- Количество слайдов: 25
The Durban Strategy, NGOs and Human Rights Gerald Steinberg Conference on Ethical Norms in a Political World: NGOs, Human Rights NGO Monitor www. ngo-monitor. org
www. ngo-monitor. org THE POLITICAL POWER OF NGOs • Non-Governmental Organizations are powerful political actors • NGOs define human rights, “war crimes”, violations of international law, etc. • NGOs are not subject to accountability or “checks and balances” • NGOs have no systematic basis for determining the boundary between legitimate criticism and demonization
www. ngo-monitor. org NGO SUPERPOWERS Annual budgets Human Rights Watch $ 56 million Amnesty International (£ 23. 7 million) $ 43 million Christian Aid (£ 58. 5 million) $ 90 million Oxfam $368 million MSF/ Doctors Without (€ 366 million) $468 million Borders
www. ngo-monitor. org NGO POWER ON DISPLAY: DURBAN – SEPTEMBER 2001
www. ngo-monitor. org DURBAN CONFERENCE NGO DECLARATION • “We declare Israel as a racist, apartheid state in which Israel’s brand of apartheid as a crime against humanity…” • “…we declare and call for an immediate end to the Israeli systematic perpetration of racist crimes including war crimes, acts of genocide and ethnic cleansing…” • "Call upon the international community to impose a policy of complete and total isolation of Israel as an apartheid state…"
www. ngo-monitor. org NGOs Durban Jenin Media UNHCR UNGA and ICJ Boycott and Divestment UN and Diplomats Academia
www. ngo-monitor. org NGOs and the Jenin “Massacre” Myths April 2002 • Derrick Pounder (Amnesty) on the BBC: “the signs pointed to a massacre” • Roth (HRW) and Kahn (Amnesty) spoke about Israeli “war crimes”, erasing the context of terror; • Christian Aid film Peace under Siege dedicated to Palestinian victims of Jenin
NGOs, ACADEMIC BOYCOTTS AND DIVESTMENT CAMPAIGNS • SABEEL Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center, in cooperation with Jeff Halper (ICAHD) • Mennonite Central Committee (CIDA) • al Mezan (SDC, Sweden, Netherlands Representative Office, …) • Miftah (European governments)
www. ngo-monitor. org RESEARCHING NGO AGENDAS HRW IN THE MIDDLE EAST – 2004 Data based on the number and relative weight of documents produced in 2004, compared to other countries in the Middle East, and excluding Iraq-related documents, of which actually pertained to US policy.
www. ngo-monitor. org CAPITAL RESEARCH CENTER STUDY OF AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL AI has adopted “double standards on human rights…and propaganda against America and Israel. ” http: //www. capitalresearch. org/pubs. asp? ID=511
HRW’s use of “Durban” Rhetoric- 2005. • In HRW Middle East publications, Israel was the only country charged with "collective punishment" and "war crimes". • Israel charged with "grave" and /or "serious" human rights "violations" and/or "abuses" 32 times; Egypt 22 ; all other countries fewer than 10.
www. ngo-monitor. org WHO SETS THE AGENDA? REPORTS ON ISRAEL/PA AND SUDAN SEPTEMBER 2000 - 2004
www. ngo-monitor. org QUESTIONS: POLITICS, HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE ROLE OF NGOs • What is the status of NGOs in international diplomacy? What is the basis for their role in the UN? • Where is the line between “legitimate criticism” and demonization rhetoric -- “war crimes”, “violation of international law”, “collective punishment”, “excessive” /”disproportionate” force, etc. • How can NGO officials and funders be held accountable?
www. ngo-monitor. org QUESTIONS: NGOs and Ideology • To what degree do NGO officials use universal norms to pursue their own particular objectives? • To what degree do NGO officials promote postcolonial and post-nationalist ideologies, assigning virtue to “victims”, and guilt to others? • To what degree to NGOs provide informed criticism vs. becoming parties to the conflict?
www. ngo-monitor. org Human Rights NGOs and the Media: Is there a Halo Effect? • Do what degree do journalists examine the credibility of NGO reports and claims? • Are NGO claims credible? What are their research capabilities? • To what degree do their political and ideological biases determine NGO reports and allegations?
www. ngo-monitor. org Who Funds Political NGOs? • NGO participation in Durban was funded by the Ford Foundation, other private funds, European governments, Canada, and others • Despite pledges by Ford, funding for most Durban NGOs continues • EU, Canada, Swiss, Japanese, etc funding for NGO under “Partnership for Peace”, Human Rights and Palestinian civil society
EUPFP "PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE PROGRAMME" AWARDED IN JULY 2005 - Israeli NGOs -- 3. 6 Million Euros Women's Fund for Human Rights Machsom Watch 60, 000 EU Commitment to Peace Civic Action Groups for Peace and Social Justice – unknown NGO 179, 335 Machon Mifne Amuta for Developments of New Educational Treaty Peace & Democracy Programs Directed to Traditional Religious and Anti-Peace Constituencies 296, 000 H. L. Education for Peace Ltd. Using the Geneva initiative encourage post to Gaza negotiated permanent status peace. 220, 000 Eco. Peace/Friends of the Earth Middle East Advancing Community Based Reconciliation by Focusing on Cross. Border Palestinian, Israeli and Jordanian Neighboring Communities 500, 000
EUPFP "PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE PROGRAMME" AWARDED IN JULY 2005 - Israeli NGOs -- 3. 6 Million Euros: CONTINUED The Peres Center for Peace Aix Group – “Exploring the Economic Dimensions of a ‘Two State’ Final Status Agreement between Israel and Palestine” 483, 940 Parents Circle. Families Forum Building Trust and Hope 500, 000 Ir Amim (A. R. ) Penultimate Jerusalem: Overcoming the Obstacles to Final Status in Jerusalem 475, 160 ICAHD (Jeff Halper) Re-Framing: Providing a Coherent Paradigm of Peace to the Israeli Public 472, 786 Peres Center for Peace and Panorama Center "The Palestinian Israeli Peace NGOs Forum" 500, 000
EIDHR (HUMAN RIGHTS) GRANTS -- AUGUST 2005 The Association for Civil Rights in Israel East Jerusalem issues 100, 000 Arab Association for Human Rights HRA Research and reporting department 95, 532 Hamoked Center for the defense of the Individual Accessibility to the Israeli Legal System for Palestinian Victims of Human Rights Violations 93, 696 Adva Centre Better implementation of Human Rights through better budgeting 83, 977 The College of Management - The Concord Research Center for the Interplay Between Israeli Law and International Norms Amicus Curie for International Law 42, 400
www. ngo-monitor. org Examining NGO Credibility • Most global NGOs (Amnesty, have essentially no HRW) independent research capability. • They rely on Palestinian “eyewitness testimony” and journalists who use the same sources.
www. ngo-monitor. org NGO Credibility “…Amnesty International has reported that Israeli soldiers deliberately aim at Palestinian children. When asked to document that they couldn't come up with a single case. “Human Rights Watch has made up stories have had that no corroboration whatsoever. …. . ” “I spoke with Donatella Rovera, who is AI's researcher …and asked her to provide the data …Rovera acknowledged that …the report was based on anecdotal information, …from Palestinian NGOs. “It is impossible …for any outside researcher to replicate AI's study and to confirm or disconfirm its conclusions. - Prof. Alan. Dershowitz
www. ngo-monitor. org HRW’s Credibility In Gaza • On June 13, HRW’s Mark Garlasco held a press conference in Gaza – claimed evidence pointing to Israeli responsibility for the Friday beach incident • Garlasco was also the author of HRW’s “Razing Rafah” report (11/2004), which was highly political and contained numerous inaccuracies. • How does the press verify Garlasco’s allegations?
www. ngo-monitor. org NGO Anti-Semitism
www. ngo-monitor. org Addressing NGO Political Agendas • Code of Conduct/Ethics for NGOs. • Application of a single universal human rights standard equally to all countries, including Israel • Accountability • Transparency • Education
www. ngo-monitor. org Watching The Watchers: NGO MONITOR