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The first use of the term 'Cold War' has been attributed to the US presidential advisor Bernard Baruch used the phrase on April 16, 1947 in a speech to the South Carolina House of Representatives, where his portrait was being unveiled. “Let us not be deceived; ” Baruch said, “we are today in the midst of a Cold War. Our enemies are to be found abroad and at home. Let us never forget this: Our unrest is the heart of their success. ”
In diplomatic terms there are three types of war: • Hot War: this is actual warfare. All talks have failed and the armies are fighting. • Warm War: this is where talks are still going on and there would always be a chance of a peaceful outcome but armies, navies etc. are being fully mobilized and war plans are being put into operation ready for the command to fight. • Cold War: this term is used to describe the relationship between America and the Soviet Union, 1945 to 1991. Neither side ever fought the other - the consequences would be too appalling - but they did ‘fight’ for their beliefs using client states who fought for their beliefs on their behalf e. g. South Vietnam was anticommunist and was supplied by America during the war while North Vietnam was pro-Communist and fought the south (and the Americans) using weapons from communist Russia or communist China. In Afghanistan, the Americans supplied the rebel Afghans after the Soviet Union invaded in 1979 while they never physically involved themselves thus avoiding a direct clash with the Soviet Union. *** The one time this Cold War process nearly broke down was the Cuban Missile Crisis!!!!
Cold War: Origins • Some historians argue that the Cold War began in 1918 when the WWI Allies, including the U. S. , sent forces to Russia to topple the Bolsheviks. • Remember that the WWI Allies aided the Whites against the Reds in this Russian Civil War. The Reds/Bolsheviks were victorious and established the Soviet Union. • From that time on, the Soviet government viewed the western democracies as its enemies.
Cold War • Not a regular war – but a diplomatic world war for global domination. • Wars occurred in Korea (1950 s), Vietnam (1960 s-70 s), and in Afghanistan (1980 s) but they were NOT directly between the U. S. A. and U. S. S. R. • Most dangerous chance of nuclear war: the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. • Collapse (or retreat) of Communism occurred in 1990 s.
Mutually Assured Destruction (M. A. D. ) • Full-scale use of nuclear weapons would effectively result in the destruction of both sides -- no victory, only total destruction. • Assumes neither side will dare launch a first strike because the other side will retaliate. • Expected result is a tense but stable peace. • Nuclear proliferation: in the 21 st century, the “nuclear club” includes at least USA, Russia, UK, France, China, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Israel.
Cold War Conflicts about … 1. Economic Theory: Capitalism vs. Communism 2. Political Organization: Democracy vs. Totalitarian state 3. Culture and “way of life”: Individual rights/privacy vs. duty to state and living for the community
Battle for Hearts and Minds • Bi-polar World: “the West” (capitalism and democracy) vs. “the East” (communism and single-party rule)
Two Different Economic Theories Capitalism Communism • Based on competition. • Market sets prices – based on supply and demand. • No central control – role of government is regulation to curb excesses. • Assumes income and wealth will be unequal. • Based on central control and cooperation. • Government determines what is produced – and prices. • No stock market and little private property. • Stated goal: to not have any poor nor any wealthy people.
America Soviet Union Free elections No elections or have fixed elections Democratic Autocratic / Dictatorship Capitalist Communist ‘Survival of the fittest’ Everybody helps everybody Richest world power Poor economic base Personal freedom Society controlled by the secret police Freedom of the media Total censorship
“inequality vs. social equality” (eastern view) “freedom vs. totalitarianism” (western view)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 • "We the peoples of the United Nations [are] determined . . to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small". • The Soviet Union (U. S. S. R), Belarus, the Ukraine and Yugoslavia abstained. THEY DID NOT SIGN IT!
What was it like to live under Communism? U. S. A. • Freedom of speech • Freedom of religion • Freedom of movement across borders • Freedom of choice to buy and sell • Freedom to own property East Berlin • State Controlled Media • No religion • No travel outside of communistic countries and papers needed • State provided all necessities —there were often shortages • Property was distributed by the government
State control was enforced in two ways Secret Police • The secret police arrested people who spoke out against the government or were otherwise considered a threat. Spies • Soviet spies infiltrated western countries to learn their secrets as well as learn if anyone from their communist countries had switched sides.
This was not just in the U. S. S. R • While there are some differences between communist countries, for the most part they were and still are very restrictive about Human Rights and stick to the main economic principles of communism.
Cold War Alignments: 1953
Cold War Alignments: 1980
Berlin Wall: 1961 • In a masterfully-planned operation, spanning just 24 hours, the streets of Berlin were torn up, barricades of paving stones were erected, tanks were gathered at crucial places and subways and local railway services were interrupted, so that within a day the West of Berlin was completely sealed off from the East. • As of that same day inhabitants of East Berlin and East Germany were no longer allowed to enter the West of the city (including the 60, 000 who had been commuters).
Berlin Wall built to stop East Germans from fleeing to the west!
Berlin Wall: 1961 • During the night of August 13, the East Germans constructed a barrier between East and West Berlin. • The Communist government wanted to stop the flight to the west of people seeking more freedom and greater economic opportunity. • Within days, a thick wall was built. East Berliners could no longer travel freely to West Berlin. Efforts to escape continued, however. Many East Berliners were killed or arrested by border guards while attempting to get past the wall.
• The wall was built to split East and West Berlin in 1961 and stood until 1989. • About 100 -200 people were killed trying to cross over, under, or through this wall to join their families and friends on the other side. • It eventually extended for over 100 miles.
Berlin Wall in the 1980’s