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The Effects of p. H and Temperature on the Germination of Raphanus sativus Seeds The Effects of p. H and Temperature on the Germination of Raphanus sativus Seeds Keara Miley – Lake Shore Robin Smith – Lake Shore Miley -- Smith

Terminology • Two-Factor Design of Experiment – (DOE) • Raphanus sativus – (Radish) • Terminology • Two-Factor Design of Experiment – (DOE) • Raphanus sativus – (Radish) • Germination – When a seed starts to sprout • p. H – How alkaline or acidic a substance is Miley -- Smith 2

How does p. H affect germination? • p. H affects germination because the acid How does p. H affect germination? • p. H affects germination because the acid breaks down the seed coat and allows more water to get absorbed Miley -- Smith 3

Temperature affecting Germination • If temperature is too high, moisture evaporates from the soil Temperature affecting Germination • If temperature is too high, moisture evaporates from the soil • If temperature is too low, water absorption slows Miley -- Smith 4

Why Do The Experiment? • More areas we can grow food, the more food Why Do The Experiment? • More areas we can grow food, the more food we can grow • The purpose of the experiment was to find the p. H level and temperature that would cause the most Raphanus sativus (radish) seeds to germinate Miley -- Smith 5

Problem • How do different levels of p. H and temperature affect the germination Problem • How do different levels of p. H and temperature affect the germination of radish seeds? Miley -- Smith 6

Hypothesis • If the surrounding temperature is 35ºC and the p. H level of Hypothesis • If the surrounding temperature is 35ºC and the p. H level of the water sprayed on the seeds is 4. 0, then the most radish seeds will germinate Miley -- Smith 7

Values p. H 4. 0 Standard 6. 0 Temperature (°C) + - 8. 0 Values p. H 4. 0 Standard 6. 0 Temperature (°C) + - 8. 0 28 Miley -- Smith Standard 30 + 35 8

Materials • • • Source of tap water Analytical balance 100 m. L spray Materials • • • Source of tap water Analytical balance 100 m. L spray bottles Paper towels Ziploc bags Incubator (35°C) Refrigerator p. H test strips tweezers Miley -- Smith 9

Procedure • We mixed the water with either baking soda or citric acid to Procedure • We mixed the water with either baking soda or citric acid to change the p. H and get a high, a low, and a standard concentration • We sprayed the concentrations onto the radish seeds placed in Ziploc bags Miley -- Smith 10

Procedure • We then placed the bags into areas with the different temperature levels Procedure • We then placed the bags into areas with the different temperature levels • After 3 days, we recorded the number of seeds that germinated in a table Miley -- Smith 11

Procedure Miley -- Smith 12 Procedure Miley -- Smith 12

Data Analysis • The effect of p. H on the germination of radish seeds Data Analysis • The effect of p. H on the germination of radish seeds was -0. 17 units • On average, as p. H increased, the number of seeds germinated decreased by 0. 17 units Miley -- Smith 13

Data Analysis • The effect of temperature on the germination of radish seeds was Data Analysis • The effect of temperature on the germination of radish seeds was 0. 5 units • On average, as temperature increased, the number of seeds germinated increased by 0. 5 units Miley -- Smith 14

Data Analysis • There may be an interaction between the two line segments because Data Analysis • There may be an interaction between the two line segments because they are not parallel • The effect of the graph is 0. 16 units Miley -- Smith 15

Observations Date Observation March 29 Bags and seeds are set up April 1 April Observations Date Observation March 29 Bags and seeds are set up April 1 April 2 April 5 All standards have germinated and quite a few of the ones in the incubator. No germination in the refrigerator More have germinated in the incubator. Still no germination in the refrigerator. We will retry this part in warmer area of 28°C April 11 Seeds germinated in the warmer temperature Miley -- Smith 16

Hypothesis • Hypothesis was accepted • Most seeds germinated in 35°C temperature and p. Hypothesis • Hypothesis was accepted • Most seeds germinated in 35°C temperature and p. H level of 4. 0 Miley -- Smith 17

Recap • Set out to find what p. H level and temperature germinated the Recap • Set out to find what p. H level and temperature germinated the most seeds • We hypothesized that most seeds would germinate at 35ºC and a p. H of 4. 0 • Conducted experiment • Sprayed different p. H levels on radish seeds Miley -- Smith 18

Recap • Set the seeds in areas of different temperatures • Recorded how many Recap • Set the seeds in areas of different temperatures • Recorded how many seeds germinated after three days • Found a temperature of 35°C and p. H of 4. 0 germinated the most Miley -- Smith 19

Design Flaws and Errors • Testing in an area of 22°C was too cold Design Flaws and Errors • Testing in an area of 22°C was too cold – Retested in an area of 28°C • Initially added too much citric acid and baking soda Miley -- Smith 20

Further Study • • Different levels of p. H Wider ranges of temperatures Different Further Study • • Different levels of p. H Wider ranges of temperatures Different types of plants Different soil types Miley -- Smith 21

Real Life Application • Retailers find best source to buy stock – Profits increase Real Life Application • Retailers find best source to buy stock – Profits increase Miley -- Smith 22

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