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The Development of the Chemical Industry during the Industrial Revolution
Chemical Industry: What? This term refers to the manufacturing of chemical products from raw materials (oil, wood, minerals, petroleum, metals, water). These chemicals are primarily used for starting materials for consumer goods (plastics, pharmaceuticals, synthetics, etc), pulp and paper industry, metallurgy, textiles, construction materials, agriculture, … matter.
The Chemical Industry Today $3 trillion global business http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Chemical_indust ry http: //beta. soci. org/ http: //www. cia. org. uk/newsite/ Oral Presentation: include a description of the current state of your industry
SALT= Na. Cl Pre-Industrial Revolution Eotechnic: Prepare and preserve food and skins ◦ Salt from sea required nearby wood then coal for evaporating water (2 tons salt + 97 ton water); ◦ Salt from rock salt brine led to fuel being transported to site. (23 tons salt + 76 tons water) Transition to Palaeotechnic: Salt-boiling (diagram on p. 52) Earl of Dundonald’s contributions?
Ninth Earl of Dundonald The Present State of the Manufacture of Salt Explained (data above). Efforts to improve the purification of salt from rock salt. Concerns about hazardous working conditions for women. Reasons for Allowing English Salt to be Brought to Scotland at the Scotch Duty.
Dundonald Involved in production of soda ash (from salt)
Sources of Salt varies as a function of source (sea water, brine and rock salt deposits), location and preparation. http: //www. cbsnews. com/stories/2008/10/2 6/sunday/main 4546110. shtml? source=searc h_story
Palaeotechnic Salt Industry (18 th c) Relationship to other IR developments ◦ Coal replaced wood ( @ 1 ton salt produced for 610 tons coal) ◦ Iron pans replaced of lead (for higher coal burning temps). ◦ Extraction of salt from raw materials p 56 -57 ◦ Steam engines were used to pump brine ◦ Other industries: textiles, glass, pottery, china. . .
Salt Industry Spin-offs Chlorine for bleaching (textiles) SO 2, HCl, NO, NH 3, Cl 2, H 2 S, Na 2 CO 3 (soda), NH 4 Cl Soap making Medicinal uses Flux in glass-making and metal smelting Pottery glazing
Salt Industry and Modern Chemical Industry How does this remind you of the coal tar industry with its relationship to other industries and all the products it spawned? We will look more closely at the industries of the Industrial Revolution that can be considered precursors of the modern chemical industry.
Potash Pre-Industrial Revolution • • • Pot + Ash: impure form of K 2 CO 3 produced in the burning of wood. (note potassium) Water soluble component of ash; collected by evaporating water in iron pots. Also called alkali (containing carbonates, base). Used in the making of glass, alum, soap, saltpeter, bleach, fertilizer. Ash yield from timber, leaves, roots. . . Clow p 68
Timber depletion (why? ) led to Importation of ash from Europe, Americas The use of other sources of ash: burn salsola soda (“earthy shrub” with berries) to make an ash called barilla from Spain, buy mineral deposits from Egypt, burn nettles, thistles, hemlock, juniper. Intervention of govt: set up investigating committees, repeal duties on imported ash, offer prizes to find another source of ash.
Yield of Ash from Timber (p. 68 -69) < 1% ash in wood 2 -5% in seeds 4 -9% in cereal, hay 4 -8% in roots 10 -25% in leaves
Kelp • • When kelp, a certain kind of dried seaweed was burned, ash was produced. This developed along the islands and shores of northern Scotland but only after its price became competitive (later aided by salt tax). Some concerns about kelping. Clow p. 71. Kelp yielded numerous products: Na. Cl (25%), KCl (3%), Na 2 CO 3, Na 2 SO 4, Mg. Cl 2 some of which became profitable commodities.
Chemicals From Kelp Soda ash (Na 2 CO 3) emerged as key compound for several industries. Glass making: Nearly all of the salts in kelp were used in the flux frit glass Soap making: Na 2 CO 3 + Ca(OH)2 2 Na. OH + Ca. CO 3 Kelp and lime caustic soda and chalk Sources of these reactants or raw materials?
More Kelp Products Textiles: kelp was used as a raw material for alum to fix dyes on the fabric K 2 SO 4 · Al 2 (SO 4) 3 · 24 H 2 O or (NH 4) 2 SO 4 · Al 2 (SO 4) 3 · 24 H 2 O Kelp was also used as fertilizer The kelp industry in northern Scotland the Hebrides reached its peak in 1800. (p. 89)
Palaeotechnic Transition A deeper look into synthesis and commercialization of soda ash, sodium carbonate. An early model for the chemical industry. p. 91 -92 handout
Alternatives to Plant-Based Soda As timber was consumed for charcoal, ash and uses in war, the govt offered incentives for new (non-natural resource) sources of ash. Clow identifies two important groups that contributed to solving the ash problem: the Lunar Society and the Ninth Earl of Dundonald. (Our old friend).
The Lunar Society and Soda Ash John Roebuck James Watt Matthew Boulton Joseph Black James Keir Eramus Darwin Josiah Wedgwood
Ninth Earl of Dundonald 1795 patent describing methods to produce soda (alkali) and other chemicals. (p. 101102; i. e. Treatise on the Connection of Agriculture with Chemistry) and Extraction of salt from non-taxed sources (p. 102 -103 Established chemical works at Walker 1796
Dundonald Commercialization of by-products of soda ash production
Sea Salt to Soda Ash: The Founding of Chemical Industries By 1810, the kelp industry was in decline caused to a large extent by numerous efforts to discover and improve a successful synthetic method of making soda ash from sea salt. The considerable work by members of the Lunar Society and by the Earl of Dundonald illustrate these efforts. When the salt tax was repealed in 1823, the soda ash industry grew enormously. See graph Clow p. 112.
Le. Blanc Process Most of the synthetic methods were related to the Le. Blanc process, 1791 patent. 2 Na. Cl + H 2 SO 4 Na 2 SO 4 + 2 HCl Na 2 SO 4 + Ca. CO 3 + 2 C Na 2 CO 3 + Ca. S + 2 CO 2 Add water to dissolve soda ash, then evaporate water. Sources of these raw materials? , pollutants? Clow p. 108 -109
Role of Soda Ash With a dependable supply (Na. Cl from the sea, salt brines or mines vs timber, other plants) of soda ash, other industries grew into major enterprises and economic drivers. @ 1823 Soda ash: Soap, Textiles and Glass What were these by-products of soda ash production used for: Cu. S, Fe. S, Cu. SO 4, Fe. SO 4, HCl, HNO 3, Cl 2, Ca. Cl 2? Clow p. 92
A Small Revival (an aside) The 1812 discovery of Iodine in kelp revitalized the kelp industry but only to a small extent.
The Downside of the Industrial Revolution Many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution were accompanied by increased air and water pollution, hazardous working conditions, toxic products and by-products. ◦ ◦ The Le. Blanc synthesis of soda ash from sea salt. Steam engine Metallurgy etc
Addressing Detrimental Chemical By -Products The seeds of Green Chemistry