- Количество слайдов: 35
The cosmic connection From WMAP web site Licia Verde University of Pennsylvania www. physics. upenn. edu/~lverde
You are here Danielsson & t’Hooft talks Expanding Cosmic archeology! and cooling
Look inside Particle accelerators (Wagner talk) Exhibition in Pillared Hall Or. . theory… Russian doll looking at the sky
The cosmic connection: the big picture Russian doll The cosmic connection: the details: an example.
Matter (and energy) curves space-time 1915
Vacuum energy L (also known as dark energy or cosmological constant) 1917 vacuum
Humm. . Looks like the Universe is expanding My biggest blunder…. .
Some recent observations…
A picture of the baby Universe 380, 000 years after the big bang Cobe 1994 WMAP Today
Fig. From WMAP web site From W. Hu web site
Hot and cold spots Tiny ripples in density seeeds of galaxies Detailed statistical properties of these ripples tell us a lot about the Universe
How’s that? The Universe back then was made of a very hot and dense “g so it was emitting radiation This is the radiation we see when we look at the CMB Uniform , but with tiny (contrast x 100000) density (and temperat Ripples in a gas? SOUND WAVES! Truly a cosmic symphony… We are seeing sound! These tiny fluctuations, quantitatively, give rise galaxies We try to listen to the sound and figure out how the instrument is made Fundamental scale Fundamental mode and overtones like blowing on a pipe….
+ Size of spots smoothing Magnitude of temperature variation
Fundamental mode (Geometry) overtones (content, history) Primordial ripples
There is more mass than you can see!!! Abell 2218, direction of Draco (Hubble)
Galaxy surveys: 2 d. F galaxy redshift survey
Additional indications: Supernovae Standard candles Expansion history! Do like Hubble, just. . better Function of geometry and Content of Universe accelerating decelerating
Figure from a scientific journal: Vacuum Energy density or Dark energy Sci enc e fo rr eal Supernovae CMB Galaxy survey Line of flatness Universe is FLAT
The Universe is Flat
Looks curved Looks Flat !!? ? ? . Remember Inflation? What made the Universe so flat? What made the Universe so big? What made the universe so uniform? What seeded the galaxies? (Danielsson talk) .
We (and all of chemistry) are a small minority in the Universe. Components of Where’s the anti-matter? We do not know what 96% of the Universe is !
Recap: We have a consistent and coherent picture of the Universe. “Things have clicked into place” Different observations agree quantitatively. They all point in the same direction: the “standard model” for cosmology The standard model for particle physics The standard model for cosmology Some puzzles remain Baryons: where’s the anti matter? GUT? Dark matter: what is it? The standard model offers candidates If SUSY is discovered at colliders we could measu DM abundance and compare with cosmological re Dark energy: not a clue…. Standard model predictions are Inflation… 60 to 120 orders of magnitude larger than observations
We have indications that: More than 90 % of the mass in the Universe is DARK About 85% of mass in the Universe is made of matter unknown to Earth About 80% of what’s in the Universe is not even matter!!!! We call it DARK ENERGY Wouldn’t it be nice to start figuring some of this out?
The cosmic connection on all scales: example : neutrinos They ARE non-baryonic dark matter Only not all of it!
There are neutrinos everywhere!!!! Super. Novae Relict from the big bang per m 3 Cosmic rays reactors accelerators
100’s million every second …? A neutrino needs to cross 200 Earths before having a chance to interact So… do not worry….
They are incredibly Petite ? The standard model requires massless neutrinos But do they have mass?
How does the sun Shines? Full details of how this happens called `Standard Solar Model’ How could we prove this? Detect and count solar neutrinos!
To cut a long story short: Solar Neutrino Experiments First experiment by Davis et al in 1960’s Radiochemical Method (Chlorine): Found ~ 1/3 of `Standard Solar Model’ (SSM) rate
The explanation? So they must have mass! At odd with the standard model prediction
2002: Got Nobel Prize Look at the ECFA exibition in Pillared hall for more neutrino stuff
What you should take away: Cosmology and particle physics now are asking the same fundamental questions. They approach them in complementary ways THE END
Further readings, figure sources etc. WMAP web site (basic): http: //map. gsfc. nasa. gov/index. html WMAP web site (advanced): http: //cmbdata. gsfc. nasa. gov/product/map/ 2 d. FGRS web page: http: //www. mso. anu. edu. au/2 d. FGRS/ Scientific American article on CMB by Hu and White http: //background. uchicago. edu/~whu/Papers/Hu. Whi 04. pdf (in Scientific American February 2004) Wayne Hu web page: http: //background. uchicago. edu/~whu/ Scientific American article on Supernovae: Scientific American vol. 290, February 2004