Napoleon and Josephine are married days before he leaves for his Italian campaign begins She had several affairs, which almost led to their divorce in 1799 She could not produce an heir and by 1809 he divorced her She died in 1814, shortly after his first abdication He never got over her though, his last words, “France, the Army, Josephine”
p p p p 1 st Coalition: 1792 -1797 (Austria, Prussia, Britain, Spain, Piedmont) n Major Campaigns: Revolution 2 nd Coalition: 1798 -1801 (Austria, Ottoman Empire, Britain, Portugal, Naples, Russia, Vatican) n Major Campaigns: Egypt 3 rd Coalition: 1805 (Austria, Britain, Russia, Sweden) n Major Campaigns: Austerlitz, Trafalgar 4 th Coalition: 1806 -1807 (Prussia, Saxony, Russia) n Major Campaigns: Conquest of Prussia 5 th Coalition: 1809 (Britain, Austria) n Major Campaigns: Peninsular War 6 th Coalition: 1812 -1814 (Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, German States) n Major Campaigns: Invasion of Russia, Liberation of Germany 7 th Coalition: 1815 (Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, German States) n Major Campaigns: 100 Days, Waterloo