Скачать презентацию The EURONEAR Project Ovidiu Vaduvescu Isaac Newton Group Скачать презентацию The EURONEAR Project Ovidiu Vaduvescu Isaac Newton Group

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The EURONEAR Project Ovidiu Vaduvescu Isaac Newton Group (ING) Associated IAC & IMCCE and The EURONEAR Project Ovidiu Vaduvescu Isaac Newton Group (ING) Associated IAC & IMCCE and the EURONEAR team IPEWG 2013 Meeting Nice, France 29 -31 May 2013

Context > SPACEGUARD established in 1994 as an international body aimed to discover 90% Context > SPACEGUARD established in 1994 as an international body aimed to discover 90% of the NEA population larger that 1 km within one decade; > Since 1995, the U. S. (funded by NASA and US Army) carried out alone SPACEGUARD via 5 major surveys (Catalina 46% disc, LINEAR 25%, Spacewatch 8%, NEAT 4% and LONEOS 3%) using mostly 1 m class telescopes. Since 2007, Pann-STARRS 2 m survey added (6% disc). > The European contribution: quasi zero – less than 1% NEA discoveries and no telescopes full time dedicated to observations of NEAs (discovery or followup)! > Currently Europe is lead by two amateur/private surveys (La Sagra - 80 NEA disc and Crni Vrh – 20 NEA disc), followed by few small past surveys (OCA-DLR, CINEOS, KLENOT, Ondrejov, Sormano, etc) and few other internationals (Bisei, OTESS, etc). 2

What is EURONEAR? The EUROpean Near Earth Asteroid Research > A project to establish What is EURONEAR? The EUROpean Near Earth Asteroid Research > A project to establish an European coordinated network to contribute in NEA research; > Born in May 2006 at IMCCE Paris (initiated by O. Vaduvescu and M. Birlan); > Proposing to study orbital and physical properties of NEAs; > The dream was to establish one or two dedicated telescopes in both hemispheres; > A project also aimed for education and public outreach; 3

EURONEAR Search for Dedicated Facilities > In 2006 -2008 while working in Chile, I EURONEAR Search for Dedicated Facilities > In 2006 -2008 while working in Chile, I identified the dormant ESO 1 m telescope which we envisioned to upgrade and use together with the ING JKT 1 m in La Palma for EURONEAR; > Feb 2008 FP 7 2. 5 ME proposal included 5 nodes: IMCCE, Armagh, Ondrejov, Turku & IA UCN Chile. The proposal passed first selection threshold (10/15 points) but was not awarded funding; > Since 2009 when I moved to ING La Palma, EURONEAR has increased the number of nodes to 17 and collaborators to 50+; > Feb 2011: EURONEAR SP ITP observing proposal included 23 researchers from 13 institutions from 7 EU countries and 5 ORM telescopes (asking 70 n during 2 years, time not awarded); > Mar 2013: EURONEAR SP long-time proposal included 26 researchers from 12 institutions from 5 EU countries plus Chile proposing to use 4 4 ORM telescopes (5 weeks/semester for 5 years, to be decided soon).

The EURONEAR Nodes and Collaborators Currently, 17 nodes including more than 50 astronomers from The EURONEAR Nodes and Collaborators Currently, 17 nodes including more than 50 astronomers from 8 EU countries and Chile are included in the EURONEAR (informal) consortium: - Spain: ING (O. Vaduvescu), IAC (J. Licandro), IAA (J. L. Ortiz), CSIC-IEEC (J. M. Trigo), Alicante (A. C. Bagatin), SVO (E. Solano), Huelva (J. M. Madiedo); - France: IMCCE (M. Birlan), OCA (P. Tanga); - Italy: Padova (M. Lazzarin), Torino (A. Cellino); - UK: Armagh (D. Asher), Open Univ (S. Green); - CZ Republic: Ondrejov (P. Pravec, A. Galad); - Germany: TLS Tautenburg (B. Stecklum); - Finland: Tuorla (R. Rekola); - Chile: UAUA Antofagasta (E. Unda-Sanzana); Besides, more than 30 collaborators (mostly Romanian students and amateur astronomers) contributed to EURONEAR; 5

EURONEAR – Two Major Science Goals A: Orbital amelioration via astrometry 1) 2) 3) EURONEAR – Two Major Science Goals A: Orbital amelioration via astrometry 1) 2) 3) 4) Secure the orbits of newly discovered objects, PHAs and VIs; Follow-up and recovery of NEAs and PHAs in most need of data; Data mining existing imaging archives available online; Incidental discovery of many MBAs and some NEAs. B: Physical properties via photometry, spectroscopy and polarimetry: rotation, size, mass, binarity, albedo, taxonomy, etc. Both goals require dedicated observing time, preferably using 2 -4 m telescopes. 6

EURONEAR – Results 1. Observations: need telescopes obtained either via: – – - NEA-friendly EURONEAR – Results 1. Observations: need telescopes obtained either via: – – - NEA-friendly TACs (quite difficult to convince. . ) - Big funding (10 ME) to setup new dedicated facilities. . - Collaboration with well established institutions (ESA, etc) to reach common science goals; 2. Data mining of existing imaging archives (more available today but still insufficiently exploited); 3. Education and public outreach: need dedicated students and amateurs for image reduction; 4. Publications and science: 10 papers, 50 MP(E)Cs, 15 international conferences and 6 collaboration papers during the last 7 years; 7

Observing runs within the EURONEAR network More than 800 NEAs observed from 5 countries Observing runs within the EURONEAR network More than 800 NEAs observed from 5 countries with 15 telescopes: > > > > Cerro Tololo, Chile - Blanco 4 m (2 n 2011); Isaac Newton Group, La Palma - WHT 4. 2 m (3 n 2011 -2013); Isaac Newton Group, La Palma - INT 2. 5 m (10 n 2009 -2013); La Silla, Chile - ESO/MPG 2. 2 m with WFI camera (3 n 2008); TLS Tautenburg, Germany - Schmidt 2 m with CCD (15 n 2012 -2013); Las Campanas Observatory, Chile - Swope 1 m (15 n 2008); Cerro Tololo, Chile - Yale 1 m telescope (5 n 2008); La Silla Observatory, Chile - ESO 1 m (2 n 2007); Cerro Armazones Observatory, Chile - 0. 84 m (1 n 2007); Haute Provence Observatory, France - 1. 2 m (15 n 2007 -2012); Pic du Midi Observatory, France - T 1 m 1 m (20 n 2006 -2012); Argelander Institute for Astronomy, Bonn, Germany - 0. 5 m (10 n 2011 -2013); Galati Public Outreach Observatory, Romania - 0. 40 m (30 n 2011 -2013); Bucharest Urseanu public outreach Observatory, Romania – 0. 25 m and 0. 3 m telescopes (20 n 2006 -2013). 8

Observing runs and network (2) Six papers including 20+ EURONEAR observing runs: 800 observed Observing runs and network (2) Six papers including 20+ EURONEAR observing runs: 800 observed NEAs, PHAs and Vis, 2000 incidental MBAs and 1500 new objects, incl ~50 new NEA candidates! 1 -2. Observing NEAs with a small telescope > Major surveys overview, planning observations, data reduction, catalogs, etc > Sample run using the York Univ 0. 6 m telescope (Toronto) > Romanian Astronomical Journal, Vaduvescu 2004 and 2005; 3. EURONEAR First Results > Two runs 1 m telescopes, (Pic T 1 m and OHP 1. 2 m) > 17 observed NEAs, planning tools, reduction pipeline, > Astrometry, O-C calculator, etc > Planetary and Space Science, Vaduvescu et al. 2008; 9

Observing runs and network (3) 4. Paper presenting 162 NEAs observed during regular runs Observing runs and network (3) 4. Paper presenting 162 NEAs observed during regular runs 2006 -2009 > 55 nights total (1500 reported positions) > Using eight 1 -2 m telescopes (INT 2. 5 m, ESO 2. 2 m, OHP 1. 2 m, Swope 1 m, CTIO 1 m, Pic 1 m, ESO 1 m, OCA 0. 85 m) • > Astronomy & Astrophysics, Birlan et al. 2010, incl 9 students/amateurs 5. Recovery, follow-up and discovery of NEAs and MBAs using 3 large field 1 -2 m telescopes (Swope 1 m, ESO 2. 2 m & INT 2. 5 m) 2008 -2010 > 100 NEAs, 558 known MBAs, 628 unknown objects (including 58/500 MBA discoveries and btw 4 -16 NEA candidates) > MBA and NEA observability statistics using 1 -2 m telescopes > Planetary and Space Science, Vaduvescu et al. 2011, 13 students/amateurs 10

More observing runs and network (4) 6. 741 NEAs observed by the EURONEAR network More observing runs and network (4) 6. 741 NEAs observed by the EURONEAR network (2006 -2012); passing 800 observed NEAs (May 2013); > Including 10 new runs observed with 9 telescopes: Blanco 4 m – MOSAIC-2, WHT 4. 2 m, INT 2. 5 m WFC, TLS Tautenburg 2 m, – OHP 1. 2 m, Pic du Midi T 1 m, plus 3 educational/amateur scopes: – Bonn 0. 5 m, Galati 0. 4 m and Urseanu Bucharest 0. 3 m. > Recommended for publication in includes 24 co-authors students and amateurs from Romania, Chile, Germany, France, UK and Iran; Planetary and Space Science, Vaduvescu et al 2013, > More than 50 MPC and MPEC publications incl our NEA and MBA data; > 15+ communications in conferences including students/amateurs. 11

Data mining of imaging archives Four NEA data-mining projects and papers in collaboration mostly Data mining of imaging archives Four NEA data-mining projects and papers in collaboration mostly with students and amateurs: about 500 NEAs and PHAs p/recovered! 1. EURONEAR: Data mining of asteroids and NEAs: > Introducing PRECOVERY server; > Application on the Astronomical Observatory Bucharest Plate Archive - 13, 000 plates 0. 4 m refractor (1930 -2005); > Astronomische Nachrichten, Vaduvescu et al. 2009, 2 students/amateurs 2. CFHT Legacy Survey Archive (CFTHLS) Mega. Cam survey: > 25, 000 Mega. Cam mosaic CCD images 3. 6 m, 2003 -2009; > 143 NEAs and PHAs found and reported from 508 images; > Astronomische Nachrichten, Vaduvescu et al. 2011, 6 students/amateurs 12

Data mining of imaging archives (2) 3. Mining the ESO WFI and INT WFC Data mining of imaging archives (2) 3. Mining the ESO WFI and INT WFC archives. Mega-Precovery. > 330, 000 mosaic CCD images taken with ESO/MPG 2. 2 m WFI and the ING/INT 2. 5 m WFC 1998 -2009; > 152 NEAs and PHAs found in 761 images reported to MPC; > Prolonged orbits for 18 precovered objects and 10 new opposition recoveries > Introducing Mega-Precovery server and Mega-Archive: 28 instrument archives (ESO, NOAO, etc) including 3. 5 million images to query for known NEAs, asteroids and comets via Mega-Precovery! > Astronomische Nachrichten (accepted), Vaduvescu et al. 2013, includes 13 students and amateurs 13

More data mining of imaging archives (3) 4. Data Mining the Suprime. Cam Archive More data mining of imaging archives (3) 4. Data Mining the Suprime. Cam Archive for NEAs > 60, 000 Suprime. Cam mosaic CCD images taken with Subaru 8. 3 m telescope (1999 -2012); > 1000 known NEAs are searched on 6000 candidate images! > Additionally, scanning some 1000 selected Suprime. Cam fields for new NEAs to improve the NEA statistics at the faint end; > > Poster presented at ACM 2012 meeting in Japan To become a paper in 2014, collaboration with 14 students/amateurs. 14

Other topics and papers related to EURONEAR Six papers related to asteroids, comets and Other topics and papers related to EURONEAR Six papers related to asteroids, comets and MBCs lead by some EURONEAR collaborators: 1. Asteroid pairs: Formation of pairs by rotational fission (Pravec, et al. 2010, Nature) 2. Binary asteroids: Distribution of orbit poles of small, inner mainbelt binaries (Pravec et al. 2011, Icarus) 3. Chemical evolution of comets: Spectroscopic observations of new Oort cloud comet 2006 VZ 13 and four other comets (Gilbert et al, 2011, Monthly Notices RAS) 15

Other topics and papers related to EURONEAR (2) Papers related to Main Belt Comets Other topics and papers related to EURONEAR (2) Papers related to Main Belt Comets (MBCs) lead by some EURONEAR collaborators: 4. Water-ice-driven Activity on Main-Belt Comet P/2010 A 2 (LINEAR)? (Moreno et al. 2010, Astrophysical Journal) 5. (596) Scheila in outburst: A probable collision event in the Main Asteroid Belt (Moreno et al. 2011, Astrophysical Journal) 6. The dust environment of Main-Belt Comet P/2012 T 1 (PANSTARRS) (Moreno et al. 2013, Astrophysical Journal) 16

Asteroid discoveries and IAU naming 1. 500 MBAs discovered and 58 official based on Asteroid discoveries and IAU naming 1. 500 MBAs discovered and 58 official based on the ESO/MPG 2. 2 m 3 -night run in 2008 (reduced by 6 students and amateurs); 2. First Romanian discoverers of asteroids (2008) lead by two Romanian astronomers from Diaspora in a team of 9 mostly students and amateurs reducing data remotely in near real time; 3. Some 1000 MBAs discoveries and 100 to become official based on the INT opposition 3 -night mini-survey run in 2012 reduced by 5 students and amateurs; 4. First 5 asteroids discovered by Romanians named after passed away Romanian astronomers: (263516) Alexescu, (257005) Arpad. Pal, (320790) Anestin, (330634) Boico and (346261) Alexandrescu ; 17

Few memories… Pic du Midi 2006 First EURONEAR run 18 Few memories… Pic du Midi 2006 First EURONEAR run 18

Haute de Provence 2007 EURONEAR run good use of the old Newtonian 1. 2 Haute de Provence 2007 EURONEAR run good use of the old Newtonian 1. 2 m telescope 19

Cerro Tololo, Chile 2008 20 Cerro Tololo, Chile 2008 20

La Silla, 2008 21 La Silla, 2008 21

Las Campanas 2008 Alex Tudorica, the first Romanian student observing in Chile 22 Las Campanas 2008 Alex Tudorica, the first Romanian student observing in Chile 22

Cerro Tololo 2008 Observers under the Yale 1 m telescope 23 Cerro Tololo 2008 Observers under the Yale 1 m telescope 23

Atacama Dessert, Chile 2008 24 Atacama Dessert, Chile 2008 24

Cerro Armazones 2008 The 40 cm and 85 cm domes of IA-UCN bellow now Cerro Armazones 2008 The 40 cm and 85 cm domes of IA-UCN bellow now the E-ELT peak 25

La Silla 2008 Besides M. Birlan at the ESO/MPG 2. 2 m and the La Silla 2008 Besides M. Birlan at the ESO/MPG 2. 2 m and the WFI camera 26

Few memories… Bucharest 2008 Press Conference: First Romanians to discover asteroids ever! 27 Few memories… Bucharest 2008 Press Conference: First Romanians to discover asteroids ever! 27

La Palma 2009 First Romanian students observing with the INT! 28 La Palma 2009 First Romanian students observing with the INT! 28

La Palma 2012 Six Romanian and German students using the INT - WFC 29 La Palma 2012 Six Romanian and German students using the INT - WFC 29

La Palma 2012 EURONEAR science, education and public outreach 30 La Palma 2012 EURONEAR science, education and public outreach 30

Analysis and measurements Dedicated software for image processing and field correction: > THELI (Erben, Analysis and measurements Dedicated software for image processing and field correction: > THELI (Erben, Schrimer, Dietrich et al, 2005): - Applied to correct the field to improve the astrometry; • - Mandatory for large field and/or PF cameras (INT WFC, • WHT/PFIP, OCA 0. 85 m); > SDFRED for Subaru Suprime. Cam (Ouchi, Yagi, 2002, 2004); > Our own IRAF pipeline for image reduction some tasks; > FIND_ORB (Gray, 2012) and ORBFIT (Millani et al, 2012) for orbits. 31

Analysis and measurements Astrometrica (Raab, 2012): > To identify fields and resolve astrometry and Analysis and measurements Astrometrica (Raab, 2012): > To identify fields and resolve astrometry and photometry; > Easy to learn and use remotely by students and amateurs; > Detect and measure known objects (daily MPC database); > Blink all fields, measure and report: - main target NEA; - all known objects identified by humans or software; - all unknown moving objects, assign acronyms; > All known and unknown objects are reported to MPC (astrometry and photometry). 32

Data Reduction Sample Visual blink with Astrometrica to search for moving objects 33 Data Reduction Sample Visual blink with Astrometrica to search for moving objects 33

Improved astrometry (Birlan et al, 2010) O-C Residuals: Smaller O-Cs => Improved orbits EURONEAR Improved astrometry (Birlan et al, 2010) O-C Residuals: Smaller O-Cs => Improved orbits EURONEAR FWHM 0. 4” versus 0. 6” major surveys 34

Comparing large field 2 -4 m facilities Upper-left: PF WFC field not corrected (2010): Comparing large field 2 -4 m facilities Upper-left: PF WFC field not corrected (2010): RMS = 0. 97” Upper-right: Blanco PF Mosaic-II not corrected (2011): RMS = 0. 90” Bottom-left: INT PF WFC field corrected (2012): RMS = 0. 41” Bottom-right: WFI Cass field not corrected (2008): RMS = 0. 28” 35

Solving the WFC and PFIP field distortion Left: INT WFC distortion map shows pixel Solving the WFC and PFIP field distortion Left: INT WFC distortion map shows pixel scale changes from 0. 325 to 0. 333''/pix from center to margins equivalent to ~10'' astrometric errors should a simple linear model be applied. Right: WHT PFIP map shows optical distortions from 0. 2358 to 0. 2374''/pix from center to margins, resulting in ~2'' errors without field correction (THELI/SCAMP plots) 36

Solving the WFC and PFIP field distortion (2) Left: INT WFC matched stars (green Solving the WFC and PFIP field distortion (2) Left: INT WFC matched stars (green symbols) used for field correction and not matched red catalog stars (outside the field or surpassing the used astrometric tolerance accuracy) Right: WHT PFIP map showing O-C astrometric residuals following field correction (THELI/SCAMP plots) 37

Extending orbital arcs at either ends using archives (Vaduvescu et al, 2011 a) 38 Extending orbital arcs at either ends using archives (Vaduvescu et al, 2011 a) 38

Serendipitous apparition of NEAs in imaging archives Cyan fine dots: 230, 000 INT-WFC pointings Serendipitous apparition of NEAs in imaging archives Cyan fine dots: 230, 000 INT-WFC pointings 1998 -2009 Blue larger dots: 97 NEA findings measured and reported (445 positions) worth like 5 (very spread) observing nights or ~10, 000 EUR! (Vaduvescu et al, 2011 a) 39

WFC archive statistics and NEAs (Vaduvescu et al, 2011 a) Left: Most WFC images WFC archive statistics and NEAs (Vaduvescu et al, 2011 a) Left: Most WFC images were taken with short (<2 min) exposure times, making them suitable for mining for fast moving NEAs Right: V (apparent magnitude) of encountered NEAs shows the INT efficient up to V=22, surpassing the existing 1 -2 m surveys 40

Other results Simple orbital model to distinguish between MBAs and NEA candidates based on Other results Simple orbital model to distinguish between MBAs and NEA candidates based on proper motion and Solar elongation (Vaduvescu et al, 2011 b) 41

1 -2 m survey statistics in magnitude distribution (Vaduvescu et al, 2011 b) 42 1 -2 m survey statistics in magnitude distribution (Vaduvescu et al, 2011 b) 42

1 -2 m survey statistics in orbital distribution of discovered MBAs (Vaduvescu et al, 1 -2 m survey statistics in orbital distribution of discovered MBAs (Vaduvescu et al, 2011 b) 43

Collaboration with Spanish Virtual Observatory (Solano et al, 2011) 44 Collaboration with Spanish Virtual Observatory (Solano et al, 2011) 44

“Mega-Archive” includes 3. 5 million images (Vaduvescu et al, 2012) and will grow soon! “Mega-Archive” includes 3. 5 million images (Vaduvescu et al, 2012) and will grow soon! 45

Photometric surveys and classification of asteroids (Pravec et al, 2012) Much time is necessary Photometric surveys and classification of asteroids (Pravec et al, 2012) Much time is necessary for photometry to derive important physical properties of asteroids 46

Spectroscopic surveys and classification of asteroids (De Leon, Licandro et al, 2012) Other time Spectroscopic surveys and classification of asteroids (De Leon, Licandro et al, 2012) Other time is necessary for NIR and visible spectroscopy to classify taxonomy of asteroids 47

Conclusions and future work? > All EURONEAR results and publications were achieved without any Conclusions and future work? > All EURONEAR results and publications were achieved without any dedicated funding, using mostly a hand of volunteer students and amateur astronomers, based on regular observing time applications and data mining of few major imaging archives; > In our opinion, 1 m telescopes remain quite small today for asteroid work (survey and follow-up). A dedicated large field 2 m could be very good complement of Pan-STARRS based in Canary, while 2 -4 m telescopes are needed for physical properties of asteroids and NEAs; > The 2. 5 m INT (equipped with the actual WFC or preferably with a new faster mosaic camera ~500 KE) remains a great facility for asteroid work (eventually for a fraction of time 50 -100 n/yr, which could be bought from the ING); 48

Collaborations and future work? > The ideal EURONEAR facility remain a dedicated 2 m Collaborations and future work? > The ideal EURONEAR facility remain a dedicated 2 m telescope, possible to secure via FP 8 funding (~10 ME); > An alternative could be association with the ESA-SSA program which could eventually buy INT (and other 2 -4 m) time necessary to secure and characterize their 1 m discoveries; > Another alternative would be building a new large field camera for the INT (0. 5 ME) to secure free nights in exchange of camera use by regular time for the ING (and other) communities; 49

What EURONEAR could offer > Survey and follow-up work (orbital and physical characterization) of What EURONEAR could offer > Survey and follow-up work (orbital and physical characterization) of NEAs, primitive bodies and other asteroids; > Our recent European nucleus and know-how reflecting most asteroids, NEAs and primitive bodies interests; > The observing experience and software development needed for planning follow-up observations, data reduction and data mining tools for orbital and physical characterization of NEAs; > Experience working with students, amateurs and public outreach, all very sensitive to NEA threat (easy link to press, civil society, governments and international bodies persuasion); 50

What EURONEAR could offer > Lead (co-direct) Ph. D thesis funded by external sources What EURONEAR could offer > Lead (co-direct) Ph. D thesis funded by external sources (agencies, universities, institutes, etc) based on common science interests; > Secure and follow-up objects discovered by current surveys (Pan-STARRS) and space missions (Gaia, ESA-SSA, NESS, etc) Gaia To. O observing proposal planned soon; > Target selection, characterization and preparation of space missions (Marco Polo-R, OSIRIS-Rex, Hayabusa 2, etc). > Join Europe in a dedicated project aimed to bring major contribution to the NEA field. 51

References Email: euronear AT imcce. fr 52 References Email: euronear AT imcce. fr 52

Thank you! 53 Thank you! 53