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The Crisis of European Culture 1871 -1914 Chapter 24 The Crisis of European Culture 1871 -1914 Chapter 24

European Economy Industrialization and urbanization typified the economy of Europe between 1870 and 1914 European Economy Industrialization and urbanization typified the economy of Europe between 1870 and 1914 Rural economy became systematic of retarded social growth Monarchical government losing influence Rise of political parties Only women remained outside the arena of political action

Regulating Boom and Bust 1873 -1895 European economy suffered from economic depression “Great Depression” Regulating Boom and Bust 1873 -1895 European economy suffered from economic depression “Great Depression” It was followed by a boom period in 18951914 Radical swings convinced government of the necessity of regulating business cycles of boom and bust Application of science and technology to industrial production required huge amounts of capital…could not survive bust periods as before (petroleum and electricity)

Regulating Boom and Bust Capital had to be obtained: financial institutions Bankers unwilling to Regulating Boom and Bust Capital had to be obtained: financial institutions Bankers unwilling to risk enormous investments in industrialization unless some of the worst aspects of the business cycle were controlled Businesses formed cartels: groups of firms that cooperated to fix prices Banks formed groups to fix interest rates: consortia States again returned to protective tariffs to protect domestic industries Tariffs divided Europe: industrialized N/W and agricultural S/E

Model of an idealized business Cycle GDP=gross domestic product Peak or boom prosperity Expansion Model of an idealized business Cycle GDP=gross domestic product Peak or boom prosperity Expansion or Recovery Contraction or recession growth slowdown Peak or boom Contraction or recession growth slowdown trough Lowest pt. Recession: part of the business cycle in which the nation’s output (GDP) does not grow for at least 6 months depression: major slowdown of economic activity Trough: lowest part of the business cycle in which the downward spiral of the economy levels off Expansion/ recovery: part of the business cycle in which economic activity slowly increases

Boom/Bust “In economics, the term boom and bust refers to the movement of an Boom/Bust “In economics, the term boom and bust refers to the movement of an economy through economic cycles due to changes in aggregate demand. During booms, there is a high level of aggregate demand, inflation increases, unemployment falls, and growth in national income accelerates. During busts, or recessions, when aggregate demand is low, inflation decreases, unemployment rises and national income falls. In extreme recessions deflation (a sustained fall in the general price level) may occur. ” wikipedia

Business Activity in the U. S. 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 Business Activity in the U. S. 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960

Business Activity in the U. S. Booms: 1880: gold resumption prosperity 1890: Railroad prosperity Business Activity in the U. S. Booms: 1880: gold resumption prosperity 1890: Railroad prosperity 1895: Recovery 1910: Corporate Prosperity 1915: WWI 1925: New Era Prosperity 1945: Bull Market Boom Busts: 1894: Depression 1894: Bering Crisis Panic of 1983 1905: Silver Campaign Depression 1913: Rich Man’s Panic 1921: Primary Postwar Depression 1931 -1942: Secondary Postwar Depression 1947: Reconversion

Challenging Liberal England Parliamentary politics saved England from a revolution Wages stagnated while prices Challenging Liberal England Parliamentary politics saved England from a revolution Wages stagnated while prices continued to rise Response of workers was to depend more on trade unions for political influence Keir Hardie launched a political experiment: Labour party Attempted to get trade unions to support working class candidates for Parliament over traditional political elites of the Conservative or Liberal parties

James Keir Hardie grew up in poverty and was taught how to read using James Keir Hardie grew up in poverty and was taught how to read using scraps of newspapers his mother found. He taught himself how to write Hardie began work as a Scottish miner. He read about trade unions in the papers and set one up where he worked in 1880. He was blacklisted and was forced to move to find work. Hardie originally supported the Liberal Party, but didn’t agree with William Gladstone’s economic policies and felt the party wouldn’t really represent the workers. He then became a socialist. In 1900, Hardie organized various trade unions and socialist groups to form a Labour Representation Committee, and so the Labour Party was born

Challenging Liberal England By 1906 Labour party had 29 seats Fabians supported the Labour Challenging Liberal England By 1906 Labour party had 29 seats Fabians supported the Labour party-under leadership of Webbs, Shaw, and H. G. Wells The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary, means Labour party had intellectuals who joined with unionists In response to Labour party the Liberals had to make legislative reforms: National Insurance Act 1911: payments for unemployment and sickness and Parliament Bill of 1911: reduced house of Lords (Conservative body) Meant House of Commons could raise taxes for new programs for workers and poor

Webb identified herself as a Cooperative Federalist; a school of thought which advocates Consumer Webb identified herself as a Cooperative Federalist; a school of thought which advocates Consumer Co-operative societies. Webb argued that Consumers' Co-operatives should form co-operative wholesale societies (by forming Co-operatives in which all members are co-operatives) and that these Federal Co-operatives should undertake purchasing farms or factories awarded both a Nobel Prize and an Oscar Shaw spoke and marched in the Bloody Sunday demonstrations that ended up as a riot in Trafalgar Square

Extraparliamentary Protest Although there was more legislation dealing with worker’s rights and unions, protests Extraparliamentary Protest Although there was more legislation dealing with worker’s rights and unions, protests and strikes actually grew during this time This high strike rate was due to the distrust of Parliament by workers 1913 Trade Unions Act passed-granted unions the right to settle their grievances with management directly Outbreak of WWI in 1914 ended strikes

Bloody Sunday In 1887, campaigners, helped organize a rent strike at the estate of Bloody Sunday In 1887, campaigners, helped organize a rent strike at the estate of Lady Kingston near Mitchelstown. On September 9, three estate tenants were shot dead and others wounded, by police at the town's courthouse where MP William O'Brien was brought for trial with charges of incitement; this event became known as the Mitchelstown Massacre November 1887 demonstration led in Trafalgar Square against the coercion in Ireland. 10, 000 demonstrators demanded the release of William O’Brien. Two thousand police and 400 troops were deployed to halt the demonstration, in the ensuing clashes many people were so badly beaten they required hospital treatment Trafalgar Square is a square in northern London that commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar (1805), a British naval victory of the Napoleonic Wars.

Trafalgar Square, 1908. Trafalgar Square, 1908.

Bloody Sunday Bloody Sunday

 Political Struggles in Germany Otto von Bismarck restricted emergence of fully democratic participation Political Struggles in Germany Otto von Bismarck restricted emergence of fully democratic participation in Germany by restricting the powers of Reichstag (Parliament) Objective: successful unification of Germany Collaborated with liberal parties on: legal codes, monetary and banking, judicial system, and RR Kulturkampf: antichurch campaign launched in 1872 authority of the Church in competition to that of the nationstate

Political Struggles in Germany Led to the Catholic Center Party increasing in numbers in Political Struggles in Germany Led to the Catholic Center Party increasing in numbers in Parliament-stopped campaign upon succession of next pope (Leo XIII) Bismarck also against the Social Democratic Party (committed to a Marxist critique of capitalism) Largest Marxist Party in the world and by 1914 largest party in Germany Bismarck felt the party was a threat to the stability of Germany 1878 passed Anti. Socialist Laws 1890: Social Democratic Party captured 20% of the seats in Parliament

Political Struggles in Germany 1890: Bismarck no longer had control over the Reichstag and Political Struggles in Germany 1890: Bismarck no longer had control over the Reichstag and the S. D. P. increased its powers Bismarck dismissed in March 1890 Favored gradual socialist reforms Revisionism (Eduard Bernstein) and the Fabian state Success of the left or S. D. P. meant a strong alliance with the right or conservatives Reichstag failed to defy absolute authority of the Emperor (Wilhelm II) despite constitutional reforms Germany ruled by authoritarianism, in which groups only exercised influence over emperor

Eduard Bernstein Emperor Wilhelm II Reichstag building The Reichstag fire in 1933 was used Eduard Bernstein Emperor Wilhelm II Reichstag building The Reichstag fire in 1933 was used by the Nazi party as a pretext to take over the Government completely

France and Mass Politics Third Republic was the offspring of the Franco-Prussian war/ defeat France and Mass Politics Third Republic was the offspring of the Franco-Prussian war/ defeat of Napoleon III/ and bloody suppression of the Paris commune 1880 -1914 creation of a mass culture 1885 Compulsory Education: Reading/Writing/Arithm etic/Civics 1 language (local dialects weeded out) Increase in transportation: RR/ roads Common symbols of the country: Marianne Increase in patriotism

France: Boulanger Affair General captured the country and much popular support: war hero and France: Boulanger Affair General captured the country and much popular support: war hero and super-patriot Conservatives and big money backed his ploy to restore the monarchy and replace power back into only executive hands 1889 built strong enough support to threaten the Third Republic He won the deputy of Paris post and from there began to plan his coup Government found out about his activities and charged him with treason Fled country in sea of treason reports He united the right wing movement in France

Boulanger General Georges Boulanger committed suicide in the Ixelles Cemetery, Brussels in September 1891. Boulanger General Georges Boulanger committed suicide in the Ixelles Cemetery, Brussels in September 1891.

France: Dreyfus Affair 1894 Foreign, Jewish army officer accused of selling military secrets to France: Dreyfus Affair 1894 Foreign, Jewish army officer accused of selling military secrets to Germans Convicted: anti. Semitism Found that illegal and outright falsifications had been made in order to achieve conviction Country divided over the scandal Exonerated in 1905 Both demonstrate the major role of the press in shaping and channeling public opinion

Defeating Liberalism in Austria Constitutional monarchy dominated by capitalist middle class Bourgeois limited role Defeating Liberalism in Austria Constitutional monarchy dominated by capitalist middle class Bourgeois limited role due to partnership and dependence on the Habsburg emperors 1900 Liberalism losing support Replaced by more conservative groups Unhappy with capitalist leadership {anti-Semitism, anticapitalism, superpatriotism} Jews became ID as capitalists and enemies of the masses (common foe)

Women and Politics Remained outside political arena, grossly underpaid, limited legal rights, no right Women and Politics Remained outside political arena, grossly underpaid, limited legal rights, no right to public education 1878 1 st international feminist meeting in Paris Feminist: believed men and women were equal and should enjoy equal rights Many men were also feminists Agendas: vote, economic equality, and social and legal reforms

Women and Politics Black Friday: Nov. 18, 1910 England-women marched to Parliament in protest Women and Politics Black Friday: Nov. 18, 1910 England-women marched to Parliament in protest of the refusal of women to have the right to vote Women told to leave, refused and were beaten and arrested by London police (bobbies) Three Conciliation bills were put before the House of Commons, one each year in 1910, 1911 and in 1912 which would extend the right of women to vote in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to around 1, 000 wealthy, property-owning women Showed that women were militant (suffragettes) Emmeline Pankhurst: leader of movement in Great Britain: WSPU (women’s social and political union) She was arrested and did experience forcefeeding after going on hunger strike on various occasions

 Pankhurst and Pankhurst being arrested and carried away by a police officer in Pankhurst and Pankhurst being arrested and carried away by a police officer in NY

Women and Politics Pankhurst encouraged destruction of property to highlight violence done to women Women and Politics Pankhurst encouraged destruction of property to highlight violence done to women by denying them the vote Votes: 1918 England 1918 Germany 1920 America 1945 France

Jewish Question and Zionism Anti-Semitism-hatred of Jews was strong Scapegoats for high rates of Jewish Question and Zionism Anti-Semitism-hatred of Jews was strong Scapegoats for high rates of unemployment and high prices that seemed to follow in their migration Also as capitalists who controlled powerful institutions making life hard for everyone Russia-most severe: after assassination of Tsar Alexander II there were organized massacres of Jews called pogroms Zionism: Theodor Herzel-Jews needed own nation (Palestine) Zionism was not achieved until Israel was recognized in 1948

Theodor Herzel “He became the leading spokesman for Zionism. It is widely believed that Theodor Herzel “He became the leading spokesman for Zionism. It is widely believed that Herzl was motivated by the Dreyfus Affair, a notorious anti-Semitic incident in France in which a French Jewish army captain was falsely convicted of spying for Germany. Herzl had been covering the trial of Dreyfus for an Austro-Hungarian newspaper. He also witnessed mass rallies in Paris right after the Dreyfus trial where many chanted "Death To The Jews!"; this apparently convinced him that it was futile to try to "combat" anti. Semitism. In June, 1895, in his diary, he wrote: "In Paris, as I have said, I achieved a freer attitude toward anti-Semitism, which I now began to understand historically and to pardon. Above all, I recognized the emptiness and futility of trying to 'combat' anti-Semitism. " -Wikipedia-

Workers and Minorities on the Margins 1892 Parisian trial of bomb throwing anarchist named Workers and Minorities on the Margins 1892 Parisian trial of bomb throwing anarchist named Ravachol Believed in total rejection of the political system Negative towards mass political organizations just as liberal institutions Russia: Bakuninleading anarchist theorist-followed Prince Kropotkin: anarchy and socialismcompetition and dominance were not laws of nature More popular form of political action in less industrialized states

Ravachol (1859 -1892), was a French anarchist best known for terrorism. He died by Ravachol (1859 -1892), was a French anarchist best known for terrorism. He died by the guillotine July 11, 1892 at Montbrison. Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (1814– 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism Prince Kropotkin "the Anarchist Prince“: was one of Russia's foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called "anarchist communism": the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government

Science and New Consciousness New discoveries reshaped the known world between 18701914 and challenged Science and New Consciousness New discoveries reshaped the known world between 18701914 and challenged traditional beliefs Age of scientific discoveries: electromagnetism, Xray, visible light, radio waves, chemical elements, quantum physics, theory of relativity, biological ID of microorganisms Marie / Pierre Curie Albert Einstein Max Planck Niels Bohr James Clerk Maxwell Gregor Mendel Louis Pasteur Rudolf Virchow

Maria Skłodowska- Pierre Curie Louis Pasteur in his laboratory, painting by A. Edelfeldt in Maria Skłodowska- Pierre Curie Louis Pasteur in his laboratory, painting by A. Edelfeldt in 1885 Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow

Young Albert before the Einsteins moved from Germany to Italy 1905 Max Planck presents Young Albert before the Einsteins moved from Germany to Italy 1905 Max Planck presents Einstein with the Max-Planck medal, Berlin June 28 1929

Einstein and Niels Bohr sparred over quantum theory during the 1920 s. Photo taken Einstein and Niels Bohr sparred over quantum theory during the 1920 s. Photo taken by Paul Ehrenfest during their visit to Leiden in December 1925

Establishing Social Sciences Scientific method was applied to social sciences as well: history, economics, Establishing Social Sciences Scientific method was applied to social sciences as well: history, economics, archaeology, sociology, psychology, and criminology Pavlov: psychologist who held experiments in conditioning dogs : psychologist who began probing into the human unconsciousnesspeered into this aspect of the mind by use of hypnosis

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Иван Петрович Павлов One of Pavlov’s Dogs, Pavlov Museum, 2005 Food Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Иван Петрович Павлов One of Pavlov’s Dogs, Pavlov Museum, 2005 Food (U. C. S. ) => Salivation (U. C. R. ) Natural response. Bell (N. S. ) + Food (U. C. S. ) => Salivation (U. C. R. ) After repeating the pairing a few times. Bell (C. S. ) => Salivation (C. R. ) Learning occurs. Notice how the response never changes.

Sigmund Freud Austrian “the father of psychoanalysis” Sigmund Freud Austrian “the father of psychoanalysis”

New Women and New Consciousness In response to scientific subjection: men were better/ more New Women and New Consciousness In response to scientific subjection: men were better/ more advanced than women both physically and mentally New Woman: challenged these ideas of subjection Wanted equality and independence while smashing the domestic image of a “good” women Birth control major issue: gave women control over fertility and thus became more powerful while emerging as sexual beings equal to men -response by state: repression-arrest women disseminating fertility information

New Consumption Tolstoy “Money is a new form of slavery” Peasant freed from the New Consumption Tolstoy “Money is a new form of slavery” Peasant freed from the land entangled in a web of financial obligation Social status tied to leisure activitieswomen’s clothing (corset) showed they didn’t have to work and therefore where of a high social class Middle/ Upper class: resorts Increased benefit of the lower class gave them ability to participate in leisure activities Rise of pubs, vaudeville, music halls, cinemas, and striptease (lower) Rise of organized sports (Olympics 1894/ Tour de France)

Corset, Paris, 1905 Woman having her corset laced tight, from an 1899 stereoscope card Corset, Paris, 1905 Woman having her corset laced tight, from an 1899 stereoscope card From newspaper promotional for vaudeville character actor Charles E. Grapewin

A thatched pub (The Williams Arms) at Wrafton, near Braunton, North Devon, England A thatched pub (The Williams Arms) at Wrafton, near Braunton, North Devon, England "Quo sursum volo videre" - Where I want to look further. Latin pub inscription