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The cosmic connection From WMAP web site Licia Verde University of Pennsylvania www. physics. The cosmic connection From WMAP web site Licia Verde University of Pennsylvania www. physics. upenn. edu/~lverde

You are here Danielsson & t’Hooft talks Expanding Cosmic archeology! and cooling You are here Danielsson & t’Hooft talks Expanding Cosmic archeology! and cooling

Look inside Particle accelerators (Wagner talk) Exhibition in Pillared Hall Or. . theory… Russian Look inside Particle accelerators (Wagner talk) Exhibition in Pillared Hall Or. . theory… Russian doll looking at the sky

The cosmic connection: the big picture Russian doll The cosmic connection: the details: an The cosmic connection: the big picture Russian doll The cosmic connection: the details: an example.

Matter (and energy) curves space-time 1915 Matter (and energy) curves space-time 1915

Vacuum energy L (also known as dark energy or cosmological constant) 1917 vacuum Vacuum energy L (also known as dark energy or cosmological constant) 1917 vacuum

Humm. . Looks like the Universe is expanding My biggest blunder…. . Humm. . Looks like the Universe is expanding My biggest blunder…. .

Some recent observations… Some recent observations…

A picture of the baby Universe 380, 000 years after the big bang Cobe A picture of the baby Universe 380, 000 years after the big bang Cobe 1994 WMAP Today

Fig. From WMAP web site From W. Hu web site Fig. From WMAP web site From W. Hu web site

Hot and cold spots Tiny ripples in density seeeds of galaxies Detailed statistical properties Hot and cold spots Tiny ripples in density seeeds of galaxies Detailed statistical properties of these ripples tell us a lot about the Universe

How’s that? The Universe back then was made of a very hot and dense How’s that? The Universe back then was made of a very hot and dense “g so it was emitting radiation This is the radiation we see when we look at the CMB Uniform , but with tiny (contrast x 100000) density (and temperat Ripples in a gas? SOUND WAVES! Truly a cosmic symphony… We are seeing sound! These tiny fluctuations, quantitatively, give rise galaxies We try to listen to the sound and figure out how the instrument is made Fundamental scale Fundamental mode and overtones like blowing on a pipe….

+ Size of spots smoothing Magnitude of temperature variation + Size of spots smoothing Magnitude of temperature variation

Fundamental mode (Geometry) overtones (content, history) Primordial ripples Fundamental mode (Geometry) overtones (content, history) Primordial ripples

There is more mass than you can see!!! Abell 2218, direction of Draco (Hubble) There is more mass than you can see!!! Abell 2218, direction of Draco (Hubble)

Galaxy surveys: 2 d. F galaxy redshift survey Galaxy surveys: 2 d. F galaxy redshift survey

Tools: statistics. Tools: statistics.

Additional indications: Supernovae Standard candles Expansion history! Do like Hubble, just. . better Function Additional indications: Supernovae Standard candles Expansion history! Do like Hubble, just. . better Function of geometry and Content of Universe accelerating decelerating

Figure from a scientific journal: Vacuum Energy density or Dark energy Sci enc e Figure from a scientific journal: Vacuum Energy density or Dark energy Sci enc e fo rr eal Supernovae CMB Galaxy survey Line of flatness Universe is FLAT

The Universe is Flat The Universe is Flat

Looks curved Looks Flat !!? ? ? . Remember Inflation? What made the Universe Looks curved Looks Flat !!? ? ? . Remember Inflation? What made the Universe so flat? What made the Universe so big? What made the universe so uniform? What seeded the galaxies? (Danielsson talk) .

We (and all of chemistry) are a small minority in the Universe. Components of We (and all of chemistry) are a small minority in the Universe. Components of Where’s the anti-matter? We do not know what 96% of the Universe is !

Recap: We have a consistent and coherent picture of the Universe. “Things have clicked Recap: We have a consistent and coherent picture of the Universe. “Things have clicked into place” Different observations agree quantitatively. They all point in the same direction: the “standard model” for cosmology The standard model for particle physics The standard model for cosmology Some puzzles remain Baryons: where’s the anti matter? GUT? Dark matter: what is it? The standard model offers candidates If SUSY is discovered at colliders we could measu DM abundance and compare with cosmological re Dark energy: not a clue…. Standard model predictions are Inflation… 60 to 120 orders of magnitude larger than observations

We have indications that: More than 90 % of the mass in the Universe We have indications that: More than 90 % of the mass in the Universe is DARK About 85% of mass in the Universe is made of matter unknown to Earth About 80% of what’s in the Universe is not even matter!!!! We call it DARK ENERGY Wouldn’t it be nice to start figuring some of this out?

The cosmic connection on all scales: example : neutrinos They ARE non-baryonic dark matter The cosmic connection on all scales: example : neutrinos They ARE non-baryonic dark matter Only not all of it!

There are neutrinos everywhere!!!! Super. Novae Relict from the big bang per m 3 There are neutrinos everywhere!!!! Super. Novae Relict from the big bang per m 3 Cosmic rays reactors accelerators

100’s million every second …? A neutrino needs to cross 200 Earths before having 100’s million every second …? A neutrino needs to cross 200 Earths before having a chance to interact So… do not worry….

They are incredibly Petite ? The standard model requires massless neutrinos But do they They are incredibly Petite ? The standard model requires massless neutrinos But do they have mass?

How does the sun Shines? Full details of how this happens called `Standard Solar How does the sun Shines? Full details of how this happens called `Standard Solar Model’ How could we prove this? Detect and count solar neutrinos!

To cut a long story short: Solar Neutrino Experiments First experiment by Davis et To cut a long story short: Solar Neutrino Experiments First experiment by Davis et al in 1960’s Radiochemical Method (Chlorine): Found ~ 1/3 of `Standard Solar Model’ (SSM) rate

The explanation? So they must have mass! At odd with the standard model prediction The explanation? So they must have mass! At odd with the standard model prediction

2002: Got Nobel Prize Look at the ECFA exibition in Pillared hall for more 2002: Got Nobel Prize Look at the ECFA exibition in Pillared hall for more neutrino stuff

What you should take away: Cosmology and particle physics now are asking the same What you should take away: Cosmology and particle physics now are asking the same fundamental questions. They approach them in complementary ways THE END

Further readings, figure sources etc. WMAP web site (basic): http: //map. gsfc. nasa. gov/index. Further readings, figure sources etc. WMAP web site (basic): http: //map. gsfc. nasa. gov/index. html WMAP web site (advanced): http: //cmbdata. gsfc. nasa. gov/product/map/ 2 d. FGRS web page: http: //www. mso. anu. edu. au/2 d. FGRS/ Scientific American article on CMB by Hu and White http: //background. uchicago. edu/~whu/Papers/Hu. Whi 04. pdf (in Scientific American February 2004) Wayne Hu web page: http: //background. uchicago. edu/~whu/ Scientific American article on Supernovae: Scientific American vol. 290, February 2004