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The Era of Jacksonian Democracy 1828 -1840 Mr. Mark Gonzalez Grace Christian Academy
What was Jacksonian Democracy? • Expanded suffrage • Manifest Destiny • Spoils System • Laissez Faire economic policy • Hatred for the 2 nd National Bank • Jacksonian Presidents-Van Buren, Tyler and Polk
Democracy in Theory during the Jacksonian Age • 1820 s-1830 s-”democracy”totally American • All white males could vote • Equality for the “plain folk” • Anti-aristocracy=no more wigs and breeches • Dark, plain and modest clothing • Hotels open to all not trust the rich
Democracy in Practice during the Jacksonian Age • Growing working class in the cities possessed no real estate • By 1840, 1 st national campaigns for nominating presidential campaigns • Women, blacks and native Americans still left out of the democratic system
Essential Question: Champion of the “Common Man”? OR “King” Andrew?
Voting Requirements in the Early 19 c
Voter Turnout: 1820 1860
Why Increased Voter Turn-out? 3 White male suffrage increased 3 Rise of Third Parties. 3 3 Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats, etc. ) Two-party system returned in the 1832 election: § Dem-Reps Natl. Reps. (1828) Whigs (1832) § Republicans (1854) § Democrats (1828)
Jackson’s First Hermitage Residence. Nashville, TN
First Known Painting of Jackson, 1815
General Jackson During the Seminole Wars in Florida
The “Common Man’s” Presidential Candidate
Jackson’s Opponents in 1824 Henry Clay [KY] John Quincy Adams [MA] William H. Crawford [GA] John C. Calhoun [SC]
The “lovely” John Calhoun of South Carolina
The Election of 1824: The “Corrupt Bargain”-Jackson got robbed of the election
The Election of 1824: The “Corrupt Bargain” Popular Vote Electoral Vote Andrew Jackson 43% 99 J. Q. Adams 31% 32 William Crawford 13% 41 Henry Clay 13% 37 Candidate
Jackson’s Philosophy and Faith • Believed in hard work, sound money backed by gold and the value of family farm and business • Opinion of the Bible: “That book sir, is the rock on which our republic rests. ”
Rachel Jackson Final Divorce Decree- Andrew had to marry her twice because first marriage was ruled illegal
Jackson in Mourning for His Wife
1828 Election Results
The Center of Population in the Country Moves WEST
Jackson Supporters • The rich white landowners in the South • People on the Frontier • Immigrants in the cities. • Spoils system-put supporters in federal office positions
Jackson’s Faith in the “Common Man” 3 Intense distrust of Northeast rich people, monopolies, & special privilege. 3 His heart & soul was with the “plain folk. ” 3 Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.
The Reign of “King Mob”
Andrew Jackson as President
The “Peggy Eaton Affair” • Went to the aid of a common woman-Peggy Eaton-wife of Sec. of War who was target of malicious gossip by other cabinet wives • Tried to force the cabinet wives to socialize w/ Peggy Eaton • Result: most of cabinet resigned-including V. President John Calhoun • Martin Van Buren became V. Pres.
1830 -To Nullify of Not? President Jackson: “Our Federal Union—it must be preserved. ” Nullification a threat to the survival of the USA Vice President Calhoun: The Union, next to our liberty, most dear. But he also affirmed Nullification-right of a state to set aside or refuse a federal law
The Tariff Issue South Carolina’s Response… Nullification!
1832 Tariff Conflict 3 1828 --> “Tariff of Abomination” 3 1832 --> new protective tariff-stop cheap trade w/ France and Britain 3 South Carolina’s reaction? 3 Jackson’s response? 3 Clay’s “Compromise” Tariff?
Indian Removal 3 Jackson’s Goal-Manifest Destiny 3 1830 Indian Removal Act 3 Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) * “domestic dependent nation” 3 Worcester v. GA (1832)-Cherokees can have own laws on their lands 3 Court powerless to enforce 3 Jackson: John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it! Build a fire under them. When it gets hot enough, they'll go.
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
Indian Removal-46, 000 removed
Trail of Tears (1838 -1839)4, 000 died
Jackson’s Professed “Love” for Native Americans
Jackson’s Use of Federal Power VETO-Congress should only fund projects that benefit the whole nation-not 1 state 1830 Maysville Road project in KY vetoed (state of his political rival, Henry Clay)should build National Road instead
The National Bank Debate Nicholas Biddle President of National Bank President Jackson Saw bank as a rip-off by Eastern Rich guys and unconstitutional
The “Monster” Is Destroyed! “pet banks”? ---wouldn’t loan money for Western settlers to buy land, s he sold land on low payment plan 3 1832 Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2 nd National Bank of the United States. 3 1836 the charter expired. 3 1841 the bank went bankrupt!
The Downfall of “Mother Bank”
An 1832 Cartoon: “King Andrew” ?
1832 Election Results Main Issue?
the Specie (gold and silver) Circular-all govt funds removed from bank $ Jackson-all land sales must be made in specie (gold and silver) $ Paper Money lost its value. $ Land sales decreased $ Credit not available. $ Businesses began to fail. $ Unemployment rose. $ Recession The Panic of 1837!
The 1836 Election Results Martin Van Buren “Old Kinderhook” [O. K. ]
The Panic of 1837 Spreads Quickly!
Andrew Jackson in Retirement
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844 (one year before his death) 1767 - 1845