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The Department of Science Teaching Avi Hofstein and Rachel Mamlok-Naaman The Weizmann Institute of The Department of Science Teaching Avi Hofstein and Rachel Mamlok-Naaman The Weizmann Institute of Science

The Structure of Science Education in Israel Grade 0 Grades Kindergarten Science and Technology The Structure of Science Education in Israel Grade 0 Grades Kindergarten Science and Technology 1 Primary School Science and Technology 2 3 4 5 6

Grades 7 8 J. H. S 9 Secondary School Grade 10 Compulsory Grades 11 Grades 7 8 J. H. S 9 Secondary School Grade 10 Compulsory Grades 11 Upper Secondary School 12 Science and Technology for J. H. S

Specialize in Science Chemistry Physics Biology Specialize in Science Chemistry Physics Biology

Do not specialize in Science Mutav Science for all in Society Do not specialize in Science Mutav Science for all in Society

The Department of Science Teaching Established by the Late Prof. Amos De-Shalit as part The Department of Science Teaching Established by the Late Prof. Amos De-Shalit as part of The Israeli Science Teaching Center Started with teachers who came to work on reforming the learning Material in: Mathematics Physics Chemistry 1967

The Department of Science Teaching Curriculum Development, Implementation and Evaluation for Junior & Senior The Department of Science Teaching Curriculum Development, Implementation and Evaluation for Junior & Senior High Schools in Israel Continuous, Dynamic & Long-term Process Based on: How Students Learn (Learning) How Teachers Teach (Instruction) The Syllabi (Content) 160 People involved Scientists Teachers R & D activities Students Technical Support

Curriculum Development Textbooks Teachers’ Guides Remedial Materials Educational Games Computer Software Special Units Assignments Curriculum Development Textbooks Teachers’ Guides Remedial Materials Educational Games Computer Software Special Units Assignments and Projects

Implementation Continuous in-Service Teacher Training In School Guidance Young Teacher Fellowships Journals and Newsletters Implementation Continuous in-Service Teacher Training In School Guidance Young Teacher Fellowships Journals and Newsletters National Teacher Centers Evaluation and Research Surveys Evaluation Cognitive Research

Mathematics 1. Junior High School 2. U-2: 2 -3 point level ( Mathematics 1. Junior High School 2. U-2: 2 -3 point level ("low achievers") Chemistry 1. Senior High School 2. Junior High School Physics 1. Senior High School 2. Junior High School

Computer Sciences Senior High School Earth and Environmental Sciences K-12 Life Sciences Senior High Computer Sciences Senior High School Earth and Environmental Sciences K-12 Life Sciences Senior High School Science and Technology for all 1. Senior High School 2. Junior High School

Current Issues (Tomorrow 98) v Educating and Future Citizen Science and Technology for all Current Issues (Tomorrow 98) v Educating and Future Citizen Science and Technology for all Junior High School Senior High School Making Science more relevant Varying the learning environment in the science classroom

Multidimensional Approach to School Chemistry The process of chemistry e. g. Inquiry The conceptual Multidimensional Approach to School Chemistry The process of chemistry e. g. Inquiry The conceptual structure of chemistry The technological manifestations of chemistry Chemistry as a personally relevant subject The societal role and implications of chemistry O 2(g) UV O(g) + O 2(g) O 3(g) + O(g) 2 O 2(g) The cultural aspects of chemistry

Casual Influences of Student Learning (Walberg) APTITUDE 1. Ability 2. Development 3. Motivation b Casual Influences of Student Learning (Walberg) APTITUDE 1. Ability 2. Development 3. Motivation b INSTRUCTION a 4. Amount 5. Quality c ENVIRONMENT 6. Home 7. Classroom 8. Peers 9. Television x y z LEARNING Affective Behavioral Cognitive

The The "MUTAV" Project (Science and Technology in the Society) for the Upper Secondary School 1. Target Population High School students (grade 10 -12) who opted to not to specialize in the science disciplines (Biology, Chemistry, and Physics). 2. Key Goal Attaining scientific literacy for all students ( The program will become compulsory in the future for the non-science population).

3. Rationale, structure, and content of the program a. The content is characterized by: 3. Rationale, structure, and content of the program a. The content is characterized by: Its relevance to the students, interdisciplinary nature, and optional modules provided to the science teacher. b. The modular nature (issue oriented approach) of the program (each module is taught during 35 -40 classroom periods). c. Pedagogical approach (potential to vary the classroom learning environment) d. Assessment of students' achievement and progress aligned with teaching method and pedagogy.

Titles of some exemplary Modules (Issues) Developed for the: The Black Gold Brain, Medicines Titles of some exemplary Modules (Issues) Developed for the: The Black Gold Brain, Medicines and Drugs Energy and the Human Being Science in the Service of the Police Science as an ever developing Entity

Science for All: Department of Science Teaching Naomi Ernst Dvora Katchevich Science in the Science for All: Department of Science Teaching Naomi Ernst Dvora Katchevich Science in the Service of the Police

Goals: Ø Learning of scientific topics Ø Using news headlines to make science more Goals: Ø Learning of scientific topics Ø Using news headlines to make science more relevant Ø Develop inquiring, analytical thinking skills. Ø Discussions of moral dilemmas Ø Introduce police work on scientific basis

Topics in the Book 1. Why do thieves wear gloves? (fingerprints) 2. Whose blood Topics in the Book 1. Why do thieves wear gloves? (fingerprints) 2. Whose blood is it? (blood typing) 3. The nucleus of truth (DNA identification) 4. True or false? (polygraph)

The Computerized Data-AFIS 1. Input of crime scene fingerprints 2. 2. Comparison with existing The Computerized Data-AFIS 1. Input of crime scene fingerprints 2. 2. Comparison with existing data 3. 3. Identification by an expert 4. No identification – save under unidentified fingerprints

Fingerprints Identification in: Work places Jails Intelligence organizations Safes Banks Computer data security Fingerprints Identification in: Work places Jails Intelligence organizations Safes Banks Computer data security

Whose blood is it? ØConstitution of blood and its functions ØAntigen- antibody ØBlood types- Whose blood is it? ØConstitution of blood and its functions ØAntigen- antibody ØBlood types- ABO and Rh ØTransfusions ØSemen ØProbability

When a stain suspected to be blood is found we must answer the following When a stain suspected to be blood is found we must answer the following questions: üIs it a blood stain? üIs it human blood? üWhat is the blood’s ABO antigen type? üWhat is the blood’s Rh antigen type?

The Nucleus of Truth: DNA ØDNA structure ØThe genetic code ØDNA fingerprints ØPolymorphic sections The Nucleus of Truth: DNA ØDNA structure ØThe genetic code ØDNA fingerprints ØPolymorphic sections ØPCR (polymerase chain reaction) ØHuman genome ØGenetic engineering ØProbability

True or false? ØPolygraph ØHeart and blood circulation ØRate of heart beats ØBlood pressure True or false? ØPolygraph ØHeart and blood circulation ØRate of heart beats ØBlood pressure ØRate of breathing ØSkin conductivity

The Polygraph Measures: Skin Conductivity Heart beat Respiration Blood Pressure The Polygraph Measures: Skin Conductivity Heart beat Respiration Blood Pressure

Group work Discussions Teacher’s lectures Peer teaching Solving crime cases Concepts map Experiments Graph Group work Discussions Teacher’s lectures Peer teaching Solving crime cases Concepts map Experiments Graph analysis Teaching Strategies

 Skills acquired and trained while composing the crime story Understanding subject matter Locating Skills acquired and trained while composing the crime story Understanding subject matter Locating and assessing information Analyzing information Applying scientific principals General view on the subject

From Petroleum to Tomatoes: An Idea From Petroleum to Tomatoes: An Idea

From Petroleum to Tomatoes module Four parts: The issue: How to maintain suitable growing From Petroleum to Tomatoes module Four parts: The issue: How to maintain suitable growing conditions for tomatoes in Israel? The use of polyethylene tunnels The use of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) fertilizers The use of pesticides

Pedagogy Students who explore this module are exposed to an important debate. They collect Pedagogy Students who explore this module are exposed to an important debate. They collect relevant information from various sources, make decisions, and think critically. These experiences enable them to take an active role in the scientific and technological issues that confront our society.

National Science Teachers Centers Chemistry Physics Science and Technology for Junior High Schools National Science Teachers Centers Chemistry Physics Science and Technology for Junior High Schools

Activities in the National Centers for Science and Mathematics Teachers Developments of teacher-leaders who Activities in the National Centers for Science and Mathematics Teachers Developments of teacher-leaders who will initiate, support, conduct and lead professional in-service development. Counseling and support for the regional teacher centers and other regional professional development activities for teachers. Development and establishment of high standards in the pedagogy of science teaching and learning. Developments of models for effective professional development of science teachers.

The Role of the National Science & Mathematics Teachers’ Centers Professional Development of Leaders The Role of the National Science & Mathematics Teachers’ Centers Professional Development of Leaders Providing Support for Regional Centers Design of Models for Effective Professional Development Providing continuous and Long-Term Support for Professional Development of Leaders in the Educational System

Regional Science & Mathematics Teachers Provide for: Life Long Continuous and Dynamic Regional Science & Mathematics Teachers Provide for: Life Long Continuous and Dynamic

National centers Leadership professional development Regional Center Leaders conducting workshops National centers Leadership professional development Regional Center Leaders conducting workshops

Informal Science Education v The Science Garden v Young scientists v Science lectures for Informal Science Education v The Science Garden v Young scientists v Science lectures for the public v Central laboratories in: - Chemistry - Physics - Biology

Research We developed measures for assessing students’: - Attitude towards Science - Attitude towards Research We developed measures for assessing students’: - Attitude towards Science - Attitude towards Scientists - Attitude towards School Science Lykert-type and Semantic differential type

- Interest in Science - Scientific Curiosity - NOS - Interest in Science - Scientific Curiosity - NOS

Students’ Perception of: The Science Classroom and Laboratory Learning Environment Students’ Perception of: The Science Classroom and Laboratory Learning Environment